The keyed trumpet is a brass instrument that, contrary to the traditional valved trumpet, uses keys. The keyed trumpet is rarely seen in modern performances, but was relatively common up until the introduction of the valved trumpet in the early nineteenth century. Previous to the invention of the keyed trumpet, the prominent trumpet of the time was the natural trumpet.
This is a trumpet with holes in the wall of the tube that are closed by keys. The experimental Eb keyed trumpet was not confined to the natural notes, but was chromatic in all registers of the instrument. (Geiringer 1892: 324 - 325) Before this, the trumpet was commonly valveless and could only play a limited range of “harmonic” notes by altering lip pressure. These harmonic notes were clustered in the high registers, so previous trumpet concertos could only play melodies at very high pitches.
There is also some discrepancy over who created the Eb keyed trumpet, as it is claimed that “the Viennese court trumpeter, Anton Weidinger invented the keyed trumpet.” (1967: 75) though elsewhere it is insisted that although “the invention of the keyed trumpet has been ascribed to the Viennese, Anton Weidinger, who is said to have constructed it in 1801,” “the instrument itself is older than that, as Haydn's concerto was written five years earlier.” (1892: 324 and 325)
Due to its physical characteristics (bore, bell, historical mouthpiece) the Keyed Trumpet is closer in tone to the Natural Trumpet than the valved trumpet. It was once said to have sounded like a "Demented Oboe". “Despite Haydn's efforts, the keyed trumpet had no real success- the explanation may be that the holes detracted greatly from the brilliant tone of the instrument.”(Geiringer 1892: 324 and 325)
J. Haydn - trumpet concerto
In 1796 Joseph Haydn wrote his Trumpet Concerto for Anton Weidinger and it was performed on 22nd of March 1800 at the Imperial and Royal Court Theatre. The piece begins with the broken triads and fanfare motifs common to trumpet music of the time (perhaps as a jibe to the audience who had come to see this exciting new kind of trumpet), but follows with chromatic runs and diatonic melodies not possible on the valveless natural trumpet.
The highest note in the Haydn trumpet concerto is high concert D♭, or high E♭ on a B♭ trumpet, or a high B♭ on E♭ trumpet for which it was written.
J. N. Hummel - trumpet concerto
Like Haydn, Johann Nepomuk Hummel wrote his Trumpet Concerto for Anton Weidinger. It was written and performed in 1803 to mark his entrance into the Esterházy court orchestra in 1804, following Haydn. There are places, primarily in the second movement, where Weidinger is believed to have changed the music because of the execution of the instrument. It is unknown whether this was in agreement with Hummel.