Lipová, Nové Zámky District

Nové Zámky

Nové Zámky (Érsekújvár, Neuhäus[e]l, Uyvar, Novum Castrum) is a town in southwestern Slovakia.

Geography

The town is located on the Danubian Lowland, on the Nitra River, at an altitude of 119 metres. It is located around 100 km from Bratislava and around 25 km from the Hungarian border. It is a road and railway hub of southern Slovakia.

The town lies in the temperate zone and has a continental climate. Annual average temperature reaches around , with the warmest month being July with an average of 20 °C and the coldest January with -2 °C. Average annual precipitation is 556 mm.

History

The town is famous for its history. A fortress was built, against the Ottoman Turks, on the site of an older settlement in the years 1573-81. The town developed around the fortress. The huge new fortress was one of the most modern fortresses in Europe when it was built, a prime example of the star fortress which was considered to be adapted to the advance in artillery in the preceding centuries.

The Turks failed to conquer it six times, but in 1663 they managed to do so. It was made the center of a Turkish province, the Uyvar eyalet in present-day southern Slovakia - with the subordinate sanjaks of Litra, Leve, Novigrad, Holok, Bukabak and Şefradi (probably Šahy).

The still common saying "Strong as a Turk in front of Nové Zámky", which means working with determination and stability, reflects the memory of conquest determination of the Turks.

In 1685 it was conquered by the imperial troops of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine. Six years later, it received town privileges from the Esztergom archbishop.

The town also played an important role in many anti-Habsburg uprisings in the northern parts of Royal Hungary in the 17th century. Emperor Charles VI had it razed in 1724–1725, to prevent potential further insurrections which would use the fortress as their base.

After break-up of Austria-Hungary in 1918/1920, the town became part of newly created Czechoslovakia. As a result of the First Vienna Award, it was occupied by Hungary between 1938 and 1945. Finally, during World War II (1944), the town was heavily damaged by bombings of the Allies. Only small parts of the fortress are still standing today. It is, however, still depicted on the city's coat of arms (see above).

Culture

Synagogue

Object of ortodox synagogue at Česká bašta dated in second half of 19th century. After reconstruction in 1992 was registrated as historic landmark of Slovakia. It serves onsacral purposes Jewish religious community and artifact presentation.

Franciscan church and monastiery

Object of church and monastiery is early baroque from the middle of the 17th century, adjusted in the 18th and at the end of the 19th century.

Demographics

The 2001 census recorded a population of 42 262 people, with 69.67% of them being Slovaks, 27.52% Hungarians and others. The most widespread religion was Roman Catholicism (71.72%), followed by a group without denomination (17.75%) and Evangelics (3.36%).

Year

Population

Year

Population

1694

1200

1880

10 584

1713

1525

1890

11 299

1731

2970

1900

13 204

1755

3873

1910

16 228

1779

4671

1940

23 306

1787

5167

1945

13 400

1811

5493

1946

18 710

1821

5957

1950

20 031

1830

6904

1961

22 041

1851

6936

1965

23 457

1857

7622

1991

42 923

1869

9483

2001

42 262

Ethnic comparison:

Year

1700

1720

1890

1910

1930

1938

1991

2001

Hungarian

61%

46%

71%

91.43%

45%

88%

31.10%

27.50%

Slovak

25%

36%

8%

5.94%

42%

9.5%

66.82%

69.70%

German

13%

17%

4%

2%

-

-

-

<0.1%

Gypsy

-

-

3%

-

-

-

-

0.80%

Jewish

-

-

13%

8,48%

8%

-

-

0,4%

Famous people

Partner towns

References

External links

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