King Louis I of Spain (Spanish: Luis, August 25, 1707 – August 31, 1724), born Luis Felipe of Spain, was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain by his first Queen consort, Maria Louisa of Savoy. His reign is recorded as one of the shortest in history, as he was the King of Spain for just over seven months.
Born at the Palacio del Buen Retiro, in Madrid, he was made the Prince de Asturias as the heir to his father's throne. In 1714, when Louis was 7, his mother died, leaving Louis and his brothers, Infante Fernando and Infante Felipe Pedro (D.1719. As a result, the recently-created King of Spain, Louis' father then married the young heiress to the Duchy of Parma, Elisabeth of Parma.
As heir not only to the vast Spanish empire, but also to a new dynasty, it was decided that Louis would take a wife as soon as possible. On 20 January 1722 at Lerma, he met and he married Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (1709–1742), a daughter of Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, cousin of Louis' father and then the Regent of France. The dowry of this marriage was an enormous 4 million Livres. She did not fit into the religious Spanish Court well and she often refused to speak to her husband. There were no children of the marriage.
Louis ruled for a short period between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favour (15 January 1724) and his death from smallpox, just over 7 months later. On his death, his father returned to the throne. The only coins minted in Mexico during his reign never reached Spain as the ship containing them was wrecked in the Caribbean. An expedition to recover them is under way. He was buried in the Cripta Real del Monasterio de El Escorial part of the El Escorial complex built by the previous ruling house of Spain, the Habsburgs.