Definitions

Kadampa Buddhists

New Kadampa Tradition

The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) is a global Buddhist tradition founded by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso in England in 1991. In 2003 the words "International Kadampa Buddhist Union" (IKBU) were added to the name, making its official full name the New Kadampa Tradition - International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT-IKBU). The NKT-IKBU is an international non-profit organization registered in England as a charitable company.

The NKT-IKBU describes itself as Kadampa Buddhism and as a 'time-honored' tradition, stating that "Kadampa Buddhism is a Mahayana Buddhist school founded by the great Indian Buddhist Master Atisha (AD 982-1054). The BBC describes the New Kadampa Tradition as "one of the fastest growing Mahayana Buddhist traditions in the West, with 900 meditation centres in 37 countries. Founded by the Tibetan-born meditation master, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, supporters claim it offers local access to Buddha's teachings, meditation practice and an alternative view to life that promotes peace and harmony." Peter Bernard Clarke, a theology professor at Oxford, has characterised the NKT as a "controversial Tibetan Buddhist New Religious Movement (NRM)".

The organization of the New Kadampa Tradition follows The Internal Rules of the New Kadampa Tradition - International Kadampa Buddhist Union. These Rules contain numerous checks and balances on the behavior, election and dismissal of the administrators, teachers, and spiritual directors and are legally binding.

History of the New Kadampa Tradition

In 1976 Lama Thubten Yeshe invited Geshe Kelsang from India, where he was engaged in a 16-year retreat, to teach at Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Centre (then Manjushri Institute) in England. Geshe Kelsang taught the General Program at Manjushri KMC from 1976 to 1987.

In 1987, Geshe Kelsang entered a 3-year retreat at Tharpaland in Dumfries, Scotland. During Geshe Kelsang's retreat he wrote five books and established the foundations of the NKT. Since that time, the NKT has grown to comprise over 1,100 Centres and groups throughout 40 countries.

After completing his retreat in the Spring of 1991, Geshe Kelsang announced the creation of the New Kadampa Tradition, an event which was celebrated in the NKT-Magazine Full Moon as "a wonderful development in the history of the Buddhadharma." In 1992, the NKT was legally incorporated under English law, which constituted the formal foundation of the NKT.

With the foundation of the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, he established an independent religious tradition aiming to "principally follow the teachings and example of Je Tsongkhapa". The many Centres which were following Geshe Kelsang's spiritual direction were gathered under the common auspices of the NKT and their General Spiritual Director, and became distinct from other traditions.

Teachings, spiritual programs, teachers and religious observance days

Teachings

The New Kadampa Tradition has been developed exclusively on the basis of Geshe Kelsang's teachings and published books, which follow a selection of Gelug Teachings of different Buddhist Mahayana and Vajrayana texts. The main practice in the NKT is Lamrim (the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment), Lojong (Training the Mind), and Vajrayana Mahamudra (the practices of Highest Yoga Tantra).

Geshe Kelsang regards all his books as "coming from Je Tsongkhapa, with himself as being like a cassette recorder into which the Wisdom Buddha, the Dharma Protector Dorje Shugden, has placed the cassette of Je Tsongkhapa's teachings". And in the preface of one of his books, Geshe Kelsang states, "I have received these teachings from my Spiritual Guide, Trijang Dorjechang, who was an emanation of Atisha; thus the explanations given in this book, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, actually come from him and not from myself." Cozort confirms the NKT view that the textbooks of Geshe Kelsang "are commentaries on Gelug works, especially those of its founder Tsongkhapa.

About the textbooks of Geshe Kelsang, the NKT says: "This remarkable series of authoritative books represents the most complete and integrated presentation of the Buddhist path to enlightenment available in any western language. Originally written in English they are currently being translated into many of the world's major languages.

Spiritual programs

At the heart of the NKT are its three study programs. Giving an overview of the purpose of the programs, the NKT says: "Geshe Kelsang Gyatso has designed three special spiritual programs for the systematic study and practice of Kadampa Buddhism that are especially suited to the modern world. It is believed by NKT followers that they embody a "pure lineage" in its entirety.

Describing the introduction of these programs in 1990, Geshe Kelsang said:

At present in our Centers we have a Foundation Program and a Teacher Training Program. This is not a new tradition. In the past there have been other programs specially designed for Dharma students according to their particular circumstances. All of these programs involved studying a certain number of texts, memorizing material, passing examinations, and being awarded a degree or certificate. For example, the ancient Kadampa Geshes had a program in which they studied six texts. Later Je Tsongkhapa introduced a program based on ten texts, and later still Tibetan Monasteries such as Ganden, Sera, and Drepung introduced a program based on five texts. I studied this program at Sera Monastery.

The three spiritual programs are:

  1. The General Program, which provides an introduction to basic Buddhist ideas and meditation.
  2. The Foundation Program, which includes the study of six commentaries written by Geshe Kelsang on the following classical texts:
    • Joyful Path of Good Fortune - based on Atisha's teachings on Lamrim or The Stages of the Path to Enlightenment
    • Universal Compassion - a commentary on Bodhisattva Chekhawa's Training the Mind in Seven Points
    • Eight Steps to Happiness - a commentary on Bodhisattva Langri Tangpa's Eight Verses of Training the Mind
    • Heart of Wisdom - a commentary on the Heart Sutra
    • Meaningful to Behold - a commentary on Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life
    • Understanding the Mind - a commentary and detailed explanation of the mind based on the works of the Buddhist scholars Dharmakirti and Dignaga
  3. The Teacher Training Program is intended for people who wish to train as NKT Dharma Teachers. All Resident Teachers of NKT Centers follow this program of study and practice. The program involves the study of 14 texts of Geshe Kelsang, including all of those in the Foundation Program, and the additional 8 listed below. This program also includes commitments concerning one's lifestyle, based on the 5 lay vows of the Pratimoksha, and the completion of specific meditation retreats.
    • The Bodhisattva Vow - A commentary on Mahayana moral discipline and the practice of the six perfections
    • Ocean of Nectar - A commentary on Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way
    • Clear Light of Bliss - A commentary on meditations of Highest Yoga Tantra
    • Great Treasury of Merit - A commentary on the puja Offering to the Spiritual Guide by the First Panchen Lama
    • Mahamudra Tantra - Meditation on the nature of mind according to Tantra
    • Guide to Dakini Land - A commentary on the Highest Yoga Tantra practice of Vajrayogini
    • Tantric Grounds and Paths - An explanation of the practice of the lower and upper classes of Tantra
    • Essence of Vajrayana - A commentary on the Highest Yoga Tantra practice of Heruka

In 1990 Geshe Kelsang said:

These programs...are real wishfulfilling jewels for Dharma practitioners. By participating in them we can improve our wisdom and Dharma experience and use Dharma to solve our daily problems. We can become our own protector by protecting ourselves from danger and suffering, and our own doctor by curing our mental pain with Dharma medicine. We shall be able to set a good example for others to follow and help others by giving teachings and advice. Eventually we will be able to give extensive teachings and benefit others in many ways by organizing special programs and so forth. In this way we will make both our own and others' human lives extremely meaningful.

Waterhouse has observed that a fundamental element is "the notion of the purity of Geshe Kelsang's lineage and the importance of maintaining that purity in practice". In his book Understanding the mind, Geshe Kelsang states that "it is mixing different religious traditions that causes sectarianism". The books and sadhanas prepared by Geshe Kelsang upon which all NKT practice is based, and the infrastructure of the NKT organisation itself, are considered to have placed a boundary around Tsongkhapa's tradition.

Teachers

Geshe Kelsang expounded on the qualifications of NKT teachers in 1990:
Buddhadharma is beneficial to others only if there are qualified Teachers. Without Teachers, Dharma texts alone are of little benefit. To become a qualified Dharma Teacher requires special preparation and training. It is not easy to become a Dharma Teacher because special qualities are needed: wisdom, correct view, faith, conviction, and pure conduct as an example to others. Also a Teacher needs an inexhaustible reservoir of Dharma knowledge and experience to teach from, otherwise he or she will dry up after one or two years. If a Teacher lacks qualities such as wisdom, experience, faith, and pure motivation, it will be difficult for others to develop faith in them or their teachings, and there will be little benefit. Also, without proper training and preparation there is a danger of Teachers mixing worldly, samsaric activities with their teaching activities. Therefore we definitely need to train well if we wish to be a genuine benefit to others.

Regarding the qualifications of NKT teachers, Kay observed that "Whilst personal experience of the teachings is considered important, the dominant view within the NKT is that the main qualification of a teacher is their purity of faith and discipleship."

According to Bluck's research:

Most teachers are appointed to centres by Geshe Kelsang before they have completed the Teaching Training Programme and continue studying by correspondence, with an intensive study programme at Manjushri each summer. After 4 years as a successful resident teacher, monastics take the title 'Gen' and lay teachers become 'Kadam'. Most Resident Teachers, and many branch teachers are ordained.. Kay found that lay people were almost as likely as monastics to be given teaching and leadership roles; and he sees this as an important modern Western adaptation of Gelug Buddhism, again because this includes Tantric practices which Tsongkhapa recommended to those with 'a solid grounding of academic study and celibate monastic discipline'.

Unlike traditional Tibetan Buddhist organizations, which tend to favor Tibetans and monks over Westerners, nuns and lay people , Geshe Kelsang has said that monks, nuns, lay men and lay women can all become Spiritual Guides if they have the necessary experience, qualities and training. . All NKT teachers, lay and ordained, study on the same study and retreat programmes.

The Internal Rules specifies the criteria for completing the programme:

15§6. A practitioner shall be deemed to have completed the Teacher Training Programme if he or she:

• Has attended the classes related to each of the twelve subjects; • Has memorised all the required materials; • Has passed examinations in all twelve subjects and received a certificate to that effect; and • Has completed the required meditation retreats

In addition to the TTP commitment, all Resident Teachers have to attend International Teacher Training Program each year, taught in repeated rotation according to a sixteen-year study scheme.

Religious observance days

From its inception, NKT centres followed a common calendar for religious observances, including some of the traditional Buddhist religious days. These include the following:

Monthly observances

  • Tara Puja Days (8th of each month)
  • Tsog Days (10th and 25th of each month)
  • 8 Mahayana Precepts Days (15th of each month)
  • Protector Puja Days (29th of each month)

Annual Holidays common to other Buddhist traditions

  • Buddha's Enlightenment Day (April 15)
  • Turning the Wheel of Dharma (Sanskrit: Dharmachakra) Day (June 4, 49 days after Buddha's Enlightenment Day)
  • Buddha's Return from Heaven Day (September 22)
  • Je Tsongkhapa Day (October 25)

Annual Holidays unique to the NKT

  • NKT Day (the first Saturday in April)
  • International Temples Day (the first Saturday in November)

In 2004, the dates of these observances were changed to the respective days in the common calendar. For example, Tsog Days were previously designated as the 10th and 25th days of each lunar month: "We should … make sure that we do not miss tsog offerings on these two days - ten days after the new moon and ten days after the full moon". This sentence has been deleted from the 2005 reprint, and these days are celebrated on the 10th and 25th days of each solar month.

Turning the Wheel of Dharma Day is also the day on which Geshe Kelsang was born.

NKT day commemorates the founding of the NKT-IKBU, while International Temples Day is an opportunity to reflect on the importance of building Kadampa Buddhist Temples throughout the world..

Lineage of teachers

The New Kadampa Tradition traces its spiritual lineage through these main figures:

  1. Buddha Shakyamuni
  2. Vajradhara
  3. Manjushri
  4. Atisha
  5. Je Tsongkhapa
  6. Pabongka Rinpoche
  7. Kyabje Trijang Dorjechang
  8. Geshe Kelsang Gyatso

Successor to Geshe Kelsang Gyatso

History

From 1991 to 1995 Gelong Thubten Gyatso was appointed as Geshe Kelsang's future successor. He disrobed in 1995 and Geshe Kelsang provisionally appointed 4 'Gen-las', i.e. Losang Kelsang, Kelsang Jangsem, Kelsang Dekyong and Samden Gyatso. After about a year, the former two resigned as Gen-las and were re-appointed as Resident Teachers. Samden Gyatso became the Deputy Spiritual Director and successor to Geshe Kelsang while Kelsang Dekyong was appointed US National Spiritual Director. From this time onward, the Deputy Spiritual Director also held the appointment of Resident Teacher at Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Centre.

Present Day

In August 2001, Geshe Kelsang established a system of democratic succession for the General Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU. The Internal Rules state:

In February 2007, Gen-la Kelsang Khyenrab was elected the new Deputy Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU.

Ordination

The ordination tradition in the NKT differs from that of other Buddhist groups in that it is based on the Mahayana Perfection of Wisdom Sutras instead of the Hinayana Vinaya Sutras. According to Geshe Kelsang, "The Perfection of Wisdom Sutras are our Vinaya and Lamrim is its commentary." This tradition is based on Buddha advising his disciple Ananda, "If it is desired, Ananda, the Sangha may, when I am gone, abolish the lesser and minor rules.

Buddha established both lay and ordained Pratimoksha vows, and established several levels of ordination vows. According to the Hinayana schools such as the Vaibhashika school, ordained vows are a subtle physical form, whereas according to the Mahayana they are in the nature of a determination, which is part of mind. Traditionally, the different levels of ordination were distinguished by the specific vows taken, and by the ceremony in which they were received. In the NKT, Geshe Kelsang established a simplified tradition of ordination with ten vows and a single ordination ceremony that apply to all levels of ordained practitioner. When a person is first ordained they receive a Rabjung (preliminary) ordination; when their renunciation improves and deepens their ordination transforms into a Getsul (sramanera) ordination; and when their renunciation becomes spontaneous their ordination transforms into a Gelong (bhikkhu) ordination.

The 10 vows of the NKT's ordination as a monk or nun are to "throughout my life ... abandon killing, stealing, sexual conduct, lying and taking intoxicants" and also to "practise contentment, reduce my desire for worldly pleasures, abandon engaging in meaningless activities, maintain the commitments of refuge, and practise the three trainings of pure moral discipline, concentration and wisdom.

In The Ordination Handbook, Geshe Kelsang says:

The verbal explanation of the Kadampa ordination is brief — there are just ten commitments — but their practice is very extensive. These ten commitments that you promise to keep are a condensation of the entire Lamrim teachings. Although we can finish a verbal explanation of these vows in a few hours, their practice is all embracing. You should do this—few words but always practice, practice extensively.

The purpose of the Vinaya (Tib. dulwa) is “to control [the mind]” through higher moral discipline, as this is the foundation for developing pure concentration (i.e., tranquil abiding), and in turn profound wisdom (i.e., superior seeing). While the first five Kadampa vows (“Throughout my life I will abandon killing, stealing, sexual activity, lying and taking intoxicants”) are common to all Vinaya lineages, the latter five (“I will practise contentment, reduce my desire for worldly pleasures, abandon engaging in meaningless activities, maintain the commitments of refuge, and practise the three trainings of pure moral discipline, concentration and wisdom”) are taken from the Mahayana Perfection of Wisdom Sutra and its commentaries such as Atisha’s Lamrim text Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment, which references Arya Asanga’s The Bodhisattva Stages (Skt. Bodhisattvabhumi) listing the six ‘branches’ or necessary conditions for attaining tranquil abiding, including:

  1. little desire
  2. contentment
  3. no distracting activities
  4. pure moral discipline
  5. no distracting conceptions

The purpose of taking monastic ordination in the Buddhist tradition is to practice a moral discipline that enables one to achieve tranquil abiding. In his text, Atisha says, “One who neglects the branches of tranquil abiding will never attain concentration, even if he meditates with great effort for a thousand years.”

They also engage in a Sojong ceremony twice a month to purify and restore their vows. A monk or nun who breaks their ordination vows must leave their Centre for at least a year. After that year, "with some conditions" they can return but cannot teach.

The first five vows are common to all ordination traditions, while the second set of five vows are a practical condensation of the 253 Vinaya vows of fully ordained monks. According to Atisha, the founder of the Kadam tradition, “The training of the Monk is [..] of two hundred and fifty-three [rules].”. As Nagarjuna says, however, these vows can be condensed: "always practice superior moral discipline, superior concentration, and superior wisdom. These three perfectly include all 253 trainings." Geshe Kelsang encourages his followers to focus their effort on improving their renunciation and ordained way of life, and that it is not necessary to receive Getsul or full ordination vows in a separate ceremony. He describes these vows as being easier to integrate into today's society.

Ordained people in the NKT abandon the physical signs of a lay person by shaving their head and wearing maroon and yellow robes of Je Tsongkhapa's tradition. They are given a new name which starts with "Kelsang," since it is traditional for ordinees to receive part of the ordaining master's name (Kelsang Gyatso).

Within the NKT community there are over 700 monks and nuns. NKT ordination ceremonies are usually held twice a year in the main NKT Temple at Manjushri Kadampa Meditation Center in Cumbria (UK), Ulverston.

Practitioners approach their Buddhist teacher when they feel ready, and request formal permission once they have their teacher's consent. They may decide to live in one of the NKT's many Buddhist centers, but this is not a requirement. They are, in general, not financially provided for by the NKT. And, if they live in an NKT center, they still have to pay rent for their accommodation and pay for meals and the spiritual programs. To finance this, some have part-time or full time work. According to Belither, "a few people are sponsored because of their NKT work but others are on 'extended working visits' or work locally, and some are legitimately on employment benefit. For doing so they wear ordinary clothes if this is more convenient.

Religious activities

Throughout the year and in different places around the world, the NKT hosts a number of religious festivals. These feature teachings and empowerments from Geshe Kelsang Gyatso and senior NKT teachers. The longest running are the Spring and Summer Festivals at Manjushri Centre in Ulverston, England.

Growth and financing

As of 2008 NKT has over 1,100 centres and groups worldwide. The centres are independent charitable corporations, and the groups are branch groups that meet weekly in places such as Quaker meeting houses and community centres.

In a 1996 newspaper article whose neutrality is disputed, Madeleine Bunting (a Catholic) stated:

The method of expansion is that residential centres support branch centres, which are often no more than a group meeting in someone's house; or a hall is rented to run the NKT courses. When the group has reached a size sufficient to sustain a centre, a property is bought. The NKT maintains that each centre is entirely autonomous and is only "spiritually joined" to the NKT, although it admits that the two principal officers of each centre are NKT members. The aim is to establish a centre in every major UK town with the NKT as the biggest umbrella Buddhist organisation in the West.

The NKT has established a Kadampa Buddhist Temple in the United Kingdom, as well as in Canada, the United States, and Spain; and it is currently developing a Temple in Brazil, with plans to build one in Germany too. The NKT stated that "The International Temples Project was established by Venerable Geshe Kelsang in the early nineties. The vision is to build a Kadampa Temple for World Peace in every major city in the world. The project is funded entirely by voluntary donations and revenue from International Buddhist Festivals."(means NKT festivals)

World Peace Cafes have been opened at some residential centres, and in 2005 the NKT opened their first World Peace Hotel, called Hotel Kadampa, a no-smoking, alcohol-free hotel in Southern Spain. A second Hotel Kadampa has opened in Montecatini in Tuscany, Italy.

Origins of the name "New Kadampa Tradition"

According to an NKT brochure, written by James Belither while secretary of the NKT:
Geshe Kelsang first introduced the title 'New Kadampa Tradition' to give the centres under his spiritual direction a distinct identity within the wider Buddhist world. Although the Gelugpas were sometimes referred to as new Kadampas, the name New Kadampa Tradition had never been used previously in a formal sense. Nevertheless, by using this title Geshe Kelsang is making it clear that practitioners of this tradition are principally following the teachings and example of Je Tsongkhapa. The word 'New' is used not to imply that it is newly created, but is a fresh presentation of Buddhadharma in a form and manner that is appropriate to the needs and conditions of the modern world. Furthermore, by using the title 'Kadampa', Geshe Kelsang encourages his disciples to follow the perfect example of simplicity and purity of practice shown by the Kadampa Geshes."''

In 1998 Geshe Kelsang stated in an interview:

We are pure Gelugpas. The name Gelugpa doesn't matter, but we believe we are following the pure tradition of Je Tsongkhapa. We are studying and practicing Lama Tsongkhapa's teachings and taking as our example what the ancient Kadampa lamas and geshes did. All the books that I have written are commentaries on Lama Tsongkhapa's teachings. We try our best to follow the example of the ancient Kadampa Tradition and use the name Kadampa to remind people to practice purely.

Nowadays the New Kadampa Tradition describes Geshe Kelsang Gyatso's presentation of Buddhism to the West as Kadampa Buddhism with the following statement:

"Kadampa Buddhism is a time-honored tradition that for centuries has made Buddha's teachings and meditation practices available to people throughout the world.

"It is an association of Buddhist Centers and practitioners that derive their inspiration and guidance from the example of the ancient Kadampa Buddhist Masters and their teachings as presented by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. The New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) is an international non-profit organization registered in England as a charitable company..., and was founded by Geshe Kelsang to provide a vehicle for promoting Kadampa Buddhism throughout the world."

Moreover, the NKT presents itself as being the continuation of the old Kadampa tradition by naming its school Kadampa Buddhism and equating this Kadampa Buddhism with the historical Kadampa School of Atisha:

Kadampa Buddhism is a Mahayana Buddhist school founded by the great Indian Buddhist Master Atisha (AD 982-1054)... The great Kadampa Teachers are famous not only for being great scholars but also for being spiritual practitioners of immense purity and sincerity. The lineage of these teachings, both their oral transmission and blessings, was then passed from Teacher to disciple, spreading throughout much of Asia, and now to many countries throughout the Western world... Kadampa Buddhism was first introduced into the West in 1977 by the renowned Buddhist Master, Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Since that time, he has worked tirelessly to spread Kadampa Buddhism throughout the world by giving extensive teachings, writing many profound texts on Kadampa Buddhism, and founding the New Kadampa Tradition - International Kadampa Buddhist Union.

The NKT claims further that "Kadampa Buddhism was first introduced into the West in 1977 by the renowned Buddhist Master, Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso.

Consequently followers of the NKT refer presently to themselves as "Kadampa Buddhists", the Temples of the New Kadampa Tradition are referred to as "Kadampa Buddhist Temples", and more recently NKT teachers are named "Kadampa Teachers". Additionally, the Dharma centers of the New Kadampa Tradition are called "Kadampa Buddhist Centers and the hotels "Hotel Kadampas".

James Belither, the former secretary of the NKT, described the NKT as "a Mahayana Buddhist tradition with historical connections with Tibet", rather than a Tibetan tradition, and explained that Geshe Kelsang wishes his followers always "to present Dharma in a way appropriate to their own culture and society without the need to adopt Tibetan culture and customs".

In 1998, the NKT became a member of the British Network of Buddhist Organizations (NBO). Waterhouse notes that when the NKT joined the British Network of Buddhist Organizations, about thirty percent of the other Buddhist groups identifying themselves with the Tibetan Buddhist tradition left the NBO.

Geshe Kelsang's views

In 1998 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso expressed his views in an interview with Donald S. Lopez, Jr. as follows:

His reason for founding the New Kadampa Tradition:

I wanted to encourage people to practice purely. Just having a lot of dharma knowledge, studying a lot intellectually but not practicing, is a serious problem. This was my experience in Tibet. Intellectual knowledge alone does not give peace.

Asked about the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Geshe Kelsang replied:

We believe that every Nyingma and Kagyupa have their complete path. Not only Gelugpa. I believe that Nyingmapas have a complete path. Of course, Kagyupas are very special. We very much appreciate the example of Marpa and Milarepa [in the Kagyu lineage]. Milarepa showed the best example of guru devotion. Of course the Kagyupas as well as the Nyingmapas and the Sakyupas, have a complete path to enlightenment. Many Nyingmapas and Kagyupas practice very sincerely and are not just studying intellectually. I think that some Gelugpa practitioners need to follow their practical example. But we don't need to mix our traditions. Each tradition has its own uncommon good qualities, and it is important not to lose these. We should concentrate on our own tradition and maintain the good qualities of our tradition, but we should always keep good relations with each other and never argue or criticize each other. What I would like to request is that we should improve our traditions while maintaining good relations with each other.

Dorje Shugden Controversy

The NKT and their spiritual leader Geshe Kelsang encourage the practice of worshipping the protector deity Dorje Shugden, which the current Dalai Lama has consistently spoken out against and has now banned. Many individual practitioners from the NKT in their private capacity support the Western Shugden Society, an ad hoc confederation of Dorje Shugden practitioners worldwide. For more on this topic, see Dorje Shugden Controversy.

References

External links

Official websites

Supporters of the New Kadampa Tradition

Reviews of the New Kadampa Tradition

Critics of the New Kadampa Tradition

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