Kennedy, Anthony McLeod, 1936-, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1988-), b. Sacramento, Calif. He graduated from Stanford (1958) and Harvard Law School (1961). For many years (1965-88) he taught at the McGeorge School of Law at the Univ. of the Pacific. He was named to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1975. In 1988, after the highly contested and unsuccessful nominations of Robert Bork and Douglas Ginsburg, President Reagan nominated Kennedy to the U.S. Supreme Court, replacing Lewis F. Powell. On the court, Kennedy has demonstrated a fairly conservative voting pattern, but by the mid-1990s he had come to be regarded as part of a centrist bloc with Sandra Day O'Connor and David Souter. Further changes in the court's composition by 2007 made Kennedy the main swing voter on the court. He also has come to be noted for advocating the consideration of foreign and international law and legal decisions when deciding U.S. constitutional issues.

See F. J. Colucci, Justice Kennedy's Jurisprudence (2009).

Kennedy, Charles Rann, 1871-1950, Anglo-American dramatist, b. Derby, England. He became a U.S. citizen in 1917. His plays, concerned with moral problems, include The Servant in the House (1908) and The Terrible Meek (1912).
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1917-63, 35th President of the United States (1961-63), b. Brookline, Mass.; son of Joseph P. Kennedy.

Early Life

While an undergraduate at Harvard (1936-40) he served briefly in London as secretary to his father, who was ambassador there. His Harvard honors thesis on the British failure to judge the threat of Nazi Germany was published as Why England Slept (1940). Enlisting in the navy in Sept., 1941, he became commander of a PT boat in the Pacific in World War II. In action off the Solomon Islands (Aug., 1943), his boat, PT 109, was sunk, and Kennedy was credited with saving the life of at least one of his crew.

Congressional Career

As a Congressman from Massachusetts (1947-53), Jack Kennedy consistently supported the domestic programs of the Truman administration but criticized its China policy. In 1952, despite the Eisenhower landslide, he defeated Henry Cabot Lodge for a seat in the U.S. Senate, where he served on the Labor and Public Welfare and Foreign Relations committees. In 1953, Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (see Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy). While recuperating in 1955 from an operation to repair a spinal problem, one of the many serious and often extremely painful illnesses that plagued him from childhood until his death, he wrote Profiles in Courage (1956). The book dealt with American political leaders who defied public opinion to vote according to their consciences; for this work (later revealed to have been written in part by Theodore Sorensen and others) he received the Pulitzer Prize. Although Kennedy narrowly lost the Democratic vice presidential nomination in 1956, his overwhelming reelection as Senator in 1958 helped him toward the goal of presidential candidacy.


In 1960 he entered and won seven presidential primaries and captured the Democratic nomination on the first ballot. To balance the ticket, he selected Lyndon B. Johnson as his vice presidential candidate. In the campaign that followed, Kennedy engaged in a series of televised debates with his Republican opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Defeating Nixon by a narrow popular margin, Kennedy became at 43 the youngest person ever, and the first Catholic, elected President.

Soon after his inaugural, Kennedy set out his domestic program, known as the New Frontier: tax reform, federal aid to education, medical care for the aged under Social Security, enlargement of civil rights through executive action, aid to depressed areas, and an accelerated space program. He was almost immediately, however, caught up in foreign affairs crises. The first (Apr., 1961) was the abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles trained and aided by the Central Intelligence Agency. Although the invasion had been planned under Eisenhower, Kennedy had approved it, and was widely criticized.

In June, 1961, the President met in Vienna with Soviet Premier Khrushchev. Hopes of a thaw in the cold war were dashed by Khrushchev's threat that the USSR would conclude a peace treaty with East Germany and thus cut off Western access to West Berlin. In the period of tension that followed, the United States increased its military strength while the East Germans erected the Berlin Wall.

In Oct., 1962, U.S. reconnaissance planes discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Kennedy immediately ordered a blockade to prevent more weapons from reaching Cuba and demanded the installations' removal. After an interval of extreme tension when the world appeared to be on the brink of nuclear war, the USSR complied with U.S. demands. Kennedy won much praise for his stance in the crisis, but some have criticized him for what they held to be unnecessary "brinkmanship." In Aug., 1963, tension with the USSR was eased by conclusion of a treaty that prohibited the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.

In Southeast Asia the Kennedy administration perceived a growing Communist threat to the South Vietnamese government; it steadily increased the number of U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam and for the first time placed U.S. troops in combat situations. As disaffection in South Vietnam grew, moreover, the United States involved itself in political maneuvering and finally connived at the overthrow (Oct., 1963) of the corrupt South Vietnamese dictator, Ngo Dinh Diem (see Vietnam War). Within the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy established (1961) the Alliance for Progress, which provided economic assistance to Latin American countries. He also initiated the Peace Corps program, which sent U.S. volunteers to work in developing countries.

Many of Kennedy's domestic reform proposals were either killed or not acted on by Congress. In the area of civil rights and integration the administration assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Ride demonstrations and used federal troops in Mississippi (1962) and a federalized National Guard in Alabama (1963) to quell disturbances resulting from enforced school desegregation. In June, 1963, Kennedy proposed civil-rights legislation, but this, like his tax reform program, languished until after his death.


On Nov. 22, 1963, President Kennedy was shot and killed while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Tex. The Warren Commission, appointed by his successor Lyndon Johnson to investigate the murder, eventually concluded that it was the work of a single assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. Kennedy's death shocked the nation. Many felt that he would have gone on to achieve greatness as a President. Subsequent revelations, especially concerning his sexual activity, have somewhat dimmed his luster, but the sense that his administration was a youthful, idealistic "Camelot" remains powerful. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


See biographies by V. Lasky (1963), R. Caro (1982), T. Sorenson (1988), G. Perret (2001), and R. Dallek (2003); T. H. White, The Making of the President, 1960 (1961); A. M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days (1965); H. S. Parmet, JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1983); R. Reeves, President Kennedy: Profile of Power (1993); S. Hersh, The Dark Side of Camelot (1997); E. R. May, The Kennedy Tapes (1997); B. Leaming, Jack Kennedy: The Education of a Statesman (2007).

Kennedy, Joseph Patrick, 1888-1969, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain (1937-40), b. Boston, grad. Harvard, 1912, father of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, Edward M. Kennedy, and Eunice Kennedy ShrivrEunc (see separate entries). He engaged in banking, shipbuilding, investment banking, and motion-picture distribution before he served (1934-35) as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. He was (1936-37) head of the U.S. Maritime Commission until his appointment as ambassador. In London he supported the overtures of the Chamberlain government to Hitler and was generally noninterventionist. He resigned as ambassador in Nov., 1940. In his later years he continued to be successful in business (notably real estate) and devoted considerable time to philanthropic activities, especially the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., Memorial Foundation, dedicated to his eldest son, who died in World War II. He wrote I'm for Roosevelt (1936).

Kennedy's wife, Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, 1890-1995, was the daughter of U.S. congressman and Boston mayor John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald. They had nine children.

See A. Smith, ed., Hostage to Fortune: The Letters of Joseph P. Kennedy (2000); J. F. Dinneen, The Kennedy Family (1960); D. K. Goodwin, The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (1987); C. Beauchamp, Joseph P. Kennedy Presents: His Hollywood Years (2009); and biographies by R. J. Whalen (1964) and D. E. Koskoff (1974).

Kennedy, Nigel, 1956-, British violinist. He studied with Dorothy DeLay at the Julliard School, New York City, and debuted as a soloist with the London Philharmonic in 1977. Adept at the classical repertoire, he developed an interest in jazz as a student, introducing it into his concerts in the late 1980s. The young virtuoso gained wide attention for his superb technique and tone and his spontaneously adventurous playing style. Kennedy also became known (and often criticized) for his rock star-like stage persona—spiky hair, eccentric clothing, and jewelry. His fame soared upon the release of his lively version of Vivaldi's Four Seasons (1989). After a hiatus (1992-97), he resumed performing, and in 1998 he became known simply as "Kennedy."
Kennedy, Robert Francis, 1925-68, American politician, U.S. Attorney General (1961-64), b. Brookline, Mass., younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and son of Joseph P. Kennedy.

A graduate of Harvard (1948) and the Univ. of Virginia law school (1951), Bobby Kennedy managed his brother John's successful campaign for the U.S. Senate in 1952. From 1953 to 1956 he was counsel to the Senate subcommittee chaired by Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy. He then became (1957) chief counsel to the subcommittee investigating labor rackets and there gained a reputation for toughness by exposing corruption in the Teamsters Union. In 1960 he was manager of his brother's presidential campaign. His inclusion in President Kennedy's cabinet gave rise to charges of nepotism, but he proved a vigorous attorney general, especially in prosecuting civil rights cases. He was also his brother's closest adviser.

After John Kennedy's assassination, Robert Kennedy continued for a time in President Lyndon Johnson's cabinet, but in 1964 he resigned to run for election as Senator from New York. Despite criticism that he was a "carpetbagger," he succeeded. In the Senate he was a vigorous advocate of social reform and became identified particularly as a spokesman for the rights of minorities. Although Kennedy had supported his brother's intensification of American aid to the South Vietnamese government, he became increasingly critical of Johnson's escalation of the Vietnam War and by 1968 was advocating that the Viet Cong be included in a South Vietnamese coalition government.

Urged to run for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968, Kennedy appeared reluctant until Sen. Eugene McCarthy's showing in the New Hampshire Democratic primary convinced him that a challenge to Johnson could be successful. Kennedy announced his candidacy on Mar. 16, 1968. Although Johnson withdrew (Mar. 31) from the race, the administration's standard passed to Vice President Hubert Humphrey, while Senator McCarthy retained the support of many opponents of the Vietnam War, who accused Kennedy of opportunism.

Kennedy conducted an energetic campaign and won a series of primary victories, culminating in California on June 4. At the end of that day he gave a victory speech in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and while leaving was shot. He died a day later (June 6, 1968). The gunman, Sirhan B. Sirhan, was captured at the scene and later convicted of murder. Like his brother John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. He wrote The Enemy Within (1960), Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (1969), and To Seek a Newer World (1969).


See P. Kimball, Bobby Kennedy and the New Politics (1968); D. Halberstam, The Unfinished Odyssey of Robert Kennedy (1968); D. Ross, ed., Robert Kennedy: Apostle of Change (1968); J. Newfield, Robert Kennedy: A Memoir (1969); J. Witcover, Eighty-Five Days (1969); V. Navasky, Kennedy Justice (1971); M. K. Beran, The Last Patrician (1998); R. Steel, In Love with Night: The American Romance with Robert Kennedy (1999); E. Thomas, Robert Kennedy: His Life (2000). See also E. O. Guthman and J. Shulman, Robert Kennedy: In His Own Words (1988).

Kennedy, Ted (Edward Moore Kennedy), 1932-2009, U.S. senator from Massachusetts (1962-2009), b. Boston, Mass., youngest son of Joseph P. Kennedy and the last survivor of brothers Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Robert F. Kennedy. A graduate of Harvard (1956) and the Univ. of Virginia Law School (1959), he served (1961-62) as an assistant district attorney in Massachusetts before being elected (1962) as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate. After the assassination of his brother Robert in 1968, he became the acknowledged leader of Senate liberals and served (1969-71) as assistant majority leader. His political future was clouded by the Chappaquiddick incident (July, 1969), in which Mary Jo Kopechne, a passenger in a car he was driving on an island near Martha's Vineyard, Mass., drowned when the car ran off a bridge. Kennedy's reputation recovered, however, and he became one of the legislature's most effective members. He spearheaded the passage of civil rights legislation and a host of other bills and advocated such programs as national health insurance and tax reform. He was long considered a potential Democratic president, but withdrew in 1974 from the 1976 race and failed in a 1980 primary challenge to President Jimmy Carter. He chaired the Senate judiciary (1979-81), labor and human resources (1987-95), and health, education, labor, and pensions (2001-3, 2007-9) committees. Kennedy was the author of Decisions for a Decade (1968), In Critical Condition (1972), and the posthumously published memoir True Compass (2009).

See biographies by W. H. Honan (1972) and A. Clymer (1999); studies by J. M. Burns (1976) and R. Sherrill (1976); B. Hersh, The Education of Edward Kennedy (1972) and The Shadow President (1997).

Kennedy, William, 1928-, American novelist, b. Albany, N.Y., grad. Siena College, 1949. Brought up in Albany, he worked as a journalist from 1949 to 1970, and began to concentrate on writing fiction in the early 1960s. In evocative prose, with vivid characterizations and acutely observed dialog, Kennedy's novels mingle history with myth, politics with the personal, and lyricism with squalor. His work is inextricably bound up with his hometown, which has provided rich subject matter for most of his fiction, including his best-known novel, Ironweed (1983; National Book Award, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1987), the tale of an alcoholic former major-league pitcher who ekes out an existence in the city's skid-row district in the 1930s. Kennedy's other Albany cycle novels are The Ink Truck (1969), Legs (1975), Billy Phelan's Greatest Game (1978), Quinn's Book (1988), The Flaming Corsage (1996), and Roscoe (2001). He has also written other novels, essays, some of which were collected in O Albany! (1983) and Riding the Yellow Trolley Car (1993), as well as a play, screenplays, and children's books. Kennedy has taught at the State Univ. of New York at Albany since 1973.
Kennedy, Mount, 13,095 ft (3,991 m) high, SW Yukon, Canada, in the St. Elias Mts. near the Alaskan border. It was named in honor of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1965. Although visited in 1935, the mountain was climbed for the first time in 1965 by a team that included Robert F. Kennedy, the President's brother.
John-F.-Kennedy-Platz (John F. Kennedy Square), formerly Rudolph-Wilde-Platz, in Berlin-Schöneberg contains the former city hall of West Berlin (Rathaus Schöneberg). It was the square in which US President John F. Kennedy gave his famous speech to the Berliners, in which he stated: "Ich bin ein Berliner".

Text, Audio, Video of Kennedy's Berlin Speech

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