were an Indigenous Australian
people whose traditional lands were primarily located in Adelaide Hills
but also in the southern stretches of the Fleurieu Peninsula
, South Australia
. They were also referred to as the Mount Barker
tribe, as their numbers were noted to be greater around the Mount Barker summit, but Peramangk country extended from the Barossa Valley
in the north, south to Myponga
, east to Strathalbyn
and west to the Gulf St Vincent
Conflicting reports show enmity between the three tribes of the Adelaide region, Kaurna, Ngarrindjeri and Peramangk, yet other reports tell that the Peramangk were held with some reverence due to their differing cultural practices.
Population and traditional practices are hard to verify as shortly after the European settlement of the Adelaide Hills, especially in Mount Barker and Hahndorf, the Peramangk had been wiped out by introduced diseases.
Peramangk family group names included Poonawatta, Tarrawatta, Karrawatta, Yira-Ruka, Wiljani, Mutingengal, Runganng, Jolori, Pongarang, Paldarinalwar, Merelda. They did not become extinct, and many families can trace connections back to several survivors. Art works were being maintained well into the 20th century.
Geography of Peramangk country
Lands of the Peramangk
The territory of the various family groups identified as Peramangk extended in a crescent shape from Myponga across to Currency Creek, swinging north along the western ridge line of the Mt Lofty ranges to Sandy Creek
. The eastern boundary followed the eastern escarpment north to Mount Karinya, with the northern boundary following the south bank of the Gawler River. Access points to the River Murray
could be found along Salt Creek
and Wall and in the North down the Marne River
. The territory of the Peramangk shifted in post invasion times as numbers dwindled to include land from Clarendon
west to Tungkillo
and down along Salt Creek to Mypolonga, back in a narrow strip to Strathalbyn then south to Currency Creek
, Bull Creek
to Clarendon. The territory of the Peramangk people prior to European invasion followed clearly defined geographical boundaries and is confirmed by both art site locations, the Tjilbruke Songline (full version), and interviews given by survivors to Tindale
in various journals.
The following place names are drawn from a variety of sources, recorded as close to the time of invasion as possible. In many cases the original names of certain locations have been recorded in local histories, elderly recollections, property names, road names, the names of Hundreds, localities, waterways, towns and farms. The landscape remembers even if the people have forgotten. The list is not exhaustive, is open to reinterpretation, addition and correction. I hope it promotes discussion.
- Batta-ngga: Place of Tall Trees – Blue/Red/Pink Gum Forests stretching north from Meadows to Echunga. Fire stick farming practices had produced open grassland interspersed with large areas of tall gum trees. Perfect areas for camping & hunting with abundant water, food stuffs and raw materials for living and trade.
- Barruka-ngga: Place of Hidden Fire – Brukunga, synonymous with the Tjilbruke song line. A mountain of pyrite. The Peramangk would trade fire making kits, (Kangaroo thigh bones filled with pyrite, flint, and tinder) with their neighbours the Kaurna and possibly other groups as well. At the height of their power Peramangk people closely guarded the secrets of this area. Its cultural significance to a variety of groups, Peramangk, Ramindejri, various Narrindjeri groups, the Ngadjuri and Peramangk is paramount as indicated by the story of Tjilbrukie a song line shared by each of these groups. The fire making kits were traded to people as far away as Lake Victoria, and may have been cross traded further still.
- Bokati-illa: Swimming Place – Hahndorf, a permanent waterhole on the upper reaches of the Onkaparinga River near Hahndorf where Peramangk children learnt to swim. Also a regular campsite in summer.
- Donga-rangga: Muddy Red Gum Place - The confluence of Giles Creek and the Finniss River.
- Kangari-illa: Caring Place – Kangarilla, by the name a location important to Peramangk women located at the head of the Kangarilla Valley that winds down to McLaren Flat. Language Notes: "According to F.S. Dutton's South Australia and its Mines published in 1846, Kangarilla is a corruption of Kangowirranilla, meaning 'the place for kangaroo and water', but more likely to be kangaroo and timber" (Cockburn, 1990: 112).
"Mr N.B. Tindale, anthropologist, says: 'It is derived from the Aboriginal word kanggarila which may mean 'birth place', but we have no information about the context". "In Kanggarilla Historical Records the compiler says: 'the Reverend Gordon Rowe of the Aboriginal Friends' Association obtained the following information from Mr David Unaipon, an eighty-two-year-old full blood member of the Tailem Bend tribe. His definition of the meaning of the origin of the name is - "Kang means two; Ra'mulia means outflow or water flowing …." When first approached on the matter Mr Unaipon at once asked if there were two waterholes. Upon enquiry it was found that there were two …'. (Manning, 1990: 162) (courtesy of http://www.kaurnaplacenames.com)
- Kari-karinya: Flying Place – Mount Karinya just west of Moculta marking the north eastern boundary of Peramangk territory and an important lookout over the Murray Plains and the northern Mount Lofty Ranges.
- Kadli-umbo: Dingo Urine (rainbow water) – Kaiserstuhl Creek, the waters of this creek run yellow brown out of the Kaiserstuhl conservation park and into the Gawler River. The waters colours comes from a combination of the yellows soils the creek flows through and he tannins released from rotting leaves. The area is also the sight of the performance of the Rainbow Palti, a dance shared by the Mauraura and Peramangk people. It also shares the name of the totem of the Tarawatta or Yuri-Ruka clans, the Dingo.
- Kadli-parri: Dingo Creek – Cuddlee Creek flowing into the Torrens River, named after the wild dogs once found in abundance in the area, but now hunted to extinction by European settlers.
- Kali-tya: Dingo Place (or camp) - A camping and meeting place on the banks of the Gawler River in the vicinity of where the old township of Gawler now stands. Kalitiya Language Notes: Williams (1840) gives Cud-lie-tie-par-rey 'Para River' (=kadlitiparri) which derives from Kadlitpinna ' Captain Jack' + parri 'river'. Kalitiya could well be related to Kadlitpinna, a Kaurna man known to have come from that district. (courtesy of http://www.kaurnaplacenames.com)
- Karra-watta: Redgum Land – The stretch of country running north Lobethal to the Torrens through Kersbrook , the valley of the South Parra River up to as far as Williams Town. Also the name the of the local clan/family groups who went by the same name – Karrawatta people.
- Karrawirra-parri: Red Gum Forest River – The River Torrens as it is known to Kaurna people. As the Peramangk and Kaurna shared a language and culture, a common border in this region and as the river passes through Karrawatta country there appears to be no reason for the River Torrens not to be known by this name amongst Peramangk peoples as well.
- Kauwe-aurita: Yellow Brown-Water place: Jacobs Creek as it flows into the Gawler River. The junction of these two waters ways was called Moorooroo, a name given to the local family group on the northern bank of the Gawler River but also a wide, yellow soiled used as a place for meetings between neighboring groups.
- Kunga-tukko (Kungatutto): Women's Lookout (or watching place) – Red Hill over looking Kanmantoo, a logical observation post looking down the Bremmer Valley. Peramangk people this side of the ranges adopted a hard KK sound instead of a hard TT sound. This pronunciation is distinctive of this region of Peramangk country. According to Tindale (1953) Kanmantoo is derived from the words ‘kungma
and tuk:o and literally means ‘different speech’. Tindale is uncertain about the
particular language from which these words are derived but suspects they
come from someone living ‘beyond the tribal boundary of the informant’. He notes that the place name Coomandook is derived from an inaccurate rendering of the same phrase. He thought that William Giles first used the name ‘Kanmantoo’.
- Kunda-paringga: (Kondoparinga) The Place of the Kangaroo River – Meadows Creek as it runs through the opens forest clearings amongst the forests of Batangga and south to the Finniss River.
- Kundupari (Kundopari): Kangaroo River – Meadows Creek & Finniss River
- Kuit-po: Either Sacred Place or Meadows – The valley running from Meadows south east to Willunga and Mt Remarkable. The forest through here was dotted with wide open spaces created by mosaic burning to encourage the grazing of Kangaroo’s and other game animals. The first European settlers to the area found the country already like this and named the town accordingly.
- Kangawirrani-illa: Women's Forest and River: Macclesfield
- Ityangga: Near by Place – Currently known as Echunga, the place is on the trade route through Battangga which follows a route along the Meadows-Kuitpo plain right down to Mt Remarkable. Language Notes: Eechungga 'near, close by, at a short distance' (Whimpress, 1975: 17 cited by Knight p.29)
"has been reported to be a corruption of an Aboriginal word meaning 'near' or 'close by'. However, a poem "Aboriginal Nomenclature - By a Native', which appeared in the Register on 11 October 1893, suggests a different meaning - one stanza reads: Ko-ko-chunga (wood), where bronze-winged pigeons roost" (Manning, 1990: 103) "John Sutton, Secretary of the Ornithological Scoiety, wrote to the author: "Echung" is one of the calls of the Rufous Whistler (Pachycephala rufiventris), one of the most beautiful songsters of the South Australian (and Australian) bush. The bird gives it as ee-chung (the accent on chung). It calls echung singly and often gives a rollicking song or play on this word finishing up with several "chungs". The species is common in the Mount Lofty Ranges. I have not "worked" Echunga but it is common at Meadows, Ambleside, Bridgewater and I have even heard it here at Mitcham. (I have been told that in some places the bird is known to boys as Echung. My idea is that Echunga means a place where Echungs or Rufous Whistlers were common and thus outstanding as compared with other spots. So far as I know, the Aboriginals in and about Adelaide did not name birds by their calls although in other parts of Australia they did follow that practice." (Cockburn, 1990: 66) Source: Teichelmann & Schurmann (1840: 6) / (courtesy of http://www.kaurnaplacenames.com)
- Lartingga-parri: Flooding Land Creek – Mount Barker Creek/Laratinga Creek as it flows off of Mount Barker. The site is a wide relativel flat flood plain at the foot of Mt Barker with permanent water, and at one time almost permanent campsites, the only time the place was not continuously occupied was during periods of heavy rain when it was, and still is prone to inundation. Mt Barker council has named their wetland nearby Laratinnga for obvious reasons.
- Maitpa-ngga: Autumn food place – Myponga, on the trade route south to Putpangga territory it was a place of plentiful water and food, particularly in autumn when the drying water holes allowed for access to freshwater mussels, turtles, and rush bulbs that were easily accessible in this otherwise boggy and marshy piece of country.
- Maitpa-langga: Flooding food place- Mypolonga, opposite Wall on the river Murray was considered Peramangk territory by Berndt & Berdnt. It provided access to the river for Peramangk people and was a place of trade with the Ngaralta and Ngarkat people. Peramangk survivors lived in the area in the late 19th and early 20th century. Polly Beck’s family lands extended from this area up to Nairne and Mt Barker. Polly was the daughter of George Beck a Peramangk man and through this connection her family had responsibility for this watta (worta/yerta). One of the thoughts on the origin of the name Mypolonga comes from the authority of the late Mr N.B. Tindale, an Ethnologist at the South Australian Museum, Mypolonga means “Lookout Cliff”. It is a corruption of the local Aboriginal name Mupuldawang or Mupulawang. Evidently the local Aborigines used the cliffs on the eastern side of the river as a lookout. http://mypolonga.com/history.htm
- Maitpana-littya: Food for Them – A ration station from Mt Barker heading towards Echunga.
- Maittangga: Food Place – This is a location on the banks of salt Creek half way between Mypolonga and Pomberuk.
- Moorooroo: Either ‘Wide, dusty place’, or ‘Meeting of two waters’ – The confluence of Jacob’s Creek and the Gawler Rivers and adjacent area of Rowland Flat. In times past it was a place where family groups met in late summer and autumn for ceremonies and trade. The area was noted for its wide flat open areas, and when dances were performed there great clouds of yellow dust would rise up around the performers. The name was also given to the local family group who lived there.
- Millindi-illa: Singing/Magic Place – A permanent water hole on Milendella Creek at the foot of the eastern escarpment west of the old railway station, nearby are located semi-permanent campsites and art sites. The name is probably connected with the Aboriginal millin given to a form of sorcery or magic; thus milendella is 'the place of the man who wants millin'.
When taking revenge by means of millin, the native disguised himself by means of white streaks all over his face and the rest of his body and, taking a heavy club, he would steal noiselessly upon his victim and stun him with a heavy blow. He then pulled the man's ears as it was imagined that by doing so the victim would be unable to say who had attacked him. If he then went into battle, the wicked spirit would whisper in his ear and in consequence he would be unable to protect himself with his shield and so be killed; or he would tread on a deadly snake or be overtaken by a fatal disease.
At some suitable moment the man who had used the power of millin in this way to destroy his victim would in turn be killed by the man's relations who, however, were not always particular whom they killed, even the brother of the man using the millin being sacrificed to satisfy their revenge. The natives lived in deadly terror of and nothing would persuade them that there really was no such power. http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/manning/pn/m/m8.htm#milendella
- Mukulta: Head Shaped Hill – Moculta, Parrot Hill that over looks the township was used as a look out by the local family group of this area. As it looked out over the northern boundary of Peramangk country and into Ngadjuri lands it was a significant feature in the local landscape. The name also can be found in the name Eucolta – Flagstaff Hill and Womma-Mukurta – Mt Barker.
- Mulladi-illa: Mulladilla, drying place – Mulirdilah Station, south Rhine region, along the creek banks either side of the creeks here are small salt flats, and areas by creeks & streams where ceremonies and burials took place.
- Mitji-parri: (Meechi) Mosquito River: Bremer River, the name Meechi was used by local Aboriginal people, Meechi being a local pronunciation of Mitji, a Kaurna word for Mosquito/Wasp/Native Bee.
- Ngarmaracha (Ngumaracha): Women’s Waterhole (or alternatively ‘Umeracha’ – fine waterhole) – A permanent waterhole on the River Torrens in the vicinity of the old township.
It is said that the town's unusual name is reputedly a corruption of the local Aboriginal word 'umeracha' which indicated a good water hole on the River Torrens. Somehow, between the Aborigines and the meeting of the South Australian Company in London in 1841, the word ended up as 'Gummaraka'.
- Ngankiparri: Women's River – Onkaparinga River, as it is known to the Kaurna. QAs the Peramangk shared the river, a common language and culture there seems little reason not to surmise that they did no share the name of this river too.
Nangkitja: Place of Grubs in the trees – Nangkita, near Mount Compass, according to Tindale.
- Nguro-atpa: Neck Place – Nuriootpa, referring specifically to the narrow lights pass through which people from both sides of the ranges would travel. A point along an established trade route to point along the upper Murray all the way to Lake Victoria and beyond. The name refers to the story of Yurebilla, a Giant Ngarno who came down from the north and was killed by people, hiss body became the Mt Lofty Ranges.
- Pat-piari (Patpiori): Place of Scattered Trees: Eden Valley and the areas around Kaiser Stuhl Hill. The practices of fire stick farming and mosaic burning by Peramangk people created large areas of open grass lands for Kangaroo grazing and left the landscape punctuated with large Eucalypts that were often used as shelters. Trees often have hollows facing south east (summer), or north east (winter). Trees were further marked with male and female symbols designating which were men’s and which were to be used for women’s camps.
- Parnalartangga: Autumn Flooding Place: Panalatinga Creek as it flows through Happy Valley and into the Field river. The lands around were known as a place to visit for freshwater foods but not a good place to camps because of the mosquitoes and frequent inundation.
- Paintyi-illa (Paintyilla): Place on the side – The location recorded in the name on the station Bundilla, on the Marne River at the base of the hills near Cambrai. An important water hole (now a weir) is located here and was known as campsite along the Marne River Trade route between Nganguruku and northern Peramangk people, the Tarawatta (or Yira-Ruka).
- Pinatjuwingga (Peenakauwingga): Bald Hill & Water Place: A location near Cherry Gardens indicating the geographical location of permanent water in an area noted in times past for the abundance of native cherries that would be collected in late summer and early autumn when water was at its scarcest.
- Poona-watta (Poona-worta): Good Country – The name of the local family group like the Tarrawatta and Karawatta groups. In Kaurna this place is known as Putpa-Yerta, the Lyndoch Valley. It was here that ceremonies were held. The Poonawatta or Wallaby People hosted meetings between peoples such as the Mauraura, Kaurna, Nanguruku, Ngaiawang, Ngadjuri and other Peramangk groups, as recorded by George French Angas in the 1840’s. Paintings of the ceremonies and the costumes of the various peoples were also created at this time.
- Picodla: EarLobe Place- Picadilly Valley, the reference to the story of Yurebilla, or the place of the Giants Ear Lobe.
- Pultari-illa: Possum Place- A location near Prospect Hill (Kuitpo Valley) where possums were known to be plentiful.
- Pereira: Hills Place – As in Peramangk, a Yaraldi place name. A location near Woodchester, an important ceremonial and Dreaming place for Peramangk, Kaurna and Ngarrindjeri peoples.
- Perti-ngga (Partingga): Place of Perti/Parti Grubs – Located in the reed beds (now gone) of Mt Barker township.
- Pirraldi: Bald-Moonshaped Hill – A round moonshaped hill above Belair used as a lookout onto the Adelaide Plains.
- Pirramimma: Place of Moon and Stars – Located on the Preamimma Creek, near the Preamimma Mine, a semi permanent waterhole where clear, windless nights the stars can be seen reflected in flat, clear waters.
- Pilyara-ngga: Place of Many Voices – A camping ground and meeting place on the flats at Sturt, across Marion road next to the Warriparingga Wetlands.
- Towitto: Reed Filled Place (springs) – Towitta north of Sedan, a place of permanent water, foods and reeds.
- Tarra-angga: High (Rising) Place – Referring the hills surrounding the township of Angaston. These hills and the area to the south towards Collingrove were the home of the Tarawatta people.
- Tarra-watta (Tarraworta): High (Rising) Land – The name of both the district, and the family groups who lived here. Remembered in the name of Terrawatta Station next to Collingrove Stud, the name applies to the whole of the Eden Valley . Another name for the people of the region was the Yira-Ruka who were closely linked to the Nanguruku people, who shared a similar language and frequently met for ceremonies and trade in the vicinity of the Marne River.
- Taingappa (Tainga-Tappa): Foot Track – Trail – A trail that follows the Marne River from Wongulla to the foot of Mount Crawford. An important trade route that linked the Peramangk and Nunguruku peoples. Important camping and art sites are located along the river with hollowed trees, burial and artifact sites. Evidence of Semi-permanent huts with stone foundations have also been located within the vicinity in the Eden Valley area along with stone fish traps also being located along the Marne River.
- Ta-ingi-illa (Taingilla): Ghost Moth Grub Place – A location in the vicinity of Tungkillo township, an area noted for the abundance of Cossid Moth grubs. The area also abounds with She-Oaks, Calitris Pines, Blue, Red, and Pink Gums.
- Tii-taka (Teetaka): Sit and Trade Place – Mount Crawford, an area where large groups of people from all over would come to meet and trade. It is recorded that over 1000 people would gather here at any one time in the late autumn for ceremonies and trade. With permanent water available and an abundance of food, semi-permanent camps were located here for much of the year.
- Tarr-nanda: Rising Up Place – The land and surrounding hills of the area in which Tanunda is now located.
- Tauondi-illa: Way Through Place – The flat grounds on the banks of the Onkaparinga River where the Clarendon Oval is now situated. The winter camping grounds of the Kaurna people and an important meeting and trading centre for both Kaurna and Peramangk peoples. In the late 19th and early 20th century it became a place where Kaurna and Peramangk survivors retreated to in the face of European invasion. Ivartitji’s family and other survivors lived here at various times prior to their removal to Point McLeay and Point Pearce.
- Tooka-Yerta: Swampy Land – The lands around Tookayerta Creek that flows into Lake Alexandrina south of Nangkita.
- Tala-ngga: Flooding Place – The low lying areas on the south side of the River Torrens near Mt Pleasant Township. A diminutive of Yertala – flooding and ‘ngga’, denoting a place or location.
- Tjukarlu: Chookarloo Campsite in Kuitpo Forest, this may be a modern name not of Peramangk Language. Any ideas would be greatly appreciated as to the origins and meaning of this name.
- Wadna-ngga: Place to make Wadnas or Place to use Wadnas – A location near Longwood, the name could mean either as the trees here grew straight and tall with few lower branches, but with plenty of possums about the use of the wadna stick used for climbing trees) would have been very necessary.
- Wilyaru (Wiljaura): Initiation Place – A location very near to Strathalbyn, is also the title for a fully initiated Peramangk/Kaurna man. This site along with Pereira were on the initiation trail of Peramangk and Kaurna men. It is remembered in the locality of Wilyaroo.
- Warriparri: Windy River – the Sturt River as it flows down from the hills from Heathfield to the Patawilonga Basin.
- Warriki-illa: Place of the Winds- The heights above Happy Valley and Happy Valley area, remembered in the farm Warrikilla and the creek that flows from it into the Panatalinga Creek. The area is known for fierce gully winds in the summer and autumn.
- Yurebilla (Yurabilla) / Yure-idla: Two Ears – Mt Lofty and Mt Bonython, the name refers to the story of Ngarno the Giant who was killed and whose body became the Mt Lofty Ranges. There are other stories connected to the two peaks, one concerning Two Men and another referring to the two moiety groups of the Kaurna and probably the Peramangk people as well. Prior to European settlement the land to the west of the Mount Lofty Range was the country of the Kaurna and to the east the Peramangk. To the Kaurna, Yurrebilla (Yurr-ee-billa) or Urebilla is a name that identifies the area comprising Mt Lofty and Mt Bonython (Yurreidla) as the ‘two ears’ of the Kaurna ancestral being Nganno, Nar-na, or Nga:no. Nganno travelled across this landscape, and lay down to die following a battle; his body formed the Mount Lofty Ranges. A variant of ‘Yurrebilla’ or ‘Yureidla’ has been historically ascribed as being the origins of the nomenclature of the settlement of Uraidla (Martin 1996: 9-10) but it has more recently been associated with Kaurna nomenclature for Mt Bonython (Hemming 1998: 19; Clarke 1991: 63; Tindale 1974: 64; Wyatt 1879: 178-179). More recently the term Yurrebilla has been used to define the Greater Mt Lofty Park Lands that has been created along the Mount Lofty Range ridgeline reaching from Cox Scrub Conservation Park and Kuitpo Forest in the south to Para Wirra Recreation Park and Mt Crawford Forest Reserve in the north. Ngangki parringa and yulti have also been used to describe the Onkaparinga Valley and stringybark trees respectively. Notwithstanding this nomenclature and associative meanings, there is no specific evidence of Kaurna or Peramangk occupancy of the Piccadilly Valley. There is also no known Kaurna or Peramangk site within the Mt Lofty Botanic Garden. It is however known that the Peramangk frequented the Onkaparinga River valley, and it is believed that there were traverse routes used by the Peramangk to access Yurrebilla for communication and trade (Martin 1998: 10; Skipper 1837; Register 2 March 1839; Dunn 1980: 103). http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/botanicgardens/pdfs/mlbg2_history.pdf
- Yertalla-ngga: Flooding Land – The name refers to the Hoffnungsthal Lagoon. The area is a natural basin surrounded on all by high hills, water having no where to drain settles here after heavy rain. The connected story is that a Peramangk man named Jemmie warned the German settlers not to build their town there because the lagoon frequently filled for long periods after heavy rains, but they did not listen. Looking on with amused bewilderment at the settlers stupidity, the local Peramangk people were not surprised when after heavy rain the town was flooded out and the Germans decided to move their settlement closer to Bethany.
- Womma-Mukurta: Head Shaped Hill upon a Plain: Mount Barker, a large rounded hill upon a high plateau. My Barker was a favourite meeting and trading place with central importance for both Peramangk and Ngarrindjeri peoples. The Ngarrindjeri people used the summit as a burial platform place and attached a story about the Min:ka Bird (Willy Wagtail), said to be the bringer of important news, someone approaching or the approach of a persons (usually a child’s) imminent death.
- Yulti-Wirra: Stringybark Forest – Referring to the stringy-bark forests that capped the Western Escarpment of the Mt Lofty Ranges. In particular a location in the eastern hills above Myponga.
- Yak-tangga: Either Gum (Calitris or Xanthorea sap) Place or Flooding Valley Place – A sign on the summit of Mt Barker names the place Yaktanga, this could either refer to a place the gum from either native pines or grass trees used for hafting spears and axes could be obtained, or it could refer to the locality below the summit, a valley known to flood after heavy rains.
- Yeroona (Jero:na): Wide Place – A township and homestead in a small valley leading north-west from the township of Kangarilla.
• 90% of place names in the Mt Lofty Ranges are made in relation to physical features within the landscape and of what can be found there
• Several place names relate to food or water or tools and the times of the year that they are in abundance, eg maitpalangga, parnalartangga
• Other place names reflect both the major geographical feature of a place and also its physical state at certain times of the year, e.g. yertalungga
• 5% of place names refer to song-lines or stories within the landscape, eg Barrukangga, Kadliumbo, Karikarinya
• Some place names refer to not only the major natural feature of the area but also the name of the family group that occupies the region eg, Tarrawatta, Karrawatta
• Many places names are made up of 2 more words contracted together to create a new place name or an entirely new word. Teichelmann noted that this flexibility in both Kaurna and Peramangk languages allowed for the creation and pronunciation that was neither uniform nor consistent across family and culture groups
• The language of place names within the landscape shows a clear affinity with both Kaurna and Ngadjuri languages. This is consistent with Tindales findings that Peramangk people shared both a language and culture with these peoples.
• Place names within the landscape mark a clear boundary of Peramangk territory. This is consistent with Tindales findings and is reflected in the locations of art sites along the eastern escarpment and the boundaries defines in the Tjilbruke and Nurrunderi song-lines.
• There are clear dialectic differences between between Peramangk and Kaurna place names, especially east and north east of Mt Barker
• Tindale noted that at two sites along the River Murray where Peramangk people had access to the River, Peramangk place names can be found, Maitangga, Maitpalangga, Tartangga, Taingappa
• The shift in Peramangk territorial boundaries recorded by Berndt reflects a shift in population and location of the traditional owners to areas between Manunka and Murray Bridge, across to Clarendon. The extension of Nanguruku lands into the Adelaide Hills further reflects the relocation of some Peramangk people to their relations along the River Murray, an area north of Manunka to Swan Reach.
• The depopulation of an areas original inhabitants and the subsequent taking over of this territory by other more populous groups is reflected in changing territorial boundaries, art styles, and places names. The landscape records the time of this change and the sunsequent locations of the surviving populations.