Definitions

Judy

Judy

[joo-dee]
Chicago, Judy (Judy Gerowitz Chicago), 1939-, American artist, b. Chicago as Judy Cohen. A feminist and founder of the Women's Art Education collective, she works in a variety of media, including such historically female crafts as needlework and china painting. Her best-known work, The Dinner Party (1974-78), is a sexually explicit multimedia installation executed by Chicago and a large group of craftswomen. An iconic feminist work that pays tribute to 39 notable women and their historically significant contributions to civilization (and also includes the names of 999 lesser known women), it became part of the Brooklyn Museum of Art collection in 2002 and the centerpiece of the museum's newly opened Sackler Center for Feminist Art in 2007. Subjects explored in her later projects have included childbirth, women's perception of men, and the Holocaust.

See her autobiographical Through the Flower (1975, rev. ed. 1982) and Beyond the Flower (1996) and her The Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation (2007); biography by G. Levin (2007).

Garland, Judy, 1922-69, American singer and film actress, b. Grand Rapids, Minn., originally named Frances Gumm. She sang in her father's theater from the age of four as one of The Gumm Sisters; she later toured in vaudeville. Beginning her film career in 1935, she endeared herself to the public in the Andy Hardy film series and in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Her later films include Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), A Star is Born (1954), and Judgment at Nuremburg (1960). Her first husband was the director Vincente Minnelli. Their daughter Liza Minnelli, 1946-, b. Hollywood, Calif., is also a singer, dancer, and actress. She made her Broadway debut in Flora, the Red Menace (1965; Tony Award). Minelli has appeared in a number of films, including The Sterile Cuckoo (1969), Cabaret (1972; Academy Award), New York, New York (1977), and two Arthur films (1981 and 1988). She has performed in solo nightclub appearances and has also been seen frequently on television, most notably in a televised concert with her mother at the London Palladium (1964) and in Liza with a Z (1978; Golden Globe). Garland's second daughter, Lorna Luft, 1953-, is also an actress and singer who has appeared in films, on stage, and in various performance venues. In addition, she wrote Me and My Shadows, a Family Memoir (1998).

See biographies of Garland by M. Tormé (1970), her husband M. Deans (1972), and G. Clarke (2000).

orig. Frances Gumm

Judy Garland, 1945.

(born June 10, 1922, Grand Rapids, Minn., U.S.—died June 22, 1969, London, Eng.) U.S. singer and film actress. Born into a family of vaudeville performers, she made her stage debut at age three. She toured with her sisters until making her debut in a short film, Every Sunday (1936). She was a hit in Broadway Melody of 1938 and starred as a wholesome girlfriend in nine films with Mickey Rooney, including Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938). She became an international star as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Among her other musical hits were Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). Her sweet but powerful voice and emotional range made her a legendary concert performer. After record-breaking engagements at the London Palladium and New York's Palace Theatre, she returned to the screen in triumph in A Star Is Born (1954), and she was acclaimed for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Her life was troubled by broken marriages and a reliance on drugs, which led to her early death. Her daughters, Liza Minnelli (by Vincente Minnelli) and Lorna Luft, followed her to the musical stage.

Learn more about Garland, Judy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Judy Cohen

(born July 20, 1939, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. multimedia artist. She studied at UCLA, and in 1970 she adopted the name of her hometown. Motivated by perceived discrimination in the art world and alienation from canonical art traditions, she developed “environments” featuring feminine imagery. Her most notable work, The Dinner Party (1974–79), is a triangular table with place settings for 39 important women, each represented by personalized ceramic plates and table runners embellished with embroidery styles typical of their eras. This installation established her reputation as a leader in feminist art. In 1973 she cofounded the Feminist Studio Workshop and Woman's Building in Los Angeles.

Learn more about Chicago, Judy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Frances Gumm

Judy Garland, 1945.

(born June 10, 1922, Grand Rapids, Minn., U.S.—died June 22, 1969, London, Eng.) U.S. singer and film actress. Born into a family of vaudeville performers, she made her stage debut at age three. She toured with her sisters until making her debut in a short film, Every Sunday (1936). She was a hit in Broadway Melody of 1938 and starred as a wholesome girlfriend in nine films with Mickey Rooney, including Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938). She became an international star as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Among her other musical hits were Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). Her sweet but powerful voice and emotional range made her a legendary concert performer. After record-breaking engagements at the London Palladium and New York's Palace Theatre, she returned to the screen in triumph in A Star Is Born (1954), and she was acclaimed for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Her life was troubled by broken marriages and a reliance on drugs, which led to her early death. Her daughters, Liza Minnelli (by Vincente Minnelli) and Lorna Luft, followed her to the musical stage.

Learn more about Garland, Judy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Judy Cohen

(born July 20, 1939, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. multimedia artist. She studied at UCLA, and in 1970 she adopted the name of her hometown. Motivated by perceived discrimination in the art world and alienation from canonical art traditions, she developed “environments” featuring feminine imagery. Her most notable work, The Dinner Party (1974–79), is a triangular table with place settings for 39 important women, each represented by personalized ceramic plates and table runners embellished with embroidery styles typical of their eras. This installation established her reputation as a leader in feminist art. In 1973 she cofounded the Feminist Studio Workshop and Woman's Building in Los Angeles.

Learn more about Chicago, Judy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Judy-Lynn del Rey née Benjamin (January 261943February 201986) was a science fiction editor.

Born with dwarfism, she was a fan and regular attendee at science fiction conventions and worked her way up the publishing ladder, starting with work at the SF magazine Galaxy.

Judy-Lynn was friends with Lester del Rey and married him after the death of his third wife. After moving to Ballantine Books, she revitalized the publisher's once-prominent science fiction line there, and soon after brought in Lester to edit Del Rey's fantasy line. With their success, she was given her own imprint, called Del Rey Books. She also edited an original sf anthology series, Stellar. As an editor, she was known for her rapport with authors and beloved reputation. She was also instrumental in obtaining the rights to publish novels based on George Lucas's then un-released movie Star Wars, which would earn Ballantine/Del Rey several million dollars.

She suffered a stroke in October 1985 and died several months later. In 1986, she was posthumously awarded the Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor, but Lester del Rey declined the award in her name, saying that she would have objected to the award being given to her just because she had recently died.

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