The base of the statue is an 11-pointed star, part of old Fort Wood; a 150-ft (45-m) pedestal, built through American funding, is made of concrete faced with granite. On it is a tablet, affixed in 1903, inscribed with "The New Colossus," the famous sonnet of Emma Lazarus, welcoming immigrants to the United States. By the early 20th cent, this greeting to the arriving stranger had become the statue's primary symbolic message. Broadening in its meaning, the statue became a symbol of America during World War I and a ubiquitous democratic symbol during World War II. An elevator runs to the top of the pedestal, and steps within the statue lead to the crown, but the public has not been permitted to climb to crown since Sept., 2001, when access to the statue was restricted for reasons of security and, subsequently, safety. The statue was extensively refurbished prior to its centennial celebration in 1986. The Statue of Liberty became a national monument in 1924. In 1965, Ellis Island, the entrance point of millions of immigrants to the United States, was added to the monument.
See M. Trachtenberg, The Statue of Liberty (1976); W. S. Dillon, ed., The Statue of Liberty Revisited: Making a Universal Symbol (1994); B. Moreno, The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia (2000).
Although many variations of the play exist, the most common involves the quarterback taking the snap from the center, dropping back, and gripping the ball with two hands as if he were to throw. He then takes his non-throwing hand and uses it to place the ball behind his back while pump faking a throw to one side of the field. While his arm is still in motion during the fake throw, he hands the ball off behind his back to a running back or a wide receiver in motion, who runs the football to the opposite side of the field. The play is contingent upon the defense being tricked out of position by the pump fake, and then being unable to catch up with the runner as he runs in the opposite direction of the fake.
The play is named after the positioning of the quarterback as he hands the ball off. If done correctly, he should have one hand in the air and the other at his side, resembling the pose of the Statue of Liberty in New York City. When executed properly, the Statue of Liberty is a very deceptive and high-yardage play. However, because of the difficult coordination of motions it is often very challenging to properly execute the play, and this may lead to a fumble, sack, or lost yardage. Additionally, disciplined defenses will be more likely to pick up on the fake and will not be tricked by the play.
The Northwestern Wildcats employed a version of this play in the 1949 Rose Bowl to run for a 45-yard touchdown in the final minutes of the game, defeating the heavily favored California Golden Bears 20-14.
The Baltimore Colts ran a version of the play in December, 1970. Led by 37-year-old quarterback Johnny Unitas, The Colts beat the Oakland Raiders in the 1970 AFC Championship game 27-17.
The most famous use in recent years was by Jared Zabransky and Ian Johnson in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl between the undefeated Boise State Broncos and the Oklahoma Sooners. The play, known as "Statue Left" by the Broncos, clinched Boise State a two-point conversion for the overtime victory, and surprised the Oklahoma defense as well as many television viewers who had never seen a Statue of Liberty play before. The game between the two teams is referred to as one of the closest and most exciting college football games of all-time, due in part to the do-or-die nature of this play. It is run in the trips shotgun set. The Sooners saw another Statue of Liberty play in their September 6, 2008, game against the Cincinnati Bearcats. Bearcats quarterback Dustin Grutza handed off to John Goebel, but the Sooners stopped Goebel for only a short gain.
In a regular season matchup against the Michigan Wolverines in 2007, Oregon Ducks Quarterback Dennis Dixon faked a Statue of Liberty to Running Back Jonathan Stewart and then ran for a crucial touchdown almost unseen.
The New England Patriots employed an unusual variant of the play in their 2007 NFL Divisional playoff game against the Jacksonville Jaguars. Strictly speaking, the play, which the Patriots called "Double Pop, was actually a reverse Statue of Liberty play, in that the run, not the pass, was the fake element. Center Dan Koppen faked a direct snap to Patriots running back Kevin Faulk, causing the defense to move to stop the run; meanwhile, Patriots quarterback Tom Brady, who received the football, faked an over-the-head snap, and held the Statue of Liberty pose with his back to the defense before turning around and throwing a touchdown pass to wide receiver Wes Welker in the back of the end zone.