Any of about 25 species of flat green insects (family Phylliidae) with a leaflike appearance. Leaf insects, which range from India to the Fiji Islands, are about 2.3 in. (60 mm) long. The female has large leathery forewings (tegmina) that lie edge to edge on the abdomen and resemble, in their vein pattern, the midrib and veins in a leaf. The hind wings have no function. The male has small tegmina and ample, non-leaflike, functional hind wings. The newly hatched young are reddish, but become green after feeding on leaves.
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(Top) Monocotyledon (internal structures of a corn seed with stages of germination). Nutrients are elipsis
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Any of various insect larvae that live and feed within a leaf, including caterpillars, sawfly larvae, beetle and weevil grubs, and dipteran maggots. Most leaf-miner burrows or tunnels are either thin, winding, whitish trails or broad, whitish or brownish blotches. Though leaf miners do not usually cause injury, they mar the appearance of ornamental trees and shrubs. One method of control is to remove and burn infested leaves; spraying with nicotine solutions or dusting with insecticides is effective only when the adults are emerging.
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Structures of a leaf
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Leaf-warblers are small insectivorous birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus. This was placed in the "wastebin" Old World warbler family, but is now moved into a new family Phylloscopidae (Alström et al. 2006). There are presently some 55 species in the genus, but this composition makes it polyphyletic with regards to Seicercus. Thus, several species will soon be moved out of the present genus.
These are active, constantly moving, warblers always associated with trees, though normally in fairly open woodland rather than tight plantations. They occur from top canopy to undershrubs. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters.
Most are greenish or brownish above and off-white or yellowish below. Compared to some other "warblers", their songs are very simple
Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.
The species traditionally placed in Phylloscopus are: