Kolguyev Island (о́стров Колгу́ев) is an island in Nenets Autonomous Okrug Russia located in the south-eastern Barents Sea (east of the Pechora Sea) to the north-east of the Kanin Peninsula. The approximately circular-shaped island has a diameter of and is in area. The highest point on the island is at . The vast wetland consists of many bogs and morainic hills, covered by vegetation characteristic of the tundra.
There is only one inhabited settlement on the island, Bugrino, located on the southeast coast. Nenets form the majority of the population, with fishing, reindeer farming and trapping being their main economic activities. Oil and gas are also present.
The island was explored in 1894 by the British naturalist Aubyn B.R. Trevor-Battye. He landed in June with an assistant, intending to spend about one month studying the wildlife, especially the birds. Due to mechanical problems with the vessel, and a misunderstanding, they were left stranded on the island for 12 weeks. He published his study of the natural history and topography of Kolguyev as: "Ice-bound on Kolguev" (Trevor-Battye 1895). The book includes observations on the Nenets (whom he called Samoyed) who brought their reindeer to the island for summer grazing and to trap geese for trade in Russia. Trevor-Battye eventually left the island with these reindeer herders in September 1894, and had to travel 1000 miles overland from the Pechora River to Archangel. He described this adventurous journey in: "A northern highway of the Tsar" (Trevor-Battye 1898).
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