List_of_capitals_in_the_United_States

List of capitals in the United States

Washington, D.C. has been the capital of the United States since 1800. Eight other cities have served as the meeting place for Congress and are therefore considered to have once been the capital of the United States. In addition, each of the 50 U.S. states and several territories of the United States maintain their own capitals.

State capitals

In 33 of the 50 U.S. states, the state capital is currently not the state's most populous city. Only two of the state capitals, Trenton, New Jersey and Carson City, Nevada border another state, while Juneau, Alaska shares a border with the Canadian province of British Columbia. The dates listed in the following table indicate the year since which the current capital has continuously served as the sole capital.

State Capitals of the United States of America
State Date of statehood Capital Capital since Most populous city? Municipal population Metropolitan population Notes
Alabama 1819 Montgomery 1846 No 200,127 469,268 Birmingham is the state's largest city.
Alaska 1959 Juneau 1906 No 30,987 Anchorage is the state's largest city.
Arizona 1912 Phoenix 1889 Yes 1,512,986 4,039,182 Phoenix is the most populous U.S. state capital.
Arkansas 1836 Little Rock 1821 Yes 204,370 652,834
California 1850 Sacramento 1854 No 467,343 2,136,604 The Supreme Court of California sits in San Francisco. Los Angeles is the state's largest city.
Colorado 1876 Denver 1867 Yes 566,974 2,408,750
Connecticut 1788 Hartford 1875 No 124,397 1,188,241 Bridgeport is the state's largest city, but Greater Hartford is the largest metro area.
Delaware 1787 Dover 1777 No 32,135 Wilmington is the state's largest city.
Florida 1845 Tallahassee 1824 No 156,612 336,501 Jacksonville is the largest city, and Miami has the largest metro area.
Georgia 1788 Atlanta 1868 Yes 486,411 5,138,223 Atlanta is the most populous state capital by metropolitan area.
Hawaii 1959 Honolulu 1845 Yes 377,357 909,863
Idaho 1890 Boise 1865 Yes 201,287 635,450
Illinois 1818 Springfield 1839 No 111,454 188,951 Chicago is the state's largest city.
Indiana 1816 Indianapolis 1825 Yes 791,926 1,984,664
Iowa 1846 Des Moines 1857 Yes 194,163 534,230
Kansas 1861 Topeka 1856 No 122,327 228,894 Wichita is the state's largest city.
Kentucky 1792 Frankfort 1792 No 27,741 69,670 Louisville is the state's largest city.
Louisiana 1812 Baton Rouge 1880 No 224,097 751,965 New Orleans is the state's largest city.
Maine 1820 Augusta 1832 No 18,560 117,114 Augusta was officially made the capital 1827, but the legislature did not sit there until 1832. Portland is the state's largest city.
Maryland 1788 Annapolis 1694 No 36,217 Annapolis is the third-longest serving capital in the United States after Santa Fe and Boston. Its capitol building is the oldest still in use. Baltimore is the state's largest city.
Massachusetts 1788 Boston 1630 Yes 590,763 4,455,217 Boston is the longest continuously serving capital in the United States. The Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area encompasses the state capitals of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.
Michigan 1837 Lansing 1847 No 119,128 454,044 Lansing is the only state capital that is not also the county seat of the county in which it is situated. Detroit is the state's largest city.
Minnesota 1858 Saint Paul 1849 No 287,151 3,502,891 Minneapolis is the state's largest city, but is included within Saint Paul's metropolitan area.
Mississippi 1817 Jackson 1821 Yes 184,256 529,456
Missouri 1821 Jefferson City 1826 No 39,636 Kansas City is the state's largest city, and Greater St. Louis is the state's largest metropolitan area.
Montana 1889 Helena 1875 No 25,780 67,636 Billings is the state's largest city.
Nebraska 1867 Lincoln 1867 No 225,581 283,970 Omaha is the state's largest city.
Nevada 1864 Carson City 1861 No 57,701 Las Vegas is the state's largest city.
New Hampshire 1788 Concord 1808 No 42,221 Manchester is the state's largest city.
New Jersey 1787 Trenton 1784 No 84,639 367,605 Newark is the state's largest city.
New Mexico 1912 Santa Fe 1610 No 70,631 142,407 Santa Fe is the longest serving capital in the United States. El Paso del Norte served as the capital of the Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico colony-in-exile during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680-1692. Albuquerque is the state's largest city.
New York 1788 Albany 1797 No 95,993 1,147,850 New York City is the state's largest city.
North Carolina 1789 Raleigh 1794 No 380,173 1,635,974 Charlotte is the state's largest city.
North Dakota 1889 Bismarck 1883 No 55,532 101,138 Fargo is the state's largest city.
Ohio 1803 Columbus 1816 Yes 733,203 1,725,570 The Cleveland and Cincinnati metropolitan areas are both larger.
Oklahoma 1907 Oklahoma City 1910 Yes 541,500 1,266,445 Oklahoma City is the shortest serving current state capital in the United States.
Oregon 1859 Salem 1855 No 149,305 539,203 Portland is the state's largest city.
Pennsylvania 1787 Harrisburg 1812 No 48,950 384,600 Philadelphia is the state's largest city.
Rhode Island 1790 Providence 1900 Yes 176,862 1,612,989 Providence also served as the capital 1636-1686 and 1689-1776. It was one of five co-capitals 1776-1853, and one of two co-capitals 1853-1900.
South Carolina 1788 Columbia 1786 Yes 122,819 703,771
South Dakota 1889 Pierre 1889 No 13,876 Sioux Falls is the state's largest city.
Tennessee 1796 Nashville 1826 No 607,413 1,455,097 Memphis is the state's largest city, but Nashville is the largest metro area.
Texas 1845 Austin 1839 No 709,893 1,513,565 Houston is the state's largest city, and Dallas is the largest metro area.
Utah 1896 Salt Lake City 1858 Yes 181,743 1,067,722
Vermont 1791 Montpelier 1805 No 8,035 Montpelier is the least populous U.S. state capital. Burlington is the state's largest city.
Virginia 1788 Richmond 1780 No 195,251 1,194,008 Virginia Beach is the state's largest city, and Northern Virginia is the state's largest metro area.
Washington 1889 Olympia 1853 No 42,514 234,670 Seattle is the state's largest city.
West Virginia 1863 Charleston 1885 Yes 52,700 305,526
Wisconsin 1848 Madison 1838 No 221,551 543,022 Milwaukee is the state's largest city.
Wyoming 1890 Cheyenne 1869 Yes 55,362 85,384

Insular area capitals

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.

Capitals of United States Insular Areas
Insular area Date Capital Notes
American Samoa 1899 Pago Pago De facto capital of the Territory of American Samoa.
1967 Fagatogo Official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution.
Guam 1898 Hagåtña
Northern Mariana Islands 1947 Saipan
Puerto Rico 1898 San Juan Capital was formerly called Puerto Rico.
U.S. Virgin Islands 1917 Charlotte Amalie

Former national capitals

United States of America

From 1774 to 1800, Congress met in numerous locations; therefore, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital:First Continental Congress

Vermont Republic

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic. Two cities served as the capital of the Republic:

The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii

Prior to becoming a territory of the United States in 1898, Hawaii was an independent nation. Two cities served as its capital:

Republic of Texas

Before joining the United States under the Texas Annexation in 1845, Texas was an independent nation known as the Republic of Texas. Seven cities served as its capital:

Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America had three capitals during its existence.

The Confederate constitutional convention was held in Montgomery, Alabama in December 1860 because it was the largest and most influential city in the geographic center of the original seven Confederate states (South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas) that planned to secede from the Union.

The first Confederate capital was established on February 4, 1861 in Montgomery and remained there until it was moved to Richmond after Virginia joined the Confederacy on May 23, 1861.

As the Army of Northern Virginia was pushed farther south and Richmond fell under the Federal guns in early 1865, the Confederate government fled using the only viable railroad line available on April 2, 1865 to Danville, VA.

The C.S.A. state capitals remained the same as when each state seceded from the Union. Some of the capitals were moved temporarily in an effort to stay ahead of the advancing Federals. As Confederate areas were occupied, the US Army established military districts to govern each area. These military districts often shifted as the war progressed and even after the war concluded through the end of Reconstruction.

Following the surrender of General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in Appomattox Court House, Virginia, which ended the American Civil War on April 9, 1865, the eleven southern states that seceded from the United States of America to create the C.S.A., gradually had their Senators and Representatives recognized and seated by Congress starting with Tennessee on July 24, 1866, then Arkansas on June 22, 1868, Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina on June 25, 1868, then Alabama on July 14, 1868, then Virginia on January 26, 1870, then Mississippi on February 23, 1870, then Texas on March 30, 1870 and finally Georgia on July 15, 1870.

There is some disagreement over whether this recognition by Congress is what determines the status of 'statehood'. The US Supreme Court decision in Texas v. White raises questions on this point where the court ruled that Texas never left the Union, and essentially that once a territory is admitted and recognized as a state, it is in perpetuity a state in the Union.

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been a handful of nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

State of Muskogee

The State of Muskogee was a short-lived Native American state in Florida. It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

Republic of West Florida

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Alabama.

Republic of Indian Stream

The Republic of Indian Stream was an independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

Republic of the Rio Grande

The Republic of the Rio Grande was an independent nation including land now in Texas and Mexico.

California Republic

Before being annexed by the United States in 1846, California was an independent republic known as the California Republic. The California Republic was never recognized by the United States which maintained that the U.S. Military Government of California headquartered at Monterey was the legitimate government of the region. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Former state capitals

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolution. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680-1692 in New Mexico.

Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city continuously since 1630, making it the longest-running U.S. capital. Santa Fe, New Mexico, has been a capital city the longest having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the Pueblo Revolt of 1680-1692.

The table below includes the following information:

  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's current capital are shown in bold.
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, former capital cities of current states are well outside the current state borders. These cities are indicated with the abbreviated name of the current state in which the city is located.

Historical State Capitals of the United States of America
State Capital Date Notes
Alabama
Statehood in 1819
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Savannah (GA) 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez (MS) 1798 Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington (MS) 1802
St. Stephens 1817 Capital of the Territory of Alabama.
Huntsville 1819 Capitals of the State of Alabama.
Cahawba 1820
Tuscaloosa 1826
Montgomery 1846 Capital of the State of Alabama.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
Alaska
Statehood in 1959
Novo-Arkhangelsk
Sitka
1808 Capital of the Russian colony of Alaska.
1867 Capital of the Department of Alaska.
1900 Capitals of the District of Alaska.
Juneau 1906
1912 Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959 Capital of the State of Alaska.
Arizona
Statehood in 1912
Santa Fe (NM) 1848 Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1848-1850.
1850 Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850-1912.
Mesilla (NM) 1862 Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862 Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862-1865.
Fort Whipple 1864 Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott 1864
Tucson 1867
Prescott 1877
Phoenix 1889
1912 Capital of the State of Arizona.
Arkansas
Statehood in 1836
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post 1819 Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw.
Little Rock 1821
1836 Capital of the State of Arkansas.
(Washington was the Confederate state capital 1863-1865.)
California
Statehood in 1850
Loreto (BCS) 1770 Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio Reál de San Carlos de Monterey

Monterey


1777
1804 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
1821 Capital of the Mexican province of Alta California.
1846 Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
1849 Capital of the provisional government of California.
Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
San Jose
1850 Capitals of the State of California
Vallejo 1852
Benicia 1853
Sacramento 1854
Colorado
Statehood in 1876
Denver City 1859 Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden City 1860
Denver City 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Colorado City 1862
Golden City 1862
Denver City
Denver
1867
1876 Capital of the State of Colorado.
Connecticut
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625 Capital of the Netherlands colony of Nieuw-Nederland.
Hartford 1639 Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639-1686.
New-Haven 1640 Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford 1689 Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
Joint Capitals 1701 Hartford and New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
1707 Hartford and New-Haven joint capitals of the British Colony of Connecticut.
1776 Hartford and New Haven joint capitals of the State of Connecticut.
Hartford 1875 Capital of the State of Connecticut.
Delaware
Statehood in 1776
Fort Kristina 1638 Capital of the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York (NY)
1655 Capital of the Netherlands province of Nieuw-Nederland.
1664 Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
1673 Capital of the Netherlands military government of Nieuw-Nederland.
1674 Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia (PA) 1682 Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New-Castle 1704 Capital of the English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1707 Capital of the British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776 Capitals of the State of Delaware.
Dover 1777
Florida
Statehood in 1845
Fort de la Caroline 1564 Capital of the French colony of la Caroline 1564-1565.
San Agustín
St. Augustine
1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida 1565-1763.
1763 Capital of the British Colony of East Florida 1763-1783.
1783 Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Oriental 1783-1821.
Santa María de Ochuse
Pensacola
1763 Capital of the British Colony of West Florida 1763-1783.
1783 Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Occidental 1783-1821.
Tallahassee 1824 Capital of the Territory of Florida.
1845 Capital of the State of Florida.
Georgia
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Savannah 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta 1778
Heard's Fort 1780
Augusta 1781
Savannah 1782
Ebenezer 1782
Savannah 1784
Augusta 1786
Louisville 1796
Milledgeville 1807
Macon 1864
Milledgeville 1865
Atlanta 1868
Hawai'i
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina 1820 Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu 1845
1894 Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
1898 Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959 Capital of the State of Hawai'i.
Idaho
Statehood in 1890
Fort Vancouver (WA) 1825 Capital de facto of the Oregon Country.
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848-1853, southern Idaho 1853-1859.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853-1859, all of Idaho 1859-1863.)
Lewiston 1863 Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
Boise 1865
1890 Capital of the State of Idaho.
Illinois
Statehood in 1818
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818 Capitals of the State of Illinois.
Vandalia 1820
Springfield 1839
Indiana
Statehood in 1816
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes 1800 Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon 1813
1816 Capitals of the State of Indiana.
Indianapolis 1825
Iowa
Statehood in 1846
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812-1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City 1841
1846 Capitals of the State of Iowa.
Des Moines 1857
Kansas
Statehood in 1861
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812-1821).
Pawnee 1855 Capital of the Territory of Kansas (July 2-July 6).
Shawnee Mission 1855 Capital of the Territory of Kansas.
Lecompton 1856 Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Topeka Capital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
1861 Capital of the State of Kansas.
Kentucky
Statehood in 1792
Williamsburg (VA) 1699 Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Frankfort 1792 Capital of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(Bowling Green was the Confederate state capital 1861-1862.)
Louisiana
Statehood in 1812
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Mobile Bay (AL) 1702 Capitals of the French colony of la Louisiane.
Biloxi (MS) 1720
la Nouvelle-Orléans
Nueva Orleans
New Orleans
1722
1763 Capital of the Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Basse-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812 Capitals of the State of Louisiana.
Donaldsonville 1830
New Orleans 1831
Baton Rouge 1849
Opelousas 1862
Shreveport 1863
New Orleans 1865
Baton Rouge 1880
Maine
Statehood in 1820
Île Sainte-Croix 1604 Capitals of the French colony of l'Acadie.
Port-Royal (NS) 1605
Boston (MA) 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
1689 Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1691 Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774 Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776 Capital of the State of Massachusetts.
1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland 1820 Capital of the State of Maine.
1827 Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
Augusta Capital de jure of the State of Maine.
1832 Capital of the State of Maine.
Maryland
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City 1634 Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Anne Arundel's Towne
Annapolis

1694 Capital of the English Province of Maryland.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Maryland.
1776 Capital of the State of Maryland.
(Capital of the United States of America 1783-1784.)
Massachusetts
Statehood in 1776
Plimouth 1620 Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620-1686.
Boston 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630-1686.
1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1686-1689.
Plimouth 1688 Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688-1692.
Boston 1689 Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689-1692.
1692 Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774 Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776 Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Michigan
Statehood in 1837
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788-1800, eastern Michigan 1800-1803.)
Chillicothe (OH) 1800
Vincennes (IN) Capitals of the Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800-1803; all of Michigan 1803-1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula 1805-1816.)
Corydon (IN) 1813
Detroit 1805 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805-1818, all of Michigan 1818-1837.)
(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812-1813.)
1837 Capitals of the State of Michigan.
Lansing 1847
Minnesota
Statehood in 1858
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana 1765-1800.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800-1804.)
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804-1805.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805-1812.)
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812-1821.)
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788-1800.)
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800-1809.)
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809-1818.)
Detroit (MI) 1818 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818-1834, all of Minnesota 1834-1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838-1841.)
Madison (WI) Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838-1848.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841 Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841-1846.)
Saint Paul 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858 Capital of the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi
Statehood in 1817
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Savannah (GA) 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez 1798 Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington 1802
Natchez 1817 Capitals of the State of Mississippi.
Jackson 1821
Missouri
Statehood in 1821
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Saint Charles 1821 Capitals of the State of Missouri.
(A Confederate state government in exile operated from Neosho 1861-1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863-1865.)
Jefferson City 1826
Montana
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763-1800.)
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800-1804.)
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804-1805.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805-1812.)
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812-1821.)
Fort Vancouver (WA) 1825 Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818-1843.)
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843-1848.)
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848-1853.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853-1863.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854-1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861 Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861-1863.)
Lewiston (ID) 1863 Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack 1864 Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City 1865
Helena 1875
1889 Capital of the State of Montana.
Nebraska
Statehood in 1867
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812-1821).
Omaha 1854 Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lancaster
Lincoln
1867
1867 Capital of the State of Nebraska.
Nevada
Statehood in 1864
Fillmore (UT) 1850 Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City (UT) 1858
Carson City 1861 Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864 Capital of the State of Nevada.
New Hampshire
Statehood in 1776
Boston (MA) 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth 1680 Capital of the English Province of New-Hampshire.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth 1689 Capital of the dissident Province of New-Hampshire.
1691 Capital of the English Province of New-Hampshire.
1698 Capital of the English Province of New-Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of New-Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1741 Capital of the British Province of New-Hampshire.
Exeter 1775 Capital of the Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776 Capitals of the State of New Hampshire.
Concord 1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625 Capital of the Netherlands colony of Nieuw-Nederland.
1652 Capital of the Netherlands province of Nieuw-Nederland.
Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) 1665 Capital of the English Province of New-Jersey.
Perth Amboy 1673 Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1673-1688.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673-1688.
Boston (MA) 1688 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688-1689.
Perth Amboy 1689 Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1689-1702.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689-1702.
Joint Capitals 1702 East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New-Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
1707 Joint capitals of the British Province of New-Jersey.
1776 Joint capitals of the State of New Jersey.
Trenton 1784 Capital of the State of New Jersey.
(Capital of the United States of America in 1784.)
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan de los Caballeros 1598 Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico.
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís 1610
El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH) 1680 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony-in-exile of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico (Pueblo Revolt 1680-1692).
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís

Santa Fe
1692 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico.
1821 Capital of the Mexican province of Santa Fé de Nuevo México.
1824 Capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fé de Nuevo México.
1846 Capital of the U.S. military province of New Mexico 1846.
1846 Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846-1850.
1850 Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850-1912.
Mesilla 1862 Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862 Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862-1865.
Santa Fe 1912 Capital of the State of New Mexico.
New York
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York
1625 Capital of the Netherlands colony of Nieuw-Nederland (Novum Belgium).
1652 Capital of the Netherlands province of Nieuw-Nederland.
1664 Capital of the English Province of New-York.
1673 Capital of the Netherlands military government of Nieuw-Nederland.
1674 Capital of the English Province of New-York.
Boston (MA) 1688 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New-York 1689 Capital of the dissident government of New-York.
1691 Capital of the English Province of New-York.
1707 Capital of the British Province of New-York.
1776 Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston 1777
Hurley 1777
Poughkeepsie 1777
New York 1788 Capital of the State of New York.
(Capital of the United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790.)
Albany 1797 Capital of the State of New York.
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Charlestown (SC) 1670 Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
New Bern 1712 Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776 Capitals of the State of North Carolina.
Raleigh 1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812-1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834-1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1836-1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838-1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849-1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854-1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck 1883
1889 Capital of the State of North Dakota.
Ohio
Statehood in 1803
Marietta 1788 Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe 1800
1803 Capitals of the State of Ohio.
Zanesville 1810
Chillicothe 1812
Columbus 1816
Oklahoma
Statehood in 1907
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post (AR) 1819 Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819-1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824-1828.)
Little Rock (AR) 1821
Tahlequah 1838 Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma 1838 Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo 1855 Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka 1866 Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee 1867 Capital of the Creek Nation.
Guthrie 1889 Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907 Capitals of the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma City 1910
Oregon
Statehood in 1859
Oregon City 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem 1851
Corvallis 1855
Salem 1855
1859 Capital of the State of Oregon.
Pennsylvania
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia 1682 Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1707 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778-1783, and 1790-1800.)
Lancaster 1799 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1777.)
Harrisburg 1812 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Providence 1636 Capital of the English Colony of Providence 1636-1663.
Portsmouth 1639 Capital of the English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639-1644.
1644 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island 1644-1663.
Providence 1663 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence 1689 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Five Capitals 1776 From 1776 to 1853, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingstown, and Bristol.
Joint Capitals 1854 From 1854 to 1899, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence 1900 Capital of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.
Charlestown 1670 Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
1712 Capital of the British Province of South Carolina.
1776 Capitals of the State of South Carolina.
Columbia 1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812-1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834-1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836-1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838-1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849-1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854-1861.)
Yankton 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck (ND) 1883
Pierre 1889 Capital of the State of South Dakota.
Tennessee
Statehood in 1796
New Bern (NC) 1712 Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776 Capital of the State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount 1790 Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
White's Fort
Knoxville
1791
1796 Capital of the State of Tennessee.
Kingston 1807 Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville 1807 Capitals of the State of Tennessee.
Nashville 1812
Knoxville 1817
Murfreesboro 1818
Nashville 1826
Texas
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes (LA) 1729 Capitals of the Spanish colony of Tejas.
San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio) 1772
Saltillo (COA) 1824 Capitals of the Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova (COA) 1833
Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos) 1836 Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston 1836
Harrisburgh 1836
Velasco 1836
Columbia 1836
Houston 1837
Austin 1839
1845 Capital of the State of Texas.
Utah
Statehood in 1896
Salt Lake City 1849 Capital of the extralegal Territory of Deseret.
Fillmore 1850 Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City 1858
1896 Capital of the State of Utah.
Vermont
Statehood in 1791
Westminster 1777 Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor 1777
1777 Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791 Capitals of the State of Vermont.
Montpelier 1805
Virginia
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown 1619 Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation
Williamsburg
1698
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond 1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861-1865.)
(A rival pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling 1861-1863 and from Alexandria 1863-1865.)
Washington
Statehood in 1889
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889 Capital of the State of Washington.
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Williamsburg (VA) 1699 Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Wheeling 1861 Capital of the rival pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863 Capitals of the State of West Virginia.
Charleston 1870
Wheeling 1875
Charleston 1885
Wisconsin
Statehood in 1848
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit (MI) 1818 Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
Madison 1838
1848 Capital of the State of Wisconsin.
Wyoming
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston (ID) 1863 Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton (SD) 1864 Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
Cheyenne 1869 Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890 Capital of the State of Wyoming.

See also

Notes

Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783
President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See: A Brief History. Town of Brookeville, Maryland. Retrieved on 2008-10-07..

External links

References

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