The Korea Strait
is a sea passage
between South Korea
, connecting the East China Sea
and the Sea of Japan
(East Sea) in the northwest Pacific Ocean
. The strait is split by the Tsushima Island
into the western channel and the Tsushima Strait
To the north it is bounded by the southern coast of the Korean peninsula
, and to the south by the southwestern Japanese islands
. It is about 200 km (120 miles) wide and averages about 90 to 100 meters (300 ft) deep.
Tsushima Island divides the Korea Strait into the western channel and the Tsushima Strait. The western channel is deeper (up to 227 meters) and narrower than the Tsushima Strait.
A branch of the Kuroshio Current
passes through the strait. Its warm branch is sometimes called the Tsushima Current. Originating along the Japanese islands this current passes through the Sea of Japan
then divides along either shore of Sakhalin Island
, eventually flowing into the northern Pacific Ocean
via the strait north of Hokkaidō
and into the Sea of Okhotsk
north of Sakhalin Island
. The water-mass characteristics vary widely because of the low-salinity waters of the southeast coasts of Korea and China.
Numerous international shipping lanes pass through the strait, including those carrying much of the traffic bound for the ports of southern South Korea. Both South Korea and Japan have restricted their territorial claims
in the strait to from shore, so as to permit free passage through it.
Passenger ferries ply numerous routes across the strait. Commercial ferries run from Busan, South Korea to Japanese ports including Fukuoka, Tsushima, Shimonoseki, and Hiroshima. Ferries also connect Tsushima Island with Fukuoka, and South Korea's Jeju Island with the Korean mainland. Ferries connecting Busan and Japanese cities with ports in China also traverse the strait.
Naming of the Strait
||Korean Peninsula - Kyūshū Island
||Korean Peninsula - Tsushima Island
||Tsushima Island - Kyūshū Island |
(commonly used in English)
| Korea Strait
|| Korea Strait Western Channel
|| Tsushima Strait or|
Korea Strait Eastern Channel
|North Korean name
|| 조선해협 朝鮮海峡|
| 부산해협 釜山海峡|
| 쓰시마해협 対馬海峡|
|South Korean name
|| 대한해협 大韓海峡|
| 부산해협 釜山海峡|
| 쓰시마해협 対馬海峡|
| 朝鮮海峡 or 対馬海峡西水道|
Chōsen Kaikyō or Tsushima Kaikyō Nishi-suidō
"Korea Strait" or "Tsushima Strait Western Channel"
| 対馬海峡 or 対馬海峡東水道|
Tsushima Kaikyō or Tsushima Kaikyō Higashi-suidō
"Tsushima Strait" or "Tsushima Strait Eastern Channel"
- See article: Land bridge
During the Pleistocene
glacial cycles, the Korea and the Bering Straits
, and the Yellow Sea
were often dried up and the Japanese islands
were connected to the Eurasian Continent
through the Korean Peninsula
. At the periods, the Sea of Japan
was said to be a frozen inner lake due to the lack of warm Tsushima Current
and various plants and large animals, such as the Naumann elephant
are believed to have spread into Japan.
Historically, these narrows served as a highway for high risk voyages. The shortest distance between Busan
, South Korea, and the Tsushima Island is about 50 km, as is the shortest distance from Tsushima to Iki Island
In the 8th century BC, Buddhism (Mahāyāna Buddhism) was transmitted by Korea's Baekje to the easternmost Japan (See article: East Asian Buddhism) over this strait, long before seagoing ships were available.
Japan's Wa periodically sent, through the Korean strait and the Korean peninsula, year-long Imperial embassies to China to obtain the latest culture and technologies.
- See main article: Mongol invasions of Japan
A joint Mongol-Korea fleet crossed this strait and attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. The force severely ravaged the Tsushima Island
on the way to Japan but failed to defeat Japan. The typhoon
, usually translated as "divine wind
") is said to have saved Japan from a Mongol
invasion fleet led by Kublai Khan
Wokou and Oei Invasion
- See main article: Wokou and Oei Invasion
After the Mongolian invasion ravaged Tsushima, it became a base of the Wokou (Japanese pirates). The Korean Joseon Dynasty
sent a fleet to Tsushima in 1419 for the suppression of Wokou activity. Korea subsequently agreed to grant the Japanese limited trading privileges.
Battle of Tsushima
- See main article: Battle of Tsushima
The Battle of Tsushima, fought between the Japanese and Russian navies on May 27
and May 28
, took place in the Tsushima Strait part of the Korea Strait, east of the north part of Tsushima and due north of Iki Island. The Russian fleet was virtually destroyed by the Japanese.
The possibility of a Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel
or bridge, similar to the Channel Tunnel
between France and the United Kingdom, has been discussed for decades. It remains to be seen, but Japan has interest in shipping goods through Korea and Russia to Europe though there are many technical challenges.
- For example, a) Low-Frequency Current Observations in the Korea/Tsushima Strait. . W. J. Teague, G. A. Jacobs, H. T. Perkins, J. W. Book, K.-I. Chang, M.-S. Suk Journal of Physical Oceanography 32, 1621–1641 (2001). b) Russo-Japanese War Research Society
- Nautical Charts of SE Japan Sea. . Japan Hydrographic Association
- List of National and Quasi-national Parks, Japan #48 Iki-Tsushima. . Ministry of the Environment, Japan
- The Republic of Korea’s Maritime Boundaries, page 18. .
- Designated Area of Japan. . Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard