- See Waka and Tanka (disambiguation) for other usages.
Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. Waka literally means Japanese poem in Japanese. The word was originally coined during the Heian period to differentiate native poetry from the kanshi (漢詩 "Chinese poems") that were also familiar to all educated Japanese people.
For this reason, the word waka originally encompassed a number of differing styles. The main two are tanka (短歌 lit. "short poem") and chōka (長歌 lit. "long poem"), but there are others: bussokusekika, sedōka (旋頭歌 lit. "whirling head poem") and katauta (片歌 lit. "poem fragment") . These last three forms, however, fell into disuse at the beginning of the Heian period, and chōka vanished soon afterwards. Thus, the term waka came in time to simply imply the one sub-form tanka.
Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki created the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Until then, poems of this nature had been referred to as waka or simply uta ("song, poem"). Haiku is also a term of his invention, used for his revision of the old hokku form, with the same idea. For economy of thought, we will use here the term tanka for further description.
Traditionally waka in general has had no concept of rhyme (indeed, certain arrangements of rhymes, even accidental, were considered dire faults in a poem), or even of line. Instead of lines, waka has the unit (連) and the phrase (句). (Units or phrases are often turned into lines when poetry is translated or transliterated into Western languages, however.)
Forms of waka
consists of 5-7 Japanese sound units phrases repeated at least twice, and concludes with a 5-7-7 ending.
The briefest chōka documented was made by Yamanoue no Okura in the Nara period, and goes:
瓜食めば子ども思ほゆ栗食めばまして思はゆ何処より来りしものそ眼交にもとな懸りて安眠し寝さぬ (Man'yōshū: 0337),
which consists of a pattern 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7-7:
|| Uri hameba
|| When I eat melons
|| Kodomo Omohoyu
|| My children come to my mind;
|| Kuri hameba
|| When I eat chestnuts
|| Mashite Omowayu
|| The longing is even worse. |
|| Izuko yori
|| Where do they come from,
|| Kitarishi monoso
|| Flickering before my eyes.
|| Manakai ni
|| Making me helpless
|| Motona kakarite
|| Endlessly night after night.
|| Yasui shi nesanu
|| Not letting me sleep in peace?
[English translation by Edwin A. Cranston, from A Waka Anthology: Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup
, Stanford University Press © 1993]
consists of five units (often treated as separate lines when Romanized or translated) usually with the following mora
- 5-7-5 / 7-7.
The 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku
("upper phrase"), and the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku
Tanka is a much older form of Japanese poetry than haiku. In ancient times poems of this form were called hanka ("reverse poem"), since the 5-7-5-7-7 form derived from the conclusion (envoi) of a chōka. Sometimes a chōka had two envois.
The chōka above is followed by an envoi; 銀も金も玉も何せむに勝れる宝子にしかめやも, also written by Okura.
|| Shirogane mo
|| What are they to me, |
|| Kogane mo tama mo
|| Silver, or gold, or jewels? |
|| Nanisen ni
|| How could they ever |
|| Masareru takara
|| Equal the greater treasure |
|| Koni shikame yamo
|| That is a child? They can not. |
[English translation by Edwin Cranston
Even in the late Asuka period, waka poets such as Kakinomoto Hitomaro made hanka as an independent work. It was suitable to express their private interest in life and expression, in comparison with chōka, which was solemn enough to express serious and deep emotion when facing a significant event.
In the early Heian Period (at the beginning of the 10th century), chōka was seldom written and tanka became the main form of waka. Since then, the generic term waka came to be almost synonymous with tanka. Side by side with the new prominence of tanka came the development of forms of tanka prose, the melding of tanka and prose in single literary compositions. Famous examples of such works are the diaries of Ki no Tsurayuki and Izumi Shikibu, as well as such collections of poem tales as The Tales of Ise and The Tales of Yamato.
The Heian period also saw the invention of a new tanka-based game: one poet recited or created half of a tanka, and the other finished it off. This sequential, collaborative tanka was called renga ("linked poem"). (The form and rules of renga developed further during medieval times; see the renga article for more details.) When a person sends a haiku to a friend, it is a custom to send back a tanka.
There are still other forms of waka. In ancient times its moraic form was not fixed - it could vary from the standard 5 and 7 to also 3, 4, 6, longer than 7 morae part in a waka. Besides that, there were many other forms like:
- Bussokusekika (仏足席歌）: This form carved on a slab of slate- the Bussokuseki (silhouette of Buddha's feet stone) - at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara. Also recorded in Man'yōshū (万葉集）. The pattern is 5-7-5-7-7-7.
- Sedōka(旋頭歌）: Man'yōshū and Kokin Wakashū (古今和歌集） recorded this form. The pattern is 5-7-7-5-7-7.
- Katauta (片歌）: Man'yōshū recorded this form. Katauta means 'Half song' in Japanese. The pattern is 5-7-7, just same as a half part of sedōka.
In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose. In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home. The exchanged waka were called Kinuginu
(後朝), because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had almost no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress (it being the custom in those days). Works of this period, The Pillow Book
and Tale of Genji
provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu
uses 795 waka in her Tale of Genji
as waka her characters made in the story. Some of these are her own, although most are taken from existing sources. Shortly, making and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture. They recited a part of appropriate waka freely to imply something on an occasion.
Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition, presentation, and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party: Utakai and Utaawase. Utakai was a party in which all participants wrote a waka and recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly-built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme. The judge appointed a judge for each theme and gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner. The first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with considerably more formality.
History of waka development
Waka has a long history. It was first recorded in the early of the 8th century
in the Kojiki
. Under influence from other genres like Kanshi, Chinese poetry, novels and stories like Tale of Genji
or even Western poetry, it has developed gradually, broadening its repertoire of expression and topics.
In literary critic's Donald Keene's books, He uses four large categories:
- Early and Heian Literature (Kojiki to past 'The Tale of Genji' to 1185)
- The Middle Ages ('chūsei' from 1185, including the Kamakura and Muromachi Periods)
- Pre-Modern Era (1600-1867, then subdivided into 1600-1770 and 1770-1867)
- Modern Era (post 1867, divided into Meiji (1868-1912), Taishō (1912-1926) and Shōwa (from 1927)).
The earliest waka recorded in the Kojiki
, were not divided into subcategories of strict forms. Nor did the waka in the Man'yōshū
had fixed forms, but poets in the late 7th century, in the time of Empress Saimei
began to create Choka and Tanka in the forms extant today.
The most ancient waka were recorded in the 20 volumes of the Man'yōshū, the oldest surviving waka anthology in Japan. The editor is anonymous, but it is believed that the final editor of the Man'yōshū was Otomo no Yakamochi. He was one of waka poets who belonged to the youngest generation represented in the anthology; indeed, the last volume is dominated by his poems. The first waka of volume 1 was by Emperor Ōjin. Nukata no Ōkimi, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Yamabe no Akahito, Yamanoue no Okura, Otomo no Tabito and his son Yakamochi were the greatest poets in this anthology. But the Man'yōshū recorded not only the works of those royals and nobles, but also works of women and commoners whose name were unrecorded. The main topics of the Man'yōshū were love, sadness specially in occasion of someone's death, and other miscellaneous topics.
During the Nara period and the early Heian period, the court was in favor of the Chinese-style poetry (kanshi
) and the waka artform stagnated. But in the 10th century, Japan stopped sending official messengers to the Tang dynasty
. The cutting off of ties, and the perilous ocean crossing essentially forced the court to cultivate native talent and look inward, synthesizing what they had learned from the Chinese with local traditions; the localisation of culture proceeded rapidly. The waka form again began flourishing, and Emperor Daigo
ordered the creation of an anthology of waka. It was the first waka anthology edited and issued under Imperial auspices; it commenced a long and distinguished tradition of imperial anthologies of waka that continued up to the Muromachi period. The famous waka poets in those days (including Ki no Tsurayuki
) gathered waka of ancient poets and their contemporaries. This antique focus gave the anthology its name of "Kokin Wakashū
", literally meaning the Ancient-and-Now Anthology
After the Heian period, during the Kamakura period
and later, renga
, a form of collaborative linked poetry, began to develop. In the late Heian period, three of the last great waka poets appeared. Fujiwara no Shunzei
and his son Fujiwara no Teika
, and Emperor Go-Toba
. Emperor Go-Toba ordered the creation of a new anthology and joined in editing it. The anthology was named Shin Kokin Wakashū
. He edited it again and again until he died in Oki Islands
. Teika made copies of ancient books and wrote on the theory of waka. His descendants, and indeed almost all subsequent poets, such as Shotetsu
, taught his methods and studied his poems. The courtly poetry scene were historically dominated by a few noble clans and allies, each of which staked out a position. By this period, a number of clans had fallen by the wayside, leaving the Reizei
and the Nijo family
; the former stood for "progressive" approaches, the varied use of the "ten styles" and novelty, while the latter conservatively hewed to already established norms and the "ujin" (deep feelings) style that dominated courtly poetry. Eventually, the Nijo family became defunct, leading to the ascendance of the 'liberal' Rezei family. Their innovative reign was soon deposed by the Asukai family, aided by the Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshinori.
In the Muromachi period
, renga began to be popular in the court and people around. It spread to the priestly classes and thence to wealthy commoners. Much the same as waka, some renga anthologies under the Imperial aegis were produced.
As momentum and popular interest shifted to the renga-form, the tanka style was left to the Imperial court. Conservative tendencies exacerbated the loss of life and flexibility. A tradition named Kokin-denju, the heritage of Kokin Wakashū, was developed. It was a system on how to analyze the Kokin Wakashū and included the secret (or precisely lost) meaning of words. Studying waka degenerated into learning the many intricate rules, allusions, theories, and secrets, so as to produce tanka which would be accepted by the court.
There were comical waka already in the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū, but the noble style of waka in the court inhibited and scorned such aspects of waka. Renga was soon in the same position with many codes and strictures reflecting literary tradition. Haikai no renga (also called just Haikai (playful renga)) and Kyōka, comical waka, were a reaction to this seriousness. But in the Edo-period waka itself lost almost all of its flexibility and itself began to echo and repeat old poems and themes.
Tokugawa shogunate period
In the early Edo period, waka was not a fashionable genre. Newly created haikai no renga
featuring the hokku as the opening verse (of which haiku
was a late 19th-century revision) was the favored genre. This tendency was kept during this period, but in the late Edo period waka faced new trends out of the court. Motoori Norinaga
, the great reviver of the traditional Japanese literature, attempted to revive waka as a way of providing traditional feeling expressed in genuine Japanese way
. He wrote waka, and waka became an important form to his followers, the Kokugaku
scholars. In Echigo province
a Buddhist priest Ryōkan
composed many waka in a naïve style intentionally avoiding complex rules and the traditional way of waka. He belonged to another great tradition of waka, waka for expressing religious feeling. But his frank expression of his feeling found many admirers, then and now. In the cities, a comical, ironic and satiric form of waka emerged. It was called kyōka
(狂歌), mad poem, and was loved by intellectual people in big cities like Edo
. It was not precisely a new form; satirical waka was a style known since ancient times. But it was in the Edo period that this aspect of waka developed and reached an artistic peak. But most waka poets kept to ancient tradition or made those reformation another stereotype, and waka was still not a vibrant genre in general at the end of this period.
The modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish several literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples to them as contributors. Yosano Tekkan
and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō
magazine were one example, but that magazine was fairly short-lived. To Myōjō a young high school student Otori You, later known Yosano Akiko
as the wife Tekkan and Ishikawa Takuboku
contributed. Masaoka Shiki
's poems and writing (as well as the work of his friends and disciples) have had a more lasting influence. The magazine Hototogisu
(a bird made famous by Basho
in a haiku) he founded still publishes. He was a great poet both in his new haiku form and tanka, being sometimes called the Father of Modern Tanka. Actually the term tanka
was one of his invented words as a replacement for waka. After the World War Two waka began to be considered rather out-of-date but since the late of 1980s
has revived under the example of contemporary poet Tawara Machi
In the Meiji period, Masaoka Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, and waka should be modernized just the as same as with other things in the country. He praised the style of Man'yōshū, calling it manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū which was the ideal type of waka during a thousand year, which he called feminine and denigrated. He also praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate, who was a disciple of Fujiwara Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. After Shiki died, in the Taishō period, Saito Mokichi and his friends gathered a poetry circle Araragi that praised the Man'yōshū. Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Besides their modernization, in the court the old traditions still prevailed. The court holds many utakai even today both officially and privately. The utakai which the emperor holds at the first in a year is called utakai-hajime and it is an important event for waka poets; the Emperor himself releases a single tanka for the public's perusal. Anyone can apply to it with a waka according to an announced theme before the year, and many Japanese people apply in every year. In 1992 Jane and Werner Reichhold were invited by the Emperor and his Family to the Utakai Hajime at the palace for their work with tanka in English. A [report]http://www.ahapoetry.com/invitat.htm of this is online.
Today there are many circles of waka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly waka column and there are many professional and amateur waka poets. More recently, as a parting gesture in his weekly email to the nation, outgoing Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi offered a tanka poem as thanks to his supporters.
Tanka written in English
The writing of tanka in English has been less famous than the writing of English-language haiku
, but the earliest known English-language tanka collection was Ida Henrietta Bean's Tanka,
in London, 1899. The first North American tanka collection was Jun Fujita's Tanka : Poems in Exile,
in 1923. Tanka had been previously published in English by other authors, including Sadakichi Hartmann
, who was better known as an art critic than poet.
Tanka publication in English was sporadic until after WWII when various Japanese North American tanka poets began publishing anthologies and collections in Japanese, English translation, and bi-lingual editions. These efforts apparently began immediately after the poets were released from internment camps in Canada and the United States, but the oldest anthology known to survive intact is Tana and Nixon's Sounds from the Unknown, 1963, and the Kisaragi Poem Study Group's Maple : poetry by Japanese Canadians with English translation, 1975. Similar works continue to be published sporadically.
Tanka came to the attention of poets writing English-language haiku in the 1980s, and during the 1990s some of the better known names in tanka and haiku publication, including Jane Reichhold, Michael McClintock, Sanford Goldstein, Janice Bostok, Pat Shelley, Father Neal Lawrence, and George Swede, published tanka collections, or mixed collections containing tanka, haiku and other forms. Though some tanka had been published in haiku magazines, with the out-pouring of tanka in Mirrors and the beginning of the Tanka Splendor Awards and resulting yearly anthologies by AHA Books, the interest in English tanka began to blossom.
A Gift of Tanka by Jane Reichhold and the publication of Stanford Goldstein's Hut of the Small Mind,and Father Lawrence's Shining Moments by AHA Books opened the way for more tanka books.
Kenneth Rexroth's The Love Poems of Marichiko was also published. Originally presented as a translation from the Japanese, they were later shown to have been a hoax - the poems were Rexroth's own work.
Unlike Japanese poets who often write primarily or only in one poetry form, many English-language tanka poets also write other short poetry forms including haiku, senryū, and cinquain. Most early English-language tanka appeared in journals that featured a variety of small poem forms (although the main American haiku magazines published only haiku and sometimes senryu). Lynx, (co-editors Jane and Werner Reichhold)has since 1992 been an outlet for tanka and tanka sequences in print and now online.
Only recently have there been journals devoted exclusively to tanka, including American Tanka (1996) in the United States, edited by Laura Maffei and Tangled Hair in Britain, edited by John Barlow. The first English-language tanka journal, Five Lines Down, began in 1994, edited by Sanford Goldstein and Kenneth Tanemura, but lasted only a few issues. The Tanka Society of America was founded by Michael Dylan Welch in April 2000. This society now publishes the tanka journal Ribbons. Tanka Canada also publishes a journal titled Gusts, and the Anglo-Japanese Tanka Society (UK) hosts a web site with tanka and articles.
Tanka publication expanded through the 1990s with the establishment of additional journals, online forums, and contests such as the Tanka Splendor Awards, but exploded in the early 21st century with the establishment of several tanka organizations working in English, and a proliferation of international sources. Various special-interest tanka groups have also sprouted, such as "Mountain Home," named for the English translation of the title of the famous collection of Saigyo's waka, the Sanka Shu ("Mountain Home Collection"). The number of literary journals (print and web) that regularly publish tanka in English now numbers in excess of twenty. Noteworthy journals not mentioned elsewhere include Modern English Tanka, Eucalypt, The Tanka Journal, Atlas Poetica, and more.
AHApoetry.com and LYNX.
Famous waka and tanka Poets
Famous waka collections
Waka collections chosen by a Japanese emperor (勅撰和歌集)
Waka collections chosen by an individual (私撰和歌集)
- Brower, Robert H., and Earl Miner, Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1961. ISBN 0-8047-1524-6 pbk
- 527 pp., a standard academic study.
- Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology. Stanford University Press, 1991.
- Waka, tanka, linked poetry, haiku and senryu with translations and annotations.
- Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Waiting for the Wind: Thirty-Six Poets of Japan's Late Medieval Age, Columbia University Press, 1989.
- Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup, Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8047-1922-5 cloth ISBN 0-8047-3157-8 pbk
- 988 pp. includes almost all waka from the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters completed 712) through the Man'yōshū (Collection for Ten Thousand Generations c.759) and also includes the Buddha's Footstone Poems (21 Bussokuseki poems carved in stone at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, c. 753).
- Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume Two: Grasses of Remembrance, Stanford University Press, 2006. ISBN 080474825X cloth
- Keene, Donald, compiled and edited, Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Grove Press, 1955.
- McCullough, Helen Craig, Brocade by Night: 'Kokin Wakashū' and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1985.
- McCullough, Helen Craig, Kokin Wakashū: The First Imperial Anthology of Japanese Poetry, with 'Tosa Nikki' and 'Shinsen Waka', Stanford University Press 1985.
- Miner, Earl, An Introduction to Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1968.
- Based on Brower and Miner.
- Philippi, Donald, translator, This Wine of Peace, the Wine of Laughter: A Complete Anthology of Japan's Earliest Songs, New York, Grossman, 1968.
- Sato, Hiroaki, and Burton Watson, editors and translators, From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry, multiple editions available.
- Reichhold, Jane, and Kawamura, Hatsue. Trans. A String of Flowers. . . Untied: Love Poems from the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. Berkeley, CA:Stonebridge Press. 2002.
Modern tanka anthologies
- Nakano, Jiro, Outcry from the Inferno: Atomic Bomb Tanka Anthology, Honolulu, Hawaii, Bamboo Ridge Press © 1995 ISBN 0-910043-38-8 [104 pp. 103 tanka by 103 poets]
- Shiffert, Edith, and Yuki Sawa, editors and translators, Anthology of Modern Japanese Poetry, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle, 1972
- Ueda, Makoto, Modern Japanese Tanka: An Anthology, Columbia University Press, © 1996 ISBN 0-231-10432-4 cloth ISBN 0-231-10433-2 pbk [257 pp. 400 tanka by 20 poets]
Modern tanka translations
- Baba, Akiko. Heavenly Maiden Tanka. Trans. Hatsue Kawamura and Jane Reichhold. Gualala CA:AHA Books, 1999.
- Nakajo, Fumiko. Breasts of Snow. Trans. Hatsue Kawamura and Jane Reichhold. Tokyo:The Japan Times Press, 2004.
- Saito, Fumi, White Letter Poems. Trans. Hatsue Kawamura and Jane Reichhold. Gualala CA:AHA Books, 1998.
Tanka written in English
- Goldstein, Sanford. At the Hut of the Small Mind. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1992.
- Conforti, Gerard John. Now That the Night Ends.Gualala, California: AHA Books and Chant Press, 1996.
- Lawrence, Neal Henry. Rushing Amid Tears. Tokyo, Japan:Eichosha Shinsha Co. Ltd.
- Lawrence, Neal Henry. Shining Moments.Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1993.
- Reichhold, Jane, ed. Tanka Splendor. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1990 - 2007.
- Reichhold, Werner Reichhold. Tidalwave. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1989.
- Reichhold, Jane. A Gift of Tanka. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1990.
- Reichhold Werner. Bridge of Voices. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1990.
- Reichhold, Jane, and Werner Reichhold. Oracle. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1993. The first linked tanka sequence in English.
- Reichhold, Jane, and Werner Reichhold, eds. Wind Five Folded: An Anthology of English-Language Tanka. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1994.
- Reichhold, Jane. Bowls I Buy. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1996.
- Reichhold, Jane, and Werner Reichhold, eds. In the Presence. Gualala, California: AHA Books, 1998.
- Reichhold, Jane. Her Alone. Gualala, California: AHA Online Books, 2002. Tanka composed with prose.
- Garrison, Denis, and Michael McClintock, eds. The Five-Hole Flute: Modern English Tanka in Sequences and Sets. Baltimore, Maryland: Modern English Tanka Press, © 2006. ISBN 0615137946
- Garrison, Denis, and Michael McClintock, eds. Landfall : Poetry of Place in Modern English Tanka. Baltimore, Maryland: Modern English Tanka Press, © 2007 ISBN 978-0-6151-6264-5
- Kei, M., ed. Fire Pearls : Short Masterpieces of the Human Heart. Perryville, MD: M. Kei, Publisher, © 2006 ISBN 978-1-4303-0999-4.
- McClintock, Michael, Pamela Miller Ness and Jim Kacian, eds., The Tanka Anthology: 800 of the Best Tanka in English by 68 of Its Finest Practitioners, Winchester, VA, Red Moon Press © 2003 ISBN 1-893959-40-6
- St. Maur, Gerald, ed. Countless Leaves. Edmonton, Alberta: Inkling Press and Magpie Productions, © 2001.
- Tasker, Brian, ed. In the Ship's Wake: An Anthology of Tanka. North Shields, England: Iron Press, © 2001.
- Ward, Linda Jeannette, ed. Full Moon Tide: The Best of Tanka Splendor 1990-1999. Coinjock, North Carolina: Clinging Vine Press, © 2000.
- Ward, Linda Jeannette. A Frayed Red Thread. Coinjock, North Carolina: Clinging Vine Press, © 2000.
- Welch, Michael Dylan, ed., Footsteps in the Fog, Foster City, CA USA, Press Here © 1994 ISBN 1-878798-12-X [the first anthology of English-language tanka 48 pp. 115 tanka by 7 poets]
- Zheng, Ron L., "Leaving My Found Eden', Seattle, WA, Literary Road Publications, @ 2008, ISBN 1-934037-38-6
Tanka written in English online