As a means of recording the passage of time
, the 13th century
was that century
which lasted from 1201
in accordance with the Julian calendar
in the Christian
. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages
, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire
stretched from Korea to Eastern Europe.
- 1204 — Fourth Crusade sacks Byzantine Constantinople and creates the Latin Empire.
- 1204 — Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France.
- 1205 — Battle of Adrianople (1205): Tsar Kaloyan with his army crushed the (otherwise unbeaten) Fourth Crusade's knights and the soldiers of Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople who was attacking Bulgarian lands with the goal to conquer them.
- 1206 — Mongols united under Temüjin, who is proclaimed "Genghis Khan".
- 1212 — The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Iberia sees the beginning of a rapid Christian reconquest of the southern half of the Iberian peninsula, with the defeat of Moorish forces.
- 1215 — King John of England forced to sign Magna Carta at Runnymede.
- 1215 — Beijing is captured and torched by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, initiating the Yuan Dynasty in China.
- 1220 — The Islamic lands of Central Asia are overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan.
- 1221 — The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
- 1222 — Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility.
- 1227 — Genghis Khan dies during the prolonged siege of the Western Xia Dynasty capital (located in northwestern China), while the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty falls soon after.
- 1234 — the Jin Dynasty of northeastern China is conquered by the forces of the Mongol ruler Ögedei Khan.
- 1238 — The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established, with Theravada Buddhism as the state religion. Later in the century it vassalises significant parts of modern Thailand, Laos, Burma, and Malaysia.
- 1249 — End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve.
- 1250-1275 — the Arab or Persian born Muslim Pu Shougeng was appointed by the Song Dynasty Chinese government as the Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for Quanzhou.
- 1258 — Baghdad (Iraq), seat of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty, is besieged and burnt to the ground by the forces of the Mongol commander Hulagu Khan. The last Abbasid ruler Al-Musta'sim is executed by means of trampling horses.
- 1259 — the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan is killed in battle by a Chinese cannon blast at Fishing Town, Chongqing, located in southwestern China.
- 1260 — the Mongols are defeated by the Egyptian Mamluks in the Battle of Ain Jalut.
- 1270 — Restoration of Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia, deposing the Zagwe dynasty.
- 1271 — Edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars.
- 1276 — A severe 23-year drought begins to affect the Grand Canyon area, eventually forcing the agriculture-dependent Anasazi culture to migrate out of the region.
- 1277 — Sultan Baibars invades Anatolia and captures the emirates which once composed the Sultanate of Rüm.
- 1279, the Battle of Yamen marks the fall of the Chinese Song Dynasty and the rise of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty led by Khublai Khan.
- 1279 — The Chola Dynasty of South India falls under attacks by the Hoysala Empire and Pandyan kingdom.
- 1281 — Mamluk sultan Qalawun defeats an invasion of Syria by Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khan at the Second Battle of Homs.
- 1281 — The second Mongol invasion of Japan is foiled, as a large typhoon — famously called a kamikaze — destroys much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces.
- 1282 — Aragon acquires Sicily, after the Sicilian Vespers.
- 1283 — Kublai Khan's Mongol Empire invades the Khmer empire of present-day Cambodia; King Jayavarman VIII decides to pay tribute rather than fight the invasion.
- 1284 — Peterhouse, Cambridge founded by Hugo de Balsham, the Bishop of Ely.
- 1285 — Second Mongol raid against Hungary, led by Nogai Khan.
- 1291 — The Swiss Confederation is formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.
- 1291 — Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Khalil captures Acre, thus exterminating the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Christian landholding remaining from the Crusades).
- Battle of Bouvines
- Bantu-speaking peoples arrive in modern Angola, partially displacing the original Khoisan inhabitants.
- Persian historian Rashid al-Din records eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation.
- James I of Aragon takes control of Balearic Islands and Valencia.
- Marco Polo and his family reach China.
- Norway cedes the Isle of Man to Scotland, following the signing of the Treaty of Perth.
- Ögedei Khan establishes a Mongolian dynasty in China. Some Mongol leaders convert from Tantric Buddhism to Islam.
- Teutonic Knights begin activity in Eastern Europe.
- Theravada overtakes Mahayana as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia.
- A period of civil unrest, . Sturlungaöld, leads to Iceland becoming part of the Kingdom of Norway.
- End of Hohenstaufen dynasty at the Battle of Tagliacozzo. The Kingdom of Sicily goes to French Anjou house.
- Fall of the Ghana Empire.
- Fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. Sicily and Naples are acquired by the French count Charles I of Naples.
- Fifth through eighth crusades of western European kingdoms against Islam.
- Finland gets its first city, Turku.
- First European universities founded.
- Most of Asia and Eastern Europe is conquered and incorporated into the Mongol Empire.
- The Medieval Warm Period ends.
- The Utiguri Bulgar state on the Volga vanishes from history.
- Samoa gains its independence from the Tu'i Tonga Empire, and founds the Malietoa dynasty.
- Genghis Khan, founder of Mongol Empire
- Batu Khan, Mongol ruler and the founder of the Golden Horde
- Haakon Haakonsson, king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. After the long civil war Norway would again prosper under his rule and come to dominate Scandinavian politics.
- Kaloyan, Emperor of Bulgaria
- Ivan Asen II, Emperor of Bulgaria
- Edward I of England, English King
- Ottokar II of Bohemia, King of Bohemia
- Baibars, Mameluk sultan of Egypt
- Ibn Taymiyyah, famous Hanbali, Salafi Scholar of Islam
- Dante Alighieri, Italian writer
- William Marshal, knight and statesman.
- Saint Thomas Aquinas, theologian
- Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter
- Cimabue, Florentine painter
- Sundiata Keita semi-historical founder of the Mali Empire
- Alexander of Hales, philosopher and theologian
- Albertus Magnus, German philosopher and theologian
- Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order
- Robert Grosseteste, English statesman, theologian, and scientist
- Roger Bacon, Franciscan, philosopher, and scientist
- Birger jarl, Swedish statesman, earl, and founder of Stockholm
- Bonaventure, Franciscan theologian
- Petrus Peregrinus, scientist
- Louis IX of France, St. Louis, French king and crusader
- Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
- Ramon Llull, Majorcan philosopher
- Kublai Khan, Khan ruler, founder of Yuan Dynasty in China
- Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir
- Saadi Persian poet
- Snorri Sturluson, historian and saga-writer
- William Wallace, Scottish national leader
- Béla IV of Hungary rebuilder of Hungary after the devastating Mongol invasion
- Lembitu, Estonian ruler
- Queen Tamara, ruler of Georgia
- Lasha Giorgi, King Giorgi IV of Georgia
- Queen Rusudan, Queen Regnant of Georgia
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Decades and years