Gerónimo was born in Sampáloc, Manila. A member of the Katipunan, Gerónimo was part of the group that assaulted the San Juan del Monte gunpowder magazine on August 30, 1896, and organized forces under his command in Montalban, San Mateo, and Marikina. In 1897, he took part in the Battle of Mount Purog, and was designated as Division General in charge of Rizal Province after the death of Andres Bonifacio. After the defeat of the Spanish, he was then appointed by General Antonio Luna as the commanding general of the third military zone of Manila, and it was in this capacity that he served in the Battle of San Mateo. By 1900, he was appointed as the superior chief of the second and third zones of Manila, and he also held the commands of Morong and Marinduque. On March 29, 1901 Gen. Licerio Gerónimo, 6 officers, and 40 soldiers surrender at San Mateo, Manila to Col. J Milton Thompson and the 42nd Regiment of Infantry. Col Thompson informed Gen. Gerónimo of Emilio Aguinaldos capture 6 days prior. He remained skeptical until Col. Thompson produced a newspaper headlining Aguinaldos capture. Shortly afterwards, Gen. Licerio Gerónimo, along with his troops, took the Oath of Allegiance to the United States.
Gerónimo later worked for the United States and joined the Philippine Constabulary as an inspector, successfully bringing in bandits and former soldiers roaming the countryside. He was also part of the search party that brought down General Luciano San Miguel and his followers, resulting in the death of San Miguel.