There are eleven variants of the Kimbundu language: Ngola, Dembo, Jinga, Bondo, Bângala, Songo, Ibaco, Luanda, Quibala, Libolo and Quissama.
During the Portuguese colonial period, a 1919 decree banned the use of local languages in schools and made Portuguese obligatory. This heavily reduced the use of Kimbundu amongst educated and urban populations in favour of Portuguese.
Since the 1960s, Ambundu populations which had emigrated from rural to urban areas in the west of Angola, notably Luanda and Malanje, have helped to produce a mix of Kimbudu and Portuguese that they call Ambaca. In order to distinguish themselves from the rural Mbundu populations, they also refer to themselves as Ambundu or Akwaluanda.
Kimbundu uses the relatively shallow orthography standardized by the MPLA for use in all Angolan national languages. Important differences from the Portuguese-based orthography used by the colonizers include the omission of the consonant "r" (as there is no [r] in Kimbundu) and the rules governing vowel orthography (diphthongs are not allowed and vowels are thus changed to "w" or "y" depending on the environment). It has 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u), the u also having the function of a semi-vowel. Certain consonants are represented by two letters, such as mb in mbambi (gazelle), or nj in njila (bird).
Some Kimbundu words were influential to Romance languages like Portuguese, with words like banjo (supposedly from mbanza), bwe, baza, kuatu, kamba, arimo, mleke, quilombo (from kilombo), Quimbanda, tanga, xinga, bunda, etc.
Entertainment industry's emphasis on women's rear ends raises eyebrows. (Originated from Knight-Ridder Newspapers)
Aug 25, 1993; Rear ends. Going down the street, enclosed in tight jeans or skirts, Spandex workout gear or biker shorts, or short short denim...