The name 'Lakhimpur' is believed to have come from word “Lakshmi”, the Hindu goddess of Wealth and Prosperity. The word “pur” has two meanings -- first one is “full”, so 'Lakhimpur' means 'full of paddy'. The second meaning is "City", so 'Lakhimpur' means 'The City of Wealth and Prosperity'. Besides, the district has alluvial soil which is very fertile. Also fish, vegetables, milk etc were abundant.
The district has two sub divisions -- Dhakuakhana and North Lakhimpur. Dhakuakhana Sub Division consists of two Police stations viz. Dhakuakhana and Ghilamara. North Lakhimpur Sub-division consists of 4 Police stations viz. North Lakhimpur, Boginadi, Laluk and Bihpuria. Numerous tribes too inhabit the areas. The most important of these tribes are the Miris, Abors, Mishmis, Khamtis, Kachins and Nagas.
Forests are mainly tropical rain forest. Important reserved forests includes Ranga Reserve, Kakoi Reserve, Dulung Reserve and Pava Reserve. Some varieties are Xollokh (Terminalia Myriocarpa), Ajhar (lagerstroemia speciosa), Ximolu (Bombax ceiba/Salmalia Malabarica), Sum (Machilus), Gomari (gmelina orborea), Sisu (Dalbergia Sissoo), Xilikha (Terminalia Chebula), Neem (Azadirachta Indica), Nahar (Mesua Ferrea) etc. Wild elephants, buffaloes, tigers, deer etc are there in the forests. Varieties of bird species are observed in swampy areas.
The great Subansiri river has legends of once famous gold washing. But as of now there is no any major exploration of minerals in the district, except some minor exploration for petroleum by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) near Dhakuakhana.
Lakhimpur figures largely in the annals of Assam as the region where successive invaders from the east first reached the Brahmaputra. The Baro Bhuyans, originally from the western provinces of India, were driven out by the Chutiya (a Shan race), and these in their turn gave place to their more powerful brethren, the Ahoms in the 13th century. The Burmese, who had ruined the native kingdoms, at the end of the 18th century, were in 1826 expelled by the British under the Treaty of Yandaboo. They placed the southern part of the state, together with Sibsagar under the rule of Raja Purandhar Singh; but it was not till 1838 that the whole was taken under direct British administration.