Definitions

Kickapoo

Kickapoo

[kik-uh-poo]
Kickapoo, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages) and who in the late 17th cent. occupied SW Wisconsin. They were closely related to the Sac and Fox. The culture of the Kickapoo was essentially that of the Eastern Woodlands area, but they also hunted buffalo, one of the few traits that the Kickapoo adopted from their neighbors in the Plains area. After the allied Kickapoo, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Sac and Fox tribes massacred (c.1769) the Illinois, they partitioned the Illinois territory. The Kickapoo, numbering about 3,000, moved south to central Illinois. Later they split in two; the Vermilion group settled on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Wabash, and the Prairie group on the Sangamon River. The Kickapoo, a power in the region, sided with the British in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812, when they aided the Shawnee chief Tecumseh. By the Treaty of Edwardsville (1819) the Kickapoo ceded all their lands in Illinois to the United States. They were prevented from entering Missouri, which had been set aside for them, because that region was occupied by the hostile Osage. Kanakuk, a prophet, exhorted the Kickapoo to remain where they were, promising that if they avoided liquor and infractions of the white man's law, they would inherit a land of plenty. His pleas were futile, and the Kickapoo, after aiding the Sac and Fox in the Black Hawk War, were forced to leave Illinois. The Kickapoo moved first to Missouri and then to Kansas. A large group, dissatisfied with conditions on the reservation, went (c.1852) first to Texas and then to Mexico, where they became known as the Mexican Kickapoo. After the U.S. Civil War, the Mexican Kickapoo proved so constant an annoyance to border settlements that the United States made efforts to induce them to return. The negotiations were successful, and a number returned to settle (1873-74) on reservations in Texas and Oklahoma. The remaining Mexican Kickapoo are settled on a reservation in Chihuahua, Mexico. There is also a Kickapoo reservation in Kansas. In 1990 there were 3,500 Kickapoo in the United States.

See R. E. Ritzenthaler, The Mexican Kickapoo Indians (1956, repr. 1970); A. M. Gibson, The Kickapoos (1963).

North American Indian people related to the Sauk and Fox and living in the U.S. states of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas and in northern Mexico. The name is a variant of the Algonquin word kiwegapawa, meaning “he stands about” or “he moves about.” Their language is of the Algonquian family. Before colonization, they inhabited what is now south-central Wisconsin, U.S. The Kickapoo were formidable warriors, whose raids took them as far as the southern and northeastern U.S. About 1765, after dispatching the Illinois Indians, the Kickapoo settled near Peoria, Ill. They later moved to the central and southern Plains under pressure from advancing settlers. By the 19th century, Kickapoo tribal organization had adapted to new conditions that favoured autonomous chiefs for each band rather than a centralized tribal authority. The Kickapoo resisted acculturation and sought to retain their old ways. Kickapoo descendants in the U.S. numbered more than 5,000 in the early 21st century.

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The Kickapoos (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are one of the Algonquian speaking Native American tribes. According to the Anishinaabeg, the name "Kickapoo" (Giiwigaabaw in the Anishinaabe language and its Kickapoo cognate Kiwikapawa) means "Stands Here and there" and refers to the tribes migratory patterns. This interpretation is contested and generally believed to be a folk etymology.

There are three recognized Kickapoo tribes remaining in the United States: the Kickapoo of Kansas, the Kickapoo of Oklahoma, and the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas. There is another band in the Mexican state of Coahuila. There is also a large group in Arizona. Thus far the former two groups have been politically lumped with the Texas band. Additionally, Kickapoos live in small groups throughout the western United States. Around 3,000 people claim to be tribal members.

Language

Kickapoo speak an Algonquian language closely related to that of the  Sauk and Fox. 

Reservations

There are three Kickapoo reservations, one in Kansas, one in Texas, and the other in Oklahoma.

Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Kansas

The Kickapoo Indian Reservation is located in the northeastern part of the state in parts of three counties, Jackson, Brown, and Atchison. It has a land area of 612.203 km² (236.373 sq mi) and a resident population of 4,419 as of the 2000 census. The largest community on the reservation is the city of Horton. The other communities are:

Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Texas

The Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Texas is located on the Rio Grande River on the U.S.-Mexico border in western Maverick County, just south of the city of Eagle Pass, as part of the community of Rosita South. It has a land area of 0.4799 km² (118.6 acres) and a 2000 census population of 420 persons. The Texas Indian Commission officially recognized the tribe in 1977.

There are undetermined numbers of other Kickapoo in Maverick County, Texas, who constitute the South Texas Subgroup of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma. That tribe owns of non-reservation land in Maverick County, primarily to the north of Eagle Pass, and it has an office in that city.

Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Oklahoma

References

External links

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