'Krishna' refers to 'black' and 'giri' refers to 'hill'. Thus, 'Krishnagiri' refers to 'Black Hill'. This district is gifted with black granite hillocks and named as 'Krishnagiri'. Also, the region came under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya and hence it might also have been named after him.
|Taluk H.Q||Latitude (N)||Longitude (E)|
|Krishnagiri Taluk||12o 32’ 44”||78o 13’ 36”|
|Pochampalli Taluk||12o 20’||78o 22’|
|Uthangarai Taluk||12o 15’||78o 33’|
|Hosur Taluk||12o 48’||77o 50’ 23”|
|Denkanikottai Taluk||12o 02’||77o 47’|
Krishnagiri District has a prehistoric importance. Archaeological sources confirm the presence of habitats of man kind during Paleolithic, Neolithic and Mesolithic Ages. Various rock paintings and rock carvings of Indus Valley civilization and Iron Age seen in this district support the historical significance of this district. The heart of Krishnagiri,Kaveripattinam,Hosur and Uthangarai were known as 'Eyil Nadu', 'Murasu Nadu' and 'Kowoor Nadu' respectively. During the Chola period, Krishnagiri region was called 'Nigarili Chola Mandlam' and 'Vidhugadhazhagi Nallur'. Under the Nulamba rule it was popular as 'Nulambadi' according to historical sources. Hero stones were erected for those whose lost their lives in pursuit of adventure. There was a tradition of erecting memorial stones for people who sacrifice their lives for the sake of their kings since Sangam age. These memorial stones were called 'Navagandam'. Plenty of memorial stones available in this district speak volumes about the valour and virtues of the people.
Part of Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri and Mysore were together named as Thagadur Nadu in Sangam age. Krishnagiri was once ruled by Adhiyaman and hence also known as Adhiayaman Nadu. Adhiayaman, considered a noble king, offered 'Karunelli' (Goose Berry) to the great Tamil poetess "Avvaiyar", who adorned his court for her long life. This region was ruled by Pallavas, Gangas, Nulambas, Cholas, Hoysalas, Vijaya Nagar Emperors, Bijapur Sultans, Wudayars of Mysore and Nayaks of Madurai. The region of krishnagiri served as gateway of Tamil Nadu and a protective barrier for Southern region defending onslaughts from barriers with motives of imperialism and exploitation. Twelve Forts in this region were popularly known as 'Bara Mahal' Forts. These forts have withstood many attacks by the Mysore and Andhra rulers. Amongst them, Krishnagiri Fort became the first and forth most defensive place. The majestic fort built on the Krishnagiri hill by the Vijayanagar Emperors, stands as testimony even now. Kundani, a place in Krishnagiri District was once the head quarters of the Hoysala King Veera Ramanathan in the 13th Centuty AD. Jagadevarayan, a Hoysala king made 'Jagadevi' (one of the 'Bara Mahal' forts) as his capital.
During the I Mysore War the British troops passed through Krishnagiri to attack Hyder Ali's Forces at Kaveripattinam. The British army was defeated here. In the II Mysore War the entire region of Salem and Karnataka came under Hyder Ali's control. Hyder Ali fought bravely against the English at Krishnagiri. In the II Mysore war, after the Treaty of Srirangapattinam, the entire region of Salem and Bara Mahal were surrendered to the British. In 1792 AD, Captain Alexander Reed became the first District Collector of this region. Under the diplomacy of Robert Clive, the then Governor of Madras Presidency, Krishnagiri became the headquarters of Bara Mahal. A mint was established at krishnagiri in 1794 AD. Gold, silver and copper coins were forged here. Rayakottai, once a strong hold of the British, lost its importance for defense by 1880 AD. Many soldiers from krishnagiri region took part in the World War and lost their lives. Even today a large number of youth from this district are in the services of the Indian army. Krishnagiri district had its fair share of freedom fighters in the Indian freedom struggle. Prominent amongst them was Dr. C. Rajagopalachari, who, from a small village in this district rose to become the first Governor General of independent India and also the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Till the year 2004 Krishnagiri was a part of the Dharmapuri district. It was then separated from Dharmapuri district and formed as the 30th district separate district of Tamil Nadu in 2004.
Krishnagiri district covers an area of 5143 km². Krishnagiri district is bound by Vellore and Thiruvannamalai districts to the East, State of Karnataka to the west, State of Andhra Pradesh to the North and Dharmapuri District to the south. This district is elevated from 300m to 1400m above the mean sea level. It is located between 11º 12'N to 12º 49'N Latitude, 77º 27'E to 78º 38'E Longitude. It basically has a mountainous terrain. The flatlands are irrigated by the South Pennar River.
The eastern part of the district experiences hot climate and the western part contrastingly has a pleasant climate. The average rainfall is 830 mm per annum. March - June is the summer season. July - November is the Rainy Season and during December - February winter prevails.
|Year||Rain fall (in mm)|
Net Cultivated, Irrigated, Double , Multiple Cropped, Cultivable Wasteland, Water land and Forest
|Banner and uncultivable waste||24194||5%|
|Land put to non agricultural uses||21466||4%|
|Permanent pastures and other grassing lands||7378||1%|
Krishnagiri district comprises five taluks.
ten panchayat union
|Kanniyakumari – Kashmir||7||70.185|
|Krishnagiri – Ranipet||46||21.400|
|Pondichery – Krishnagiri||66||58.969|
|Krishnagiri – Kuppam||219||19|
|Sarjapur – Bagalur – Hosur||207||19|
|Hr. Sec. Schools||72|
|Industrial Training Institutions||5|
|Teachers Training School||1|
|Arts & Science College||5|
The district has a population of 15,46,700. It has a literacy of 58.11%, one of the lowest in the state. It is only 16.42% urbanised as per Census 2001, while Tamil Nadu state is the most urbanized state in India.
Demographic of Krishnagiri district - Census 2001
|Parameter||Figure / Percentage(%)|
|Density of Population per Sq. Km.||301|
|Infant Mortality Rate||38.2%|
|Literacy Rate Men||67.11%|
|Literacy Rate Women||48.62%|
The district exhibits the confluence of different languages and religions. Three languages namely Tamil, Telugu and Kannada are predominantly spoken in this district. Major religions are Hinduism, Islam and Christianity.
|other minor crops||11,937|
|Name of the Reservoir||Target(MT)||Achievement||Revenue Collection (Rs)||Fishermen benefited / Amount|
|Mayil Ravanan Lake||3.0||0.164||820||1/820|
|Sale of livestocks||4,21,578|
|LN 2 (Liquid Nitrogen)||1,27,819|