Kiveton Park was a centre of lime working in the area and many company sidings came under the jurisdiction of its Station Master. Adjacent to the station was the Dog Kennels Lime and Stone Works, named after the road linking the station to Anston, and the Kiveton Park Lime and Stone Works. Just to the east were the Kiveton Park and Anston lime quarries. All the companies had lime burning facilities and agricultural lime was supplied, by rail, to outlets in Lincolnshire.
Along with neighbouring Kiveton Bridge station it was completely rebuilt during the early-1990s with modern platforms, lighting and waiting shelters, this work being funded by the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. The only remaining part of the 1884 station is the Station Master's house which stands on the Sheffield-bound (down) platform.
Kiveton Park station provides a good point for people wishing to access the Chesterfield Canal towpath. The towpath towards Shireoaks suffered some damage following heavy rains in June and July 2007. The railway was also closed for a while at the same time following a landslip, but had reopened by the end of August 2007.