Definitions

Khomeini

Khomeini

[khoh-mey-nee, khoo-; Pers. khaw-mey-nee]
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 1900-1989, Iranian Shiite religious leader. Educated in Islam at home and in theological schools, in the 1950s he was designated ayatollah, a supreme religious leader, in the Iranian Shiite community. Khomeini's criticisms of Reza Shah Pahlevi led to his exile in 1964. Settling in Iraq, Khomeini continued his outspoken denunciations, developing a strong religious and political following abroad, until forced to leave (1978) by Saddam Hussein; he then moved to France. Following the revolution that deposed Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi, Khomeini returned triumphantly to Iran in 1979, declared an Islamic republic, and began to exercise ultimate authority in the nation. His conservative ideology opposed pro-Western tendencies. Khomeini's rule was marked by the Iran hostage crisis and the Iran-Iraq War.

See biography by B. Moin (2000).

orig. Ruhollah Musavi

(born May 17, 1900?, Khomeyn, Iran—died June 3, 1989, Tehrān) Shīaynite cleric and leader of Iran (1979–89). He received a traditional religious education and settled in Qom circa 1922, where he became a Shīaynite scholar of some repute and an outspoken opponent first of Iran's ruler, Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1926–41), and then of his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1941–79). Popularly recognized as a grand ayatollah in the early 1960s, he was imprisoned and then exiled (1964) for his criticism of the government. He settled first in Iraq—where he taught at the shrine city of Al-Najaf for some years—and then, in 1978, near Paris, where he continued to speak out against the shah. During that time he also refined his theory of velāyat-e faqīh (“government of the jurist”), in which the Shīaynite clergy—traditionally politically quiescent in Iran—would govern the state. Iranian unrest increased until the shah fled in 1979; Khomeini returned shortly thereafter and was eventually named Iran's political and religious leader (rahbar). He ruled over a system in which the clergy dominated the government, and his foreign policies were both anti-Western and anticommunist. During the first year of his leadership, Iranian militants seized the U.S. embassy in Tehrān—greatly exacerbating tensions with the U.S.—and the devastating Iran-Iraq War (1980–90) began.

Learn more about Khomeini, Ruhollah with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Ruhollah Musavi

(born May 17, 1900?, Khomeyn, Iran—died June 3, 1989, Tehrān) Shīaynite cleric and leader of Iran (1979–89). He received a traditional religious education and settled in Qom circa 1922, where he became a Shīaynite scholar of some repute and an outspoken opponent first of Iran's ruler, Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1926–41), and then of his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1941–79). Popularly recognized as a grand ayatollah in the early 1960s, he was imprisoned and then exiled (1964) for his criticism of the government. He settled first in Iraq—where he taught at the shrine city of Al-Najaf for some years—and then, in 1978, near Paris, where he continued to speak out against the shah. During that time he also refined his theory of velāyat-e faqīh (“government of the jurist”), in which the Shīaynite clergy—traditionally politically quiescent in Iran—would govern the state. Iranian unrest increased until the shah fled in 1979; Khomeini returned shortly thereafter and was eventually named Iran's political and religious leader (rahbar). He ruled over a system in which the clergy dominated the government, and his foreign policies were both anti-Western and anticommunist. During the first year of his leadership, Iranian militants seized the U.S. embassy in Tehrān—greatly exacerbating tensions with the U.S.—and the devastating Iran-Iraq War (1980–90) began.

Learn more about Khomeini, Ruhollah with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Khomeini-shahr (also written Khomeini Shahr, Khomeinishahr, Khomeyni-shahr, Khomeyni Shahr, Khomeynishahr, Persian: خمینی شہر) is a town near Esfahan city in Iran. It had a population of over 287,285 in 2006 and is now a part of Esfahan Metropolitan area.

The town was originally known as Sedeh. In the 1930s, the name was changed to Homayun-shahr. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the city was renamed again to Khomeini-shahr. Locals have continued to refer to the city as Sedeh.

It is commonly believed that the original name, Sedeh (Persian: سده), is derived from Seh-degh, meaning "three castle" in Persian, and is linked to formation of the formation of the town by the growth of three neighbouring castles The three main castles of kohan degh, gar degh, and .... degh (degh means castle (دژ)locally pronounced kohan degh, gar dar)

It is commonly believed that seh degh was sasanian kings foot soldier base
it is an old fire place (atash gah) based on top of the mountain close of khomeini shahr(sedeh) . The three main village of Khouzan, Foroushan (the origin of foroushan was Parishan(pari(angel)+ voshan(face))), and Varnosfaderan (locally pronounced Khizoon, Perishoon(Foroushon), Venesfohoon) remain identifiable parts of the city.

However, there are in fact 5 former villages forming identifiable parts of the town. This has led to arguments that the name may have some other derivation such as a link to the ancient Persian festival of Sadeh.

The change to Homayun-shahr, took place during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi. The name literally means "auspicious or august city", but Homayun was also a title of the Shah and so the name was seen as being linked with the Pahlavi dynasty. Thus, after the revolution of 1979 the city was renamed again, this time to be called after Ayatollah Khomeini, the founder of the revolution.

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