Definitions

Junius

Junius

[joon-yuhs]
Junius, English political author, known only by the signature Junius, which he signed to various letters written to the London Public Advertiser from Jan., 1769, to Jan., 1772, attacking George III and his ministers. The letters, centering on John Wilkes and the controversy over the Middlesex election, were written by a passionate opponent of the government familiar with secret government matters. Junius used scandal and invective rather than argument as his major tools of attack. The letters were reprinted by the publisher of the Advertiser in 1772, and a new edition, with additional letters, appeared in 1812. Although the identity of Junius has never been definitely established, the political beliefs, handwriting, and life of Sir Philip Francis have led many to ascribe the authorship to him. Arguments have also been offered in favor of the authorship of Lord Shelburne and of Laughlin Macleane, British army surgeon and secretary to Shelburne.
Junius, Franciscus, 1589-1677, French philologist; son of Franciscus Junius (1545-1602), French Huguenot theologian. The younger Franciscus Junius was born in Heidelberg and lived chiefly in Holland and England. A pioneer in the study of Gothic and Anglo-Saxon, he owned and edited a unique manuscript of Anglo-Saxon poems formerly attributed to Cædmon—now called the Junius Manuscript (Bodleian Lib., Oxford). For a modern edition, see G. P. Krapp, The Junius Manuscript (1931).

(born Sept. 7, 1906, Colombo, Ceylon—died Nov. 1, 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka) Prime minister (1977–78) and president (1978–89) of Sri Lanka. The son of a Supreme Court judge, he became minister of finance in 1948, when Ceylon (from 1972, Sri Lanka) became independent. As prime minister, he amended the constitution to give Sri Lanka an executive presidency and became the first elected president in 1978. His administration steered the country away from socialism, revitalizing the private sector and reducing government bureaucracy. When ethnic conflict erupted between the island's Sinhalese Buddhist majority and its Tamil Hindu minority, he was unable to end the violence, which continued after his retirement and death.

Learn more about Jayewardene, J(unius) R(ichard) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 7, 1906, Colombo, Ceylon—died Nov. 1, 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka) Prime minister (1977–78) and president (1978–89) of Sri Lanka. The son of a Supreme Court judge, he became minister of finance in 1948, when Ceylon (from 1972, Sri Lanka) became independent. As prime minister, he amended the constitution to give Sri Lanka an executive presidency and became the first elected president in 1978. His administration steered the country away from socialism, revitalizing the private sector and reducing government bureaucracy. When ethnic conflict erupted between the island's Sinhalese Buddhist majority and its Tamil Hindu minority, he was unable to end the violence, which continued after his retirement and death.

Learn more about Jayewardene, J(unius) R(ichard) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Rosa Luxemburg.

(born March 5, 1871, Zamość, Pol., Russian Empire—died Jan. 15, 1919, Berlin, Ger.) Polish-born German political radical, intellectual, and author. As a Jew in Russian-controlled Poland, she was drawn early into underground political activism. In 1889 she fled to Zürich, Switz., where she obtained her doctorate. Having become involved in the international socialist movement, in 1892 she cofounded what would become the Polish Communist Party. The Russian Revolution of 1905 convinced her that the world revolution would originate in Russia. She advocated the mass strike as the proletariat's most important tool. Imprisoned in Warsaw for agitation, she then moved to Berlin to teach and write (1907–14). Early in World War I she cofounded the Spartacus League (see Spartacists), and in 1918 she oversaw its transformation into the German Communist Party; she was murdered during the Spartacus Revolt less than a month later. She believed in a democratic path to socialism after a world revolution to overthrow capitalism and opposed what she recognized as Vladimir Ilich Lenin's emerging dictatorship.

Learn more about Luxemburg, Rosa with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Junius is a town in Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 1,362 at the 2000 census.

The Town of Junius is in the northwest corner of the county and is east of Geneva, New York.

History

Junius was part of the Central New York Military Tract used to pay soldiers of the American Revolution. The region was first settled around 1795.

The town was set apart from the Town of Fayette in 1803. Junius was subsequently divided to form new towns: Wolcott, in Wayne County (1807), Galen also in Wayne County (1812), Seneca Falls (1829), Tyre (1829), and Waterloo (1829).

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.9 square miles (69.5 km²), of which, 26.7 square miles (69.3 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²) of it (0.41%) is water.

The west town line is the border of Ontario County, and the north town line is the border of Wayne County.

The New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) passes across the town. New York State Route 318 is an east-west highway in the town running parallel to the Thruway. New York State Route 414 is a north-south highway crossing a few arces in the far north-eastern part of Junius.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,362 people, 494 households, and 375 families residing in the town. The population density was 50.9 people per square mile (19.7/km²). There were 532 housing units at an average density of 19.9/sq mi (7.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.50% White, 0.51% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.44% from other races, and 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.84% of the population.

There were 494 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.9% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $38,317, and the median income for a family was $44,444. Males had a median income of $28,828 versus $22,440 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,806. About 5.1% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over.

Communities and locations in Junius

  • Dublin -- A hamlet in the central part of the town, formerly called "Junius Post Office." The community is at the junction of County Roads 108 and 109.
  • Junius Ponds -- A cluster of ponds near the west town line. The name is also used for a nearby service area on the Thruway.
  • Malcom -- A location on NY-414 in the northeast of the town.
  • Stone Church Corner -- A hamlet on NY-318.
  • Thompson -- A hamlet at the west town line in the northwest of Junius on County Road 109.
  • West Junius is a hamlet, not in the Town of Junius, but just west of the west town line in Ontario County

References

External links

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