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List of dukes of Norfolk

List of Dukes of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860.

The Duke of Parma was also Duke of Piacenza, except for the first years of the rule of Ottavio Farnese (1549–1556), and the time of the Napoleonic wars, when the two were established as separate positions held by two individuals. The Duke of Parma also usually held the title of Duke of Guastalla from 1735 (when Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor took it from Mantua) to 1847 (when the territory was ceded to Modena), again, except for the Napoleonic dukes, when Napoleon's sister Pauline was Duchess of Guastalla.

The position is currently held by a member of the Bourbon family, which also holds the Spanish throne. Therefore, the Duke of Parma is a legitimate (though not prime) claimant to the Kingdom of Spain; indeed, the current Duke of Parma, Carlos-Hugo, was a pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s (see Carlism).

Reigning Dukes of Parma (1545-1802)

House of Farnese 1545–1731

House of Bourbon 1731–1735

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles, Duke of Parma
1731–1735
20 January 1716
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
1738
13 children
14 December 1788
Madrid
aged 72

House of Habsburg 1735–1748

House of Bourbon 1748–1803

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip, Duke of Parma
1748–1765
15 March 1720
Madrid
daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
3 children
18 July 1765
Alessandria
aged 45
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
1765–1802
nominal since 1796
20 January 1751
Parma
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria
19 July 1769
7 children
9 October 1802
Fontevivo
aged 51

Honorary Dukes of Parma (1808-1814)

These did not actually rule over any territory of Parma and Piacenza, but were of the honorary, hereditary type duché grand-fief, granted by Napoleon in 1808.

Reigning Dukes of Parma (1814-1860)

House of Habsburg 1814–1847

House of Bourbon, 1847–1860

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II, Duke of Parma
1847–1848
22 December 1799
Madrid
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children
16 April 1883
Nice
aged 84
Charles III, Duke of Parma
1848–1854
14 January 1823
Pianore
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Maria Teresa of Savoy
Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children
27 March 1854
Parma
aged 31
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1854–1860
9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 63

Nominal Dukes of Parma (since 1860)

House of Bourbon, since 1860

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1860–1907
titular
9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 63
Henry, Duke of Parma
1907–1939
titular
13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66
Joseph, Duke of Parma
1939–1950
titular
30 June 1875
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 75
Elias, Duke of Parma
1950–1959
titular
23 July 1880
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
Vienna
8 children
27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 79
Robert II, Duke of Parma
1959–1974
titular
7 August 1909
Weilburg
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria
never married 25 November 1974
Vienna
aged 65
Xavier, Duke of Parma
1974–1977
titular
- 25 May 1889
Viareggio
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
Lignières
6 children
7 May 1977
Zizers
aged 87
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
since1977
titular
- 8 April 1930
Paris
son of Xavier, Duke of Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
Rome
4 children
incumbent

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