(Каштан) (Chestnut) Close-in weapon system
(CIWS) is a modern naval air defence weapon deployed by the Russian Navy
It is found on the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Kirov class battlecruisers, Neustrashimy class frigates and other modern designs. Most typically deployed as a combined gun and missile system, it provides defence against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles and guided bombs. The system can also be employed against fixed or rotary wing aircraft or even surface vessels such as fast attack boats or targets on shore.
The weapon is a modular system comprising a command module and typically 2 combat modules, although the number can be as many as 8 in the case of Admiral Kuznetsov
or the Indian Vikramaditya
. The command module detects and tracks threats, distributes targeting data to the combat modules, and interrogates IFF of approaching threats. The command module has a 3-D target detection radar, and an all weather multi-band integrated control system. Depending on the number of installed combat modules, the system can engage multiple targets simultaneously.
The combat modules automatically track using either radar or optronic control system, and then engages targets with missiles and guns. The combat modules are typically made up of two GSh-30k (AO-18K) six barrelled 30mm gatling guns, fed by a link-less feeding mechanism, and two SA-N-11 launchers equipped with 4 ready-to-fire missiles each and fed by a reloading system storing 24 missiles in ready-to-launch containers.
The combination of the missiles and guns, provides more comprehensive protection when compared to other CIWS utilizing either missiles or guns only. The effective range of the missiles is 1500 – 10,000 meters up to an altitude of 6,000 m. The engagement range of the guns is 500 – 4,000 m, up to an altitude of 3,000 m. The guns have a combined rate of fire around 10,000 rpm, and the reloading time for a group of 4 missiles is 90 seconds.
- Target altitude from 5 m to 4,000 m
- Maximum target speed: 600 m/s
- Number of targets engaged simultaneously: up to 6
- Rate of fire: 10,000 ... 12,000 rds/min
- Cartridge types: 30 mm with HE-Frag and Frag-T projectiles
- Weight: (turret only, naval versions)
- Kashtan: 15,500 kg with ammunition and control systems
- Palash / Palma: 6,900 kg kg with ammunition and control systems
In the 1990's, a modified version of Kashtan was developed for the export market. This system is similar to Kashtan except that in addition to the SACLOS
guided missile such as the SA-N-11
, infrared guided missile can also be used, such as the FIM-92 Stinger
, SA-18 Grouse
, and Mistral missile
. Depends on the different types of missiles used, the system can be called as either Palash
, or Palma
. However, there is no known export success yet.