In 1214 Bogislaw II, duke of Pomerania made a donation of a village known as Koszalice/Cossalitz by Chełmska Hill in Kołobrzeg Land (una villa ... Cussalitz iuxta Cholin in terra Cholbergensis) to the Premonstratensian (Norbertine) monastery in Białoboki (Belbuck) near Trzebiatów (Treptow an der Rega). New, mostly German, settlers from outside of Pomerania were invited to settle the territory. In 1248 the eastern part of Kołobrzeg Land, including the village, was transferred by Duke Barnim I to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin.
On 23 May 1266, Bishop Hermann von Gleichen granted a charter to the village Cussalin, giving it Lübeck law, local government, autonomy and multiple privileges; it became known in German as Cöslin. In the following years Cöslin became the bishop's main residence and the capital of the Bishopric of Kammin.
By the acquisition of the village of Jamno (1331), part of Lake Jamno, a spit between the lake and sea and the stronghold of Nest (Unieście) (1353), Cöslin obtained direct access to the sea, participating in the next centuries in the Baltic Sea trade, which led to several conflicts with the competing seaports of Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) and Rügenwalde (Darłowo). From 1356 until 1417/1422, the Hanseatic city was part of the Duchy of Pomerania-Wolgast.
In 1534 during the Protestant Reformation, Cöslin became Lutheran under the influence of Johannes Bugenhagen. After the 1637 death of the last Pomeranian duke, Bogislaw XIV, Cöslin passed to his cousin, Bishop Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ of Kammin. Occupied by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War, the city was granted to Brandenburg-Prussia after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. In these years it was considered to be the capital of the Duchy of Cassubia and later divided into Koszalin County, Kołobrzeg County, Bialogard County and Szczecinek County.
Part of the Kingdom of Prussia since its foundation in 1701, Cöslin was heavily damaged by a fire in 1718, but was rebuilt in the following years. It was occupied by French troops in 1807 after the War of the Fourth Coalition. Following the Napoleonic wars, the city became the capital of Fürstenthum District and Regierungsbezirk Cöslin within the province of Pomerania. The Fürstenthum District was dissolved on 1 September 1872 and replaced with the Cöslin District on December 13.
Cöslin became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. The railroad from Stettin (Szczecin) through Cöslin and Stolp (Słupsk) to Danzig (Gdańsk) was constructed from 1858-78. A military cadet school created by Frederick the Great in 1776 was moved from Kulm (Chełmno) to Cöslin in 1890. In the 1920s during the Weimar Republic, the city's name was changed from Cöslin to Köslin. The city was detached from Köslin District on 1 April 1923, becoming an urban district.
On 4 March 1945, Köslin was conquered by the Soviet Union during World War II. According to the post-war Potsdam Agreement, the city was placed under Polish administration and renamed Koszalin. Most of the German population fled or were expelled to post-war Germany. The city was resettled by Poles forming part of postwar repatriation of Poles (1944–1946) as well as the forced deportations from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union in the east. In addition, ethnic Poles of Kashubian descent as well as the Polish-Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Belarusian settlers arrived from various parts of prewar Poland.
Initially, the city was considered to become the capital of the newly created West Pomeranian Voivodeship, which nevertheless was assigned to Szczecin. In 1950 this voivodeship was divided into Szczecin Voivodeship and Koszalin Voivodeship.
In years 1950-75 Koszalin was the capital of the enlarged Koszalin Voivodeship sometimes called Middle Pomerania (out of 17 voivodeships total) due to becoming the fastest growing city in Poland. In years 1975-98 it was the capital of the smaller Koszalin Voivodeship (out of 49 total).
As a result of the Local Government Reorganization Act (1998) Koszalin was assigned to become part of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (effective 1 January 1999) regardless of an earlier proposal for a new Middle Pomeranian Voivodeship covering approximately the area of former Koszalin Voivodeship (1950-75).
Koszalin's most distinctive landmark is St. Mary's cathedral (Marienkirche), dating from the early 14th century. Positioned in front of the cathedral is a monument commemorating John Paul II's visit to the city.
|Historical population of Koszalin|
Research Conducted at Koszalin University of Technology Has Provided New Information about Heat Transfer Research
Feb 12, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Journal of Technology -- Investigators discuss new findings in Heat Transfer Research....