Kalmati

Kalmati

Kalmati is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan.

History

The Kalmati (Kalmathi) is a Baloch tribe of they use as Kalmati Baloch for their identification. This tribe belongs the son of Mir Jalalan and Mir Hoath. When Hoath tribe ruling on Kech Makran on that time some Kalmati people settled themselves in Kalmat Bandar (Kalmat Port) is situated near to Pasni Port coastal area of Balochistan. In about 12th Century, the Kalmati as proved their identification from Tehs Banadar (Tehs Port Western Part of Balochistan) to Shah Bandar (Shah Port) Sindh. Today the Kalmati tribe live in Chah Bahar (Iran),Dasht,Palliree, Jiwani, Baho, Dashtiyari, Gwadar, Pasni, Hub besides in Sindh province such as Malir, Gadap Town and Lyari (Karachi), Matyari, Tando Adam, Hyderabad and Thatta.The Kalmati tribe settled in Karachi has it own fame and identification because they are well settled then other tribes of Baloch nation. Kalmati as engaged by profession in cultivation, own business and better education comparing to other Baloch tribes. The famous graveyard called “Chokandi” (Quoted from” A Study of Stone Craved Graves” written by Kaleem Lashari) situated in Gadap Town, Bin Qasim Town Karachi, Hub (Balochistan) and District Thatta (Sindh) related to this tribe. These graveyards have their own historical stories which reflect the Kalmati tribe’s braveness and loyalty. If history is known then it shows in the regime of Talpurs, Kalmati and Nizamani has assigned for the security of Karachi. In 2 February 1839, when two Britain Military Ships (HINA & WALES) has arrived in Karachi Port (Manora). there was a big Fort on that time in Karachi. In Manora the British Army has challenged the Kalmati tribe to evacuate the Port and surrender their arms in favour of British military forces. The Kalmati Baloch tribe force Commander has totally refused to excavate the Port and surrenders the weapons. The Commander loudly announced that “I am a Baloch I prepare to be a Martyr for the nation then to surrender.”

Historical Conflicts affecting the Kalmati

The Portuguese

In the 15th Century, the Portuguese captured many parts of India and Oman and has planned to proceed the coastal area of Makran Balochistan. The Portuguese attacked Makran under the leadership of Vasco de Gama but in the supervision of Commander Mir Ismaheel every time Portuguese has been defeated by the Baloch army. Almost one or two times Portuguese has looted and set fire on the coastal Villages but they became failed to capture coastal area of Makran Balochistan. Mir Ismaheel has collected too many weapons from Portuguese out of two still lying near the Central Jail of Gwadar but heirless. The grave of Mir Ismaheel is also situated near the Mountain of BATAL Gwadar Balochistan, the same was constructed by Mir Ismaheel himself in his own life. He was died in 873 Hijri (Islamic Calendar) as per history it is quoted that Mir Ismaheel also married with Shahfi Arab lady in Malbar.

After Mir Ismaheel's regime his nephew Mir Hammal Khan son of Mir Jihand Khan Kalmati, became the ruler of Makran. In the regime of Mir Hammal Khan, the Portuguese also attacked many times under the Commandership of "Lowess Dee Almia" every time they defeated. After such defeat in many times, Lowess Dee Almia did a fact with Mir Hammal Khan one of the clause of fact was that "Lowess Dee Almia" will not attack to Makran coastal area. But it was a just fraud from Portuguese they breaked the fact and attacked Mir Hammal Khan when he was with some friends on his on way in the sea. After the attack Portuguese has kidnapped Mir Hammal Khan to unidentified place. As per history it is known that "STATUE" of Mir Hammal Khan is lying in an island museum Goha in India the same constructed by Portuguese, Mr. R. Huges Buller has wrote in his book MAKRAN KALMATIS that the Fort and a well is still situated near to Gwadar Balochistan called GAZDAN. The snatched weapons from the Portuguese as been also seen in 1904 in Pasni Port Balochistan.

Portuguese not only attacked Gwadar they also attacked Tehs Bandar (Tehs Port). At that time Mir Kareem Dad lateeg was the Chief of Tehs Port. Mir Kareem Dad Kalmati has been killed with his 44 soldiers.

Resistance in Sindh

In the regime of Mughal the lateeg tribe was in full power from Hub Balochistan to Keti Bandar (Keti Port) Sindh. When Mughals defeated Portuguese from "Ran Kach" the felt some danger from Kalmti tribe. First of all they planned to break of powers they ordered to local Sardars (Chiefs) to be rulers of them as both were Baloch that is why the plan of Akbar (KING) has not been succeeded. On the second side the lateeg tribe was consisted about 20000, brave army. When Akbar (King) failed in his planned he gifted agricultural land in Chachkan (Sindh)in 1654, when Orangzaib (King) failed that Kalmati are going to be rebels he gifted agricultural land in Sakro (Thatta) which exist also today. In the same time the Kalmati tribe has did alliances with other Baloch tribes, from Shah Bandar (Sindh) to Hub (Balochistan) they made Baloch confederacy it was too powerful as they ruled on Mountains and Sea. The traders used roads and Sea routes make trade in Hindustan the Kalmati Sardar as charged Rs.9600 per Year as per taxes from Mughal rulers.

There was still resistance in Sindh it is difficult to write it here these all such stories has been quoted in a book called (Jang Namo) written by Dr. Nabi Bux Khan Baloch a renowned history writer from Sindh.

Attacks of Arghoons

When Mirza Saleh Baig became ruler he was touchered Kalmati tribe and made false cases to them. A person namely MUREED when he heard that Arghoon rulers has killed his relatives, then he swear that he will never wear traditional turban (PAGREE) before he kill Mirza Saleh Baig. At that time Mureed was in Gujrat and he reached in Thatta, one day he saw that Mirza Saleh Baig is patrolling in the Thatta City with his protocol staff. Mureed has hidden a knife in a paper and he asked the Mirza Saleh Baig that I am the victim and need justice, the ruler stopped his horse and get down as soon he got down, Mureed as killed him. And Mureed then also killed by the protocol staff on the spot. It was a difficult time for all the Baloch tribes particularly Kalmatis and Lasharis.

War with Kalhoros

In the regime of Mia Yar Muhammad Kalhoro has attacked on Malir with his 18000 troops the reason was all the tribes as paid taxes to Kalhora government but the Kalmati tribe was the only tribe refused for the payment of such taxes. Kalhora government has asked the Kalmati tribe has decied to handover 30 Camels or cost of same to Kalhora government in every Year. At that time a Camel has price of 10 rupees. But the Kalhora government demanded for 50 Camels per Year. It took a long discussion as the Kalhora demanded 50 Camels but the Kalmati was not ready to pay for the cost of 50 Camels. They walkout the same sitting in the peak time of lunch and Kalmatis left the sitting the ruler has sent a messenger to them to take the lunch, some one told the messenger that (We are not hungry, feed the ruler as he is more hungry then us). Kalmatis returned to Malir area under the leadership of Malik Hyder Kalmati. Mia Yar Muhammad kalhoro has consulted with his advisers that Kalmatis has not taken the lunch it is my insult so he planned to attack on Kalmati tribe with his 18000 troops under the Command of Mr. Alam Khan Jamali. Here in Malir Kalmati tribe became knew that Kalhora government is planning to attack Malir they has shifted their Cattle , Ladies and Kids to a place called Lat Koh (Lat Mountain) which is situated between Gadap and Kon Kor. As battle started the troops of Kalhora was in power and defeated the Kalmati tribe and the remaining people as settled themselves in Lat Koh. When Mia Yar Muhammad Kalhoro died, the people who not migrated from Lat Koh are called Lati or Lateeg.

War with British Soldiers

In the regime of Kalhora when the British entered in Sindh they planning to capture Sindh, then all the Balochs of Sindh became the challenge to British troops the Talpurs as conveyed a message to Kalmati tribe that there is no need to come in Hyderabad, Sindh but be in Karachi and make alliance with other tribes to face the British troops but the other tribes has not make coalition to get rid of British troops.

Chakar bin Nothak

As the British were powerful and were ruling half world it was impossible to face their troops, that is why Baloch making started gorilla war against British troops. After the capturing Karachi the British troops had built Military Cantt in Ram Bagh. On every Sunday the left for Manghopir (Situated in Gadap Town in Karachi)for picnic. When British troops go to Mango Pir stream on that day the local people were not allowed to visit stream. One day Chakar Bin Nothak belongs to Kalmati tribe was standing with his some friends and asked them that {We are the owner of stream and this is our land it is better to die that we are not allowed to get water from such stream), he has gathered some other persons with him and attacked British troops in this attack a British Army Officer called Captain Hound has been killed along with other soldiers. The British army has demanded to Chief of Kalmati tribe to handover the Chakar to them with this promise that after arrest he will be given a nominal punishmenty and will be released. Chakar was a refugee in Kalat Balochistan he got messages from his relatives that the British army has promised that they will not be assissinated the Chakar, but we do not believe on their promise now it depends on you. After a long term the British army has arrested Chakar and he was hanged in Dalmia, Mujahid Colony Mountain where there is a British Army Camp. When Chakar was asked as for last wish the Chakar told them he maybe hanged, without making any blindness to his eyes as he wish to see his Mother Land till his last breath, then Chakar has been hanged according to his on wish. The tribunals which sentenced death punishment to Chakar, the Judge penal was consisted with a person named Nahoo Mal. It was the first punishment to death in Sindh by British Army.

Notable Members of the Kalmati tribe

There are too many respected and renowned persons has been in Kalmati tribe throughout the Pakistan including Irani Balochistan and other places. In coastal area of Makran Balochistan such as Sheh Musa (Late). Sheh Chiragh (Late), Sheh Hassan (Late), Mir Hammal Jihand (Who defeated to Portuguese under the Commandership of Lowess Dee Almia), Shams Ul Haq (Naib Nazim Tehsil Council Jiwani), Muhammad Rustom Baloch (District Attorney Gwadar), Engineer Daood Baloch (Deputy Director GPA), Mir Abdul Ghafoor Kalmati (Ex. MPA of Balochistan Assembly and now District Nazim Gwadar) Mir Hammal Kalmati (Minister for Fishries) and countless persons.

Sindh province: Karachi

In Sindh such has great and famous leader of an MPA Sindh Assembly Shaheed Abdullah Murad, Haji Dad Rahim Baloch (Late), Haji Dad Muhammad (Late) (Ex. Chairman Thano Union Council), Waja Mulla Essa (Late), Mulla Faiz Muhammad Baloch (Late), Chakar Khan Baloch (Late), Haji Mian Dad Baloch (Late), Haji Murad Jaffar Baloch (Late), Shaheed Hanif Hammal, Haji Saleh Muhammad Baloch (Ex. Member of District Council Karachi), Haji Nazeer Ahmed Baloch (Ex. Chairman Thano Union Council & Member of District Council Karachi), Muhammad Khalil Baloch (Ex. Ececutive of a Local Bank), Mulla Ghulam Rasool(G.R Baloch), Dr. Amanullah Baloch, Dr. Naseer uddin Noor, Dr. Fazal Ahmed Baloch, Haji Nabi Bux Baloch,Jamal Nasir (Deputy District Attorney District Court Malir), Gul Hassan Kalmati (TMO Gadap Town & Famous Sindhi Writer), Salman Abdullah Murad (Special Assistant To Chief Minister Sindh)

Matyari, Tando Adam, Hyderabad

Likewise in above places Haji Juma Khan Baloch (Late), Haji Muhammad Ismaheel Baloch (Late), Haji Sher Muhammad Baloch (Late), Haji Muhammad Baloch (Late), Haji Faiz Muhammad Baloch (Late), Haji Gul Muhammad Baloch, Haji Karim Bux Baloch, Jan Muhammad Baloch, Dad Muhammad Baloch and Muhammad Akram Baloch (Nazim Union Council Udero Lal Station District Matyari)

Thatta

Professor Dr. Abdul Kareem Baloch (Sindh University), Haji Shah Dad Baloch (Late),Sardar Malik Luqman Kalmati (Ex. MPA of Sindh Assembly)and Malik Yousuf Kalmati.

Special thanks to all management staff of Syed Hashimi Reference Liberary (MALIR KARACHI)

    Data Collected and Composed  By:
                                   **ASHFAQUE AHMED BALOCH**
                                      ...(Malir Karachi)...

References

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