Kingston

Kingston

[kingz-tuhn, king-stuhn]
Kingston, city (1991 pop. 56,597), S Ont., Canada, on Lake Ontario, near the head of the St. Lawrence River and at the end of Rideau Canal from Ottawa. Kingston has probably the best harbor on the lake. Industries include the manufacture of locomotives, ships, mining equipment, textiles, aluminum products, synthetic yarn, and ceramics. On the site stood Fort Frontenac, which was of great importance in the French and Indian War. The present city was founded by United Empire Loyalists in 1783 and prospered during the War of 1812 as the Canadian naval base for operations against the Americans. From 1841 to 1844 it served as the capital of Canada. Fort Henry, built during the War of 1812 and rebuilt from 1832 to 1836, is now a museum. Kingston is the seat of Queen's Univ. (1841), of the Royal Military College, and of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishoprics and cathedrals.
Kingston, city (1991 pop. 97,424), capital and largest city of Jamaica, SE Jamaica. The country's chief port, it has one of the finest harbors in the West Indies and exports sugar, rum, molasses, and bananas. The city's industries include tourism, food processing, and oil refining. Kingston was founded in 1693 on a deep, landlocked harbor. The former capital, Port Royal, at the tip of the long, narrow peninsula forming the harbor, was inundated after an earthquake in 1692; the capital was then moved to Spanish Town and, in 1872, to Kingston. After fire destroyed the new Port Royal in 1703, Kingston became Jamaica's leading commercial city. It has suffered from urban unrest as well as damage from severe hurricanes and an earthquake in 1907. Kingston is famed for its lively calypsos and its relics of buccaneering days. In the suburb of Mona are the Univ. of the West Indies and the Royal Botanical Gardens, noted especially for their orchids.
Kingston, village, capital of the Australian territory of Norfolk Island, located on the island's S coast, on Emily Bay. Kingston is the administrative and historic center of Norfolk Island; its commercial center is nearby Burnt Pine. Tourism is the mainstay of the local economy. Citrus and passion fruit are grown. The area that is now Kingston was the 1788 landing site of the first 23 European settlers, a group that included 15 convicts. The settlement subsequently became the center of the notorious Norfolk Island penal colony, which operated until 1855. Many prison buildings have been restored and are now tourist attractions.
Kingston. 1 City (1990 pop. 23,095), seat of Ulster co., SE N.Y., on the Hudson River at the mouth of Rondout Creek; inc. as a village 1805, and as a city through the union (1872) of Kingston and Rondout. A tourist hub for the Catskill-Shawangunk resort area, it has plants that make data acquisition and control systems, ships, conveyors and separators for sand and gravel, hydraulic and filter systems, electronics, machines, boilers, and draperies and textiles. The city is also a market for nearby fruit and vegetable farms (especially apples).

The first permanent settlement (called Wiltwyck) was established in 1652. Kingston served as the first capital of New York state until it was burned by the British in Oct., 1777. Its growth in the early 19th cent. was stimulated by the Delaware and Hudson Canal. Among notable landmarks are many old Dutch stone houses; the senate house (1676), meeting place of the first New York state legislature; the old Dutch church (1659) and cemetery (1661); the burial place of James Clinton; and nearby "Slabsides," the former cottage of John Burroughs.

2 Borough (1990 pop. 14,507), Luzerne co., NE Pa., on the Susquehanna River opposite Wilkes-Barre; settled 1769, inc. 1857. Although chiefly residential, it has food-products, textiles and apparel, machinery, and furniture industries.

Privately endowed university in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1841 and modeled after the University of Edinburgh. It is a comprehensive research institution, offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees in most major fields. Research facilities include centres for the study of international relations, industrial relations, and natural resources.

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or Hull

City and unitary authority (pop., 2001: 243,595), geographic county of East Riding of Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, England. It lies on the northern bank of the River Humber at its junction with the River Hull, 22 mi (35 km) from the North Sea. Hull was a medieval wool port that passed from the monks of Meaux Abbey to Edward I in 1293. For more than 400 years it was the chief shipping port for the inland waterways converging on the River Humber. Granted city status in 1897, it is a major national seaport, accommodating large oceangoing vessels. The medieval part of the city retains a number of historic buildings; its grammar school was founded in 1486.

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City (pop., 1999 est.: metro. area, 655,000), capital and chief port of Jamaica. Located on the southeastern coast of the island, it was founded in 1692 after Port Royal was destroyed by an earthquake. It soon became the commercial centre of Jamaica and was made the political capital in 1872. Historic buildings include a 17th-century church, a moated fortress, and the 18th-century Headquarters House. It is the seat of the University of the West Indies.

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Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica and is located on the southeastern coast of the island country. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Western Hemisphere, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States, with a population of 651,880 (2001 census).

The local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to the KSAC; however, it does not solely refer to Kingston Parish, which only consists of the old downtown and Port Royal. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, and St. Andrew had a population of 555,828 in 2001.

The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston.

Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic but troubled Downtown, and New Kingston. Several reggae stars, including Buju Banton, Sean Paul, Bounty Killer, and Beenie Man, hail from Kingston. Attractions include the nearby Hellshire and Lime Cay beaches, the National Gallery of Jamaica, the ruins of Port Royal, and Devon House, a mansion with adjoining park that once belonged to Jamaica's first black millionaire. Several annual and well-visited festivals are held in Kingston.

Kingston is served by Norman Manley International Airport and also by the smaller and primarily domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome.

History

Kingston was founded on July 22, 1692, as a place for refugees for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston’s functions were purely agricultural. The earthquake survivors set up a refugee camp on the sea front. Approximately two thousand people died due to mosquito borne diseases. Initially the refugees lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by the Nick Catania Pirate Fleet's fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East, West and Harbour Streets. By 1716 it had become the largest town and the centre of trade for Jamaica. The government sold land to people with the regulation that they would purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, and only land on the sea front. Gradually wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands to the north on the plains of Liguanea.

The first free school, Wolmer's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first one in Harbour Street and then moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston. It was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in close proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, and the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, and the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, which was by then eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.

At the end of the 18th century, more than 3000 brick buildings were in the city. The harbour fostered trade and naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town (the capital at the time). These functions included, agriculture, commercial, processing, and a main transportation hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island.

The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, and in 1872 the capital was transferred from Spanish Town to Kingston. It kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962.

In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city. That was when a restriction of no more than 60 feet was instated on buildings in the central business district. These three story high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code.

During the 1930s, island wide riots lead to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers.

The city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948 with 24 medical students.

It wasn’t till the 1960s that major change occurred in the redevelopment of Kingston’s central business district. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Downtown Kingston water front area.

These developments lead to an influx of shops and offices, and the development of a new financial center: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section.

In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games.

The westward section of the city was not the focus of development, and that area proved to be a tense area in political times. The 1970s then saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a drop off in tourism which later affected the island.

In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party (PNP) government was outvoted. The subsequent governments have been open market oriented since the 1980s. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernize and develop its city structure and functions. Various organizations such as The Kingston Restoration Company, the Urban Development Corporation (UDC) and the Port Authority of Jamaica, along with the Port Royal Development Company, among others sought to develop the urban structure of the city.

Modern development

Today, the city of Kingston sees that the original waterfront area along Harbour Street, once redolent with the aromas of colonial West Indian trade in rums and spices, has been re-developed and shipping has moved out to Newport West, adjacent to the extensive Kingston Industrial Estate.

A great deal of Kingston is pure shanty town, but again one sees striking contrasts, especially in New Kingston, situated between the teeming downtown and mid town areas and the fading but still gracious suburbs of St. Andrew.

The city’s wealthy is situated in the suburbs to the northern section of Kingston, closer to the hills and Mountains of the Blue Mountains range. The functions of the wealthy are met with in the New Kingston, Manor Park and Barbican / Liguanea areas, thus the downtown is now used mostly used by the low-income population.

New Kingston is a business area which embodies the best of modern tropical town planning, graciously combining high rise buildings and well-groomed gardens with the soaring Blue Mountains as a backdrop.

Demographics

The majority of the population is of African heritage. East Indians are the second largest racial group, followed by Chinese, White, Arab (primarily Lebanese). A small number of Hispanics, mostly from Latin America, also reside in the city.

Religion

There are a wide variety of Christian churches in the city. Most are Protestant, a legacy of British colonization of the island. The chief denominations are Church of God, Baptist, Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, and Pentecostal. Afro-Christian syncretic religions are also widespread.

There is a Jewish synagogue in the city as well as a large number of Buddhists and Muslims.

Geography

Kingston is surrounded by the Blue Mountains, Red Hills, Long Mountain and the Kingston Harbour. The city is sited on the Liguanea Plain, an alluvial plain located next to the Hope River. Kingston experiences frequent earthquakes, including the 1907 earthquake.

Climate

Kingston has a tropical climate, characterized by a wet season from May to November, which coincides with the hurricane season, and a dry season from December to April. During the dry season, there is not much rainfall, however, cold and stationary fronts occur at this time, and often bring heavy showers, especially in March. Kingston is located in the rain shadow of the Blue Mountains, therefore, little to none of the moisture the Northeast Trade Winds carry falls over Kingston, causing Kingston to be very dry in comparison to Portland and Saint Mary on the windward side of the Blue Mountains. Kingston is on a coastal location, hence it comes under the influence of the sea, though dense urban development can negate this effect. In the 21st century, Kingston has experienced temperatures as high as 34°C (93.2°F) and temperatures as low as 25°C (77°F). Between 1895 and 1990, the total average rainfall was recorded at 909.7 mm (35.8 inches), the highest monthly average rainfall recorded in October at 181.1 mm (7.1 inches), and the lowest monthly average rainfall recorded in March at 22.7 mm (0.9 inches).

Neighbourhoods and Districts

  • Six Miles
  • New Haven
  • Duhaney Park
  • Patrick Gardens
  • Pembroke Hall
  • Washington Gardens
  • Olympic Gardens
  • Constant Spring
  • Liguanea
  • Beverly Hills
  • Cross Roads
  • Molynes Gardens
  • Three Mile
  • Four Mile
  • Havendale
  • Port Royal

  • Maverly
  • Jews Land
  • Boulevard
  • Cocksucker Gardens
  • Waterhouse
  • Newport West
  • Delacree Park
  • Trench Town
  • Whitfield Town
  • Greenwich Town
  • Hannah Town, West Kingston
  • Jones Town
  • New Kingston
  • Kencot
  • Richmond Park
  • Vineyard Town
  • Mountain View Gardens
  • Meadowbrook
  • Eastwood Park
  • Seaview Gardens

  • Grants Pen
  • Barbican
  • Cherry Gardens
  • Jack's Hill
  • Norbrook
  • Mannings Hill
  • Red Hills
  • Hope Pastures
  • Mona Heights
  • Beverly Hills
  • Rollington Town
  • Bournemouth Gardens
  • Norman Gardens
  • Harbour View
  • Denham Town
  • Maxfield
  • Cassava Piece
  • Hughenden
  • Bull Bay
  • Shooters Hill

Law

The Jamaica Constabulary Force, Jamaica's police force, is based on Old Hope Road near Liguanea. Smaller police stations, such as Hunt's Bay, Matilda's Corner and Half-Way-Tree, are dispersed across the Corporate Area. The Supreme Court of Jamaica is also located in Kingston. Other courts, such as the Half-Way-Tree Resident Magistrate's Court, Gun Court, Traffic Court and Family Court, make Kingston their home. The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) has its headquarters at Up Park Camp near New Kingston and Cross Roads. The JDF also operates a major naval base at Port Royal.

Crime

Jamaica has one of the highest murder rates in the world. Every year since 2000 Jamaica has reached over 1000 murders, in which 2005 murder count was 1,674 the highest ever recorded. Almost 46% of murders that occur in Jamaica happen within Kingston, which 95% almost always occur in the depressed garrison neighbourhoods of Downtown Kingston.

Media and Communications

The Gleaner Company, the Jamaica Observer and the Sunday Herald, three of Jamaica's large newspaper companies, make their home in Kingston. Several television and radio stations including Television Jamaica (TVJ), CVM TV, RJR 94 FM, Hitz 92 FM, FAME 95 FM, LOVE TV, ZIP 103, Kool 97 FM and LOVE FM, are all based in Kingston. Kingston generally has an adequate telecommunications service, administered by either Cable and Wireless or Flow Jamaica. Cellular phone service is also very strong in Kingston, especially since Cable & Wireless, Digicel and MiPhone, Jamaica’s three cellular providers, are all based in the city.

Services

Kingston, as the capital, is the financial, cultural, economic and industrial centre of Jamaica. Many financial institutions are based in Kingston, and the city boasts the largest number of hospitals, schools and cultural attractions of any urban area on the island.

Hospitals

  • Kingston Public Hospital
  • Victoria Jubilee Hospital
  • National Chest Hospital
  • University Hospital of the West Indies
  • Bustamante Hospital for Children
  • Medical Associates Hospital
  • St. Joseph's Hospital
  • Andrews Memorial Hospital
  • Bellevue Hospital
  • Sir John Golding Rehabilitation Centre
  • Nuttall Memorial Hospital
  • Maxfield Park Medical Centre
  • St. Ann's Bay Public General Hospital
  • Port Maria Hospital
  • Annotto Bay Hospital
  • Port Antonio Hospital
  • Buff Bay Community Hospital
  • Alexandria Community Hospital

Secondary Schools

Co-educational

  • Tivoli Gardens High School
  • Denham Town High School
  • Excelsior High
  • Ardenne High School
  • Campion College, Jamaica
  • Mona High School
  • Tarrant High School
  • Clan Carthy High School
  • The Priory School
  • Kingston Technical High School
  • St. Andrew Technical High School
  • Donald Quarrie Technical High School
  • Papine High School
  • Lister Mair-Gilby High School (for the deaf)
  • Hillel Academy
  • Meadowbrook High School
  • Trench Town High School
  • Camperdown High School
  • St. Jago High School
  • Jonathan Grant High School
  • St. Catherine High School

All-boys

  • Kingston College
  • Calabar High School
  • Jamaica College
  • Wolmer's Boys School
  • St. George's College (now with a co-ed Sixth Form)

All-girls

  • The Queen's School for Girls
  • Wolmer's Girls School
  • Immaculate Conception High School for Girls
  • St. Andrew High School for Girls
  • St. Hugh's High School for Girls
  • Merl Grove High School for Girls
  • Holy Childhood High School for Girls
  • Convent Of Mercy Academy, Alpha

  Marymount high school
  St.Hildas High School

Tertiary Institutions

Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates

Notable residents

The following people were born, live, or have lived in Kingston:

Sister cities

Kingston has five sister cities:

Attractions and landmarks

References

External links

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