Kalgoorlie-Boulder is a Western Australian town located east-northeast of Perth located in the Eastern Goldfields.The town was founded in 1893 during the Yilgarn-Goldfields gold rush, and is located close to the so-called "Golden Mile".
With its twin town Boulder, it has a population of 28,246, making it the largest urban centre in the Goldfields-Esperance region and the fifth-largest in Western Australia.
In June 1893, prospectors Patrick (Paddy) Hannan, Tom Flanagan, and Dan O'Shea were travelling to Mt Youle when one of their horses cast a shoe. During the resultant halt in their journey, the men noticed signs of gold in the area, and decided to stay put. On 17 June 1893, Hannan filed a Reward Claim, leading to hundreds of men swarming to the area in search of gold and Kalgoorlie, originally called Hannan's, was born. The mining of gold, along with other metals such as nickel, has been a major industry in Kalgoorlie ever since, and today employs about one-quarter of Kalgoorlie's workforce and generates a significant proportion of its income. The concentrated area of large gold mines surrounding the original Hannan find is often referred to as the Golden Mile, and is considered by some to be the richest square mile of earth on the planet. The town's population was about 30,000 people in 1903 and began to grow into nearby Boulder.
The narrow gauge Government railway line reached Kalgoorlie in 1896, and the main named railway service from Perth was the overnight sleeper train The Westland which ran until the 1970s. In 1917, a standard gauge railway line was completed, connecting Kalgoorlie to the city of Port Augusta, South Australia across of desert, and consequently the rest of the eastern states. The standardisation of the railway connecting Perth (which changed route from the narrow gauge route) in 1968 completed the Sydney-Perth railway, making it possible for rail travel from Perth to Sydney—and the Indian Pacific rail service commenced soon after. The Goldfields area boomed as a whole, with an area population exceeding 200,000, mainly prospectors. The area gained a notorious reputation for being a wild west with bandits and prostitutes. This rapid increase in population led to a proposed new state of Auralia but with the sudden diaspora after the Gold Rush led to plans falling through.
Places, famous or infamous, that Kalgoorlie is noted for include its water pipeline, designed by C. Y. O'Connor, which brings in fresh water from Mundaring Weir near Perth; its Hay Street brothels (the street itself was apparently named after Hay Street, Perth); its two-up school; the goldfields railway loopline; the Kalgoorlie Town Hall; the Paddy Hannan statue/drinking fountain; the Super Pit; and Mt Charlotte lookout. Its main street is Hannan Street, named after the town's founder. One of the infamous brothels also serves as a museum and is a major national attraction.
Kalgoorlie and the surrounding district was serviced by an extensive collection of suburban railways and tramways, providing for both passenger and freight traffic.
The mine operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and a visitor centre overlooks it. The mine blasts at 1:00 pm every day, unless the prevailing winds would carry dust over the town. Each of the massive trucks carries 225 tonnes of rock and the round trip takes about 35 minutes, most of that time being the slow uphill haul. Employees must live in Kalgoorlie; it is not a fly-in fly-out operation. The mine is expected to be productive until about 2017. At that point, it is planned to abandon it and allow the groundwater to seep in and fill it. It is estimated it will take about 50 years to fill completely.
There are also some hotels that no longer exist in the city;
In addition, Kalgoorlie has modern accommodation facilities, including;
The Kalgoorlie-Boulder metropolitan area consists of a number of suburbs:
Known as the home of the Super Pit, it is one of Kalgoorlie-Boulder's historical suburbs featuring many buildings and landmarks dating as far back as 1880. It was once the central business district for the Town of Boulder, but since amalgamation with Kalgoorlie, it is now more of a historical local centre. Boulder has its own post office, town hall and many hotels along its main thoroughfare, Burt Street.
A new housing suburb located next to the Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport which was recently expanded and is enjoying healthy growth.
A recent housing suburb built on old golf course land. Fairways also features a primary school, church, caravan park and small business. A popular choice for young families.
Adeline was originally constructed around 1970 by the State Housing Commission. The suburb was built on the "Radburn" concept, with houses facing away from the street and common pathways linking homes. In 2003, a significant urban renewal project, including the renaming of the suburb to Golden Grove and re-aligning of homes was commenced.
Located in Kalgoorlie's far north. It was once the city's richest part of town, and the first suburb to have its own independent shopping centre (Hannans Boulevarde). A school and an 18 hole golf course are featured as well.
The central business district. Hannan Street, named after Paddy Hannan, is the city's most major street and stretches from the western side of the suburb (mainly housing and some light industrial) to the eastern side (national retail chains, banks, law enforcement, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs and tourist attractions).
The name of the eastern extension to Hannans. Proving popular due to adjacent nature reserve (Karlkurla Park) and good location.
One of Kalgoorlie's oldest and largest housing suburbs. Much like other older suburbs, almost every street is parallel with Hannan Street in Central Kalgoorlie. It houses North Kalgoorlie primary and pre primary schools, many small businesses and medical practices, a hotel and a tavern and an 18 hole golf course.
Much smaller today than it originally was before the Super Pit expansion. It's located at the far east end of Lamington between the northern Goldfields railway and Goldfields Highway.
The south-east section of high-class housing suburb Somerville. O'Connor is home to its own primary and Catholic high schools and shopping facilities, and it also houses the city's only recreation centre.
A narrow suburb following Piccadilly street between Central Kalgoorlie and Lamington. Features the city's regional hospital, some small business, a hotel, a sporting arena and two grassed ovals.
Reputed as Kalgoorlie-Boulder's richest suburb, with unique design and high-class housing and parks. It's located between West Kalgoorlie, Central Kalgoorlie and O'Connor.
Stretching from Boundary Street, Kalgoorlie to Holmes Street, Golden Grove and bordering with Central Kalgoorlie, O'Connor, Golden Grove and Sport O' Kings. Mostly housing occupies South Kalgoorlie, however three high schools and one primary school, some medium industrial and small to medium businesses are also here.
A small recent extension to the western side of South Kalgoorlie between Maxwell Street and the Kalgoorlie race course.
A housing-only suburb located on the opposite side of Fairways on Burt Street. Bordering with Golden Grove, O'Connor, Fairways and Boulder.
Kalgoorlie's main industrial area. It is the first suburb as you approach Kalgoorlie on the Great Eastern Highway. Features the city's airport and small, medium and heavy industrial. Currently under expansion further west (ANZAC Drive Industrial Estate.)
The western tip of Lamington built in the eighties. Mostly housing with one shop, sporting facilities and an arboretum nature reserve.
The small remains of East Kalgoorlie before being swallowed up by the Super Pit. Still existing area features mostly housing with one primary school, and is home to the Mt. Charlotte mine shaft and Nanny Goat Hill.
January is the hottest month with an average maximum temperature of 33.6°C, but temperatures above 40.0°C occur nearly once a week when hot, dry, north to northeasterly winds arrive. Such high temperatures are usually followed by a cool change from the south and occasionally with a thunderstorm.
By contrast winters are cool with July average maximum and minimum temperatures being 16.5°C and 4.8°C respectively. Cold wet days with a maximum below 12.0°C occur about once every winter. The lowest maximum temperature recorded is 7.2°C on 19 July 1961. Overnight temperatures fall below freezing about 4 times in a typical winter. Such events occur on clear nights following a day of cold southerly winds.
|Mean daily maximum temperature (°C)||33.6||32.0||29.5||25.1||20.5||17.5||16.7||18.4||22.2||25.6||28.9||31.9||25.2|
|Mean daily minimum temperature (°C)||18.2||17.8||16.0||12.6||8.6||6.2||4.9||5.5||7.9||10.9||14.0||16.5||11.6|
|Mean total rainfall (mm)||22.8||31.5||23.6||22.1||27.8||29.6||25.4||21.7||14.5||15.1||18.2||16.1||268.4|
|Mean number of rain days||3.7||4.1||4.3||5.4||7.1||8.2||8.4||7.1||5.5||4.3||3.9||3.6||65.6|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
The local Rugby league team, the Kalgoorlie Brothers play in the WARL Tooheys Cup competition.