Definitions

Lange

Lange

[lahng-uh for 1; lang for 2, 3]
Lange, Christian Louis, 1869-1938, Norwegian pacifist. In his youth he joined the Young Norway movement and worked for the separation of Norway from Sweden. He taught in the Norwegian Nobel Institute, represented his country at the Hague Conference of 1907 and at the League of Nations, and was secretary (1909-33) of the Interparliamentary Union. Lange shared the 1921 Nobel Peace Prize with Hjalmar Branting.
Lange, David Russell, 1942-2005, New Zealand politician. After receiving his law degree (LL.M., 1970) he fought for the rights of the underprivileged in Auckland, and was elected to the House of Representatives as a Labor party member in 1977. He became deputy leader of the party in 1979 and leader in 1983. After Labor won the 1984 general election on a non-nuclear defense platform, he became prime minister. Lange encouraged free market reforms and cut the federal budget, and he drew the ire of the United States when he banned nuclear-armed or nuclear-powered ships from New Zealand's ports in 1985. He resigned as prime minister in 1989 when faced with a revolt within Labor over his economic reforms, but he remained in parliament until his death.
Lange, Dorothea, 1895-1965, American photographer, b. Hoboken, N.J. From 1916 until 1932, Lange operated a portrait studio. During the Great Depression she took her camera into the streets of San Francisco where she began to make exceptionally powerful images of people, which speak of the time and the world in which they were made; among the best known of these is White Angel Breadline (1933). During the 1930s, California commissioned a report on the way of life of migrant laborers, and Lange made the report in collaboration with her future husband, Paul Taylor, an economics professor. Her photographs emphasized the laborers' dignity and pride in an environment of starkest poverty; the report resulted in the establishment of state-built camps for migrants. From 1935 to 1942 she worked in the Farm Security Administration, documenting rural America. One of the most famous images from this period is her iconic Migrant Mother, photographed in California in 1936. Her photographs were reproduced in thousands of magazines and newspapers, helping to create a national awareness of the farmers' plight and profoundly influencing American photojournalism by their simplicity and directness. At the outbreak of war with Japan, Lange documented the mass evacuation of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps. In 1945 she covered the United Nations Conference in San Francisco, and collapsed from overwork. She did not photograph again until 1951, when she began to travel, producing photo-essays for Life magazine, e.g., "Three Mormon Towns" (1954) and "The Irish Country People" (1955). Lange's books include An American Exodus (with Paul Taylor; 1939) and The American Country Woman (1966).

See biographies by M. Meltzer (2000) and L. Gordon (2009); studies by K. E. Becker (1980), P. Borhan, ed. (2002), R. Coles (2005), and A. W. Spirn (2009).

Lange, Friedrich Albert, 1828-75, German neo-Kantian philosopher. He accepted the materialistic method of investigating phenomena but rejected its concept of nature. In his Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart (1866; tr. A History of Materialism, 3d ed. 1950), Lange argued that some truths about nature are unknowable because their verification would involve moving beyond the sphere of any possible human experience. He advocated limiting the categories used in science to those necessary for the mechanistic explanation of nature. He regarded consciousness as subjective experience, not merely the effect of matter.

(born May 26, 1895, Hoboken, N.J., U.S.—died Oct. 11, 1965, San Francisco, Calif.) U.S. documentary photographer. She studied photography and opened a portrait studio in San Francisco in 1919. During the Great Depression, her photos of homeless men led to her employment by a federal agency to bring the plight of the poor to public attention. Her photographs were so effective that the government established camps for migrants. Her Migrant Mother (1936) was the most widely reproduced of all Farm Security Administration pictures. She produced several other photo essays, including one documenting the World War II internment of Japanese-Americans.

Learn more about Lange, Dorothea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 18, 1849, Stavanger, Nor.—died April 6, 1906, Bergen) Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist. Kielland, who was born into an aristocratic family, took a degree in law in 1871 and was a businessman for almost a decade. After a trip to Paris, he began to write. His first book of short stories was published in 1879, and he soon became dedicated to social reform. His influential novels include Garman and Worse (1880) and Skipper Worse (1882), both of which are set in and around Stavanger. He was perhaps the foremost prose stylist of his day, and, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, and Jonas Lie, he is considered one of the “big four” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

Learn more about Kielland, Alexander (Lange) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 26, 1895, Hoboken, N.J., U.S.—died Oct. 11, 1965, San Francisco, Calif.) U.S. documentary photographer. She studied photography and opened a portrait studio in San Francisco in 1919. During the Great Depression, her photos of homeless men led to her employment by a federal agency to bring the plight of the poor to public attention. Her photographs were so effective that the government established camps for migrants. Her Migrant Mother (1936) was the most widely reproduced of all Farm Security Administration pictures. She produced several other photo essays, including one documenting the World War II internment of Japanese-Americans.

Learn more about Lange, Dorothea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 18, 1849, Stavanger, Nor.—died April 6, 1906, Bergen) Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist. Kielland, who was born into an aristocratic family, took a degree in law in 1871 and was a businessman for almost a decade. After a trip to Paris, he began to write. His first book of short stories was published in 1879, and he soon became dedicated to social reform. His influential novels include Garman and Worse (1880) and Skipper Worse (1882), both of which are set in and around Stavanger. He was perhaps the foremost prose stylist of his day, and, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, and Jonas Lie, he is considered one of the “big four” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

Learn more about Kielland, Alexander (Lange) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lange is a name derived from the German word lang, meaning "long". Lange is usually pronounced in English as [lɛŋ], whilst in German and Dutch, it's pronounced [lɑŋə].

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