Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot

[joo-duhs]
Judas Iscariot, Jesus' betrayer, possibly from the village of Kerioth, the only Judaean disciple among the Twelve, and, according to the Gospel of St. John, their treasurer. Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus, for which he was paid the sum of 30 pieces of silver. After the Last Supper he led an armed band to Gethsemane and there identified Jesus to the soldiers by kissing him. Later, according to the Gospel of St. Matthew, he repented of this act of betrayal and killed himself. The blood money went to buy a potter's field, Aceldama.

(died circa AD 30) Disciple who betrayed Jesus. He was one of the original 12 disciples. Judas made a deal with the Jewish authorities to betray Jesus into their custody; in return for 30 pieces of silver, he brought the armed guard to the Garden of Gethsemane and identified Jesus with a kiss. He later regretted his deed and committed suicide; according to Matthew 27, he returned the money to the priests before hanging himself. His surname may mean “man of Kerioth,” or it may link him to the Sicarii, a band of radical Jewish terrorists.

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Judas Iscariot, יהודה איש־קריות Yəhûḏāh ʾΚ-qəriyyôṯ was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus. Among the twelve, he was apparently designated to keep account of the "money bag" (Grk. γλωσσόκομον), but he is most traditionally known for his role in Jesus' betrayal into the hands of Roman authorities.

His name is also associated with a Gnostic gospel, the Gospel of Judas, that exists in an early fourth century Coptic text. Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects, and has also been the subject of many philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges.

The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story, and appears in a number of modern novels and movies. Most modern Christians, whether laity, clergy, or theologians, consider Judas a traitor. Some scholars have embraced alternative notions that Judas was merely the negotiator in a prearranged prisoner exchange that gave Jesus to the Roman authorities by mutual agreement or acted with Jesus' knowledge and consent to ensure the re-enactment of Biblical prophecy, and that his later portrayal as "traitor" was a historical distortion. Others see Judas as a literary invention reflecting divisions among early Christians or an attempt by Biblical authors to distance themselves from Judaism after the first First Jewish-Roman War.

Etymology

In the Greek New Testament, Judas Iscariot is called Ιούδας Ισκάριωθ (Ioúdas Iskáriōth) and Ισκαριώτης (Iskariṓtēs).

"Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin, pronounced ˈyudas' in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (יהודה, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for "God is praised"). The same Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude.

The precise significance of "Iscariot," however, is uncertain. There are two major theories on its etymology:

  • The most likely explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew איש־קריות, Κ-Qrîyôth, that is "man of Kerioth." The Gospel of John refers to Judas as "son of Simon Iscariot" implying that it was not Judas, but his father, who came from here. Some speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known Judean towns.
  • A second theory is that "Iscariot" identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii. These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea. However, many historians maintain that the sicarii only arose in the 40s or 50s of the 1st century, so Judas could not have been a member.

Because of Judas' role in betraying Jesus, the name Judas—which was common during the time of Jesus—has almost entirely fallen out of use as a name among Christians. The Hebrew equivalent "Yehuda" remains common among Jews, and the etymologically equivalent name "Jude" is not unknown among Christians.

Traditional Christian views

Biblical narrative

Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles.

Mark also states that the chief priests were looking for a "sly" way to arrest Jesus. They determine not to do so during the feast because they were afraid that the people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. Satan enters Judas at this time, as described by the Gospel of Luke.

According to the account given in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag and betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver by identifying him with a kiss—"the kiss of Judas"—to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers. These "pieces of silver" were most likely intended to be understood as silver Tyrian shekels.

Death

There are two different canonical references to the remainder of Judas' life:

  • The Gospel of Matthew says that, after Jesus' arrest by the Roman authorities (but before his execution), the guilt-ridden Judas returned the bribe to the priests and committed suicide by hanging himself. The priests were forbidden by Jewish law from returning the money to the treasury so they used it to buy the potter's field in order to bury strangers. The Gospel presents this as fulfilment of prophecy.
  • The Acts of the Apostles (1:18) says that Judas used the bribe to buy a field, but fell down, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field Of Blood. Acts 1 goes on to describe how his place among the apostles was subsequently filled by Matthias.

Yet another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: "Judas walked about in this world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out."

In the Gospel of Judas, it is implied that the other Apostles stoned him to death for his perceived betrayal.

Raymond E. Brown gave the contradictory accounts of the death of Judas as an example of an obvious contradiction in the Bible texts: "Luke's account of the death of Judas in Acts 1:18 is scarcely reconcilable with Matt 27:3-10. This problem was one of the points that caused C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth". Various attempts at harmonization have been tried since ancient times, such as that Judas hanged himself in the field, and afterwards the rope snapped, and his body burst open on the ground, or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.

Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches stating that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfilment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas's death.

Matthew's reference to the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused some controversy, since it clearly paraphrases a story from the Book of Zechariah which refers to the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver. Many writers, such as Augustine, Jerome, and John Calvin concluded that this was an obvious error. However, some modern writers have suggested that the Gospel writer also had a passage from Jeremiah in mind, such as chapters 18 and 19 which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32 which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.

Identity

Judas Iscariot is mentioned only a few times in the canonical gospels. The apostle whose name is generally rendered in English as Saint Jude was actually named Judas son of James, and outside the New Testament the apostle Saint Thomas is sometimes called Judas Thomas Didymus. Some people have speculated that Judas Iscariot is the same as one or both of these people, and have advanced as support for their theory the fact that some manuscripts refer to Judas son of James as Judas the Zealot, which they link with the theory that the name Iscariot refers to the Sicarii. However, the list of the Twelve in Luke 6:15,16 clearly treats Thomas, Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot as three separate people and the list in Acts 1 treats Thomas and Judas son of James as still alive at a time when Judas Iscariot is dead.

John 14:22 indicates that Jesus had a disciple called "Judas (not the Iscariot)," probably Judas son of James or possibly Thomas. The latter identification is less likely, since Thomas is not called Judas anywhere else in the New Testament, but it is supported by many writings in the Syriac church which refer to him by this name. The most famous writings naming "Thomas" as Judas are perhaps the Gospel of Thomas and the Acts of Thomas. Thomas itself simply means 'twin' and was thus this individual's nickname rather than his actual name.

Another New Testament Judas, Jesus' brother Judas, is referred to in Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3. He may be the same person as Judas son of James (his different father would be explained by the Roman Catholic theory that Jesus' so-called "brothers" were really his cousins), or, in view of the statement in John 7:5 that "even his brothers did not believe" in Jesus, he may be someone else. In any case, Judas was a common name at the time of the New Testament.

Gospel of Judas

During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt. This has been translated and appears to be a text from the 2nd century A.D. describing the story of Jesus's death from the viewpoint of Judas. The conclusion of the text refers (in Coptic) to the text as "the Gospel of Judas" (Euangelion Ioudas).

According to a 2006 translation of the manuscript of the text, it is apparently a Gnostic account of an arrangement between Jesus and Judas, who in this telling are Gnostically enlightened beings, with Jesus asking Judas to turn him in to the Romans to help Jesus finish his appointed task from God.

In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the National Geographic's translation is badly flawed: 'For example, in one instance the National Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a "daimon," which the society’s experts have translated as "spirit." Actually, the universally accepted word for "spirit" is "pneuma" — in Gnostic literature "daimon" is always taken to mean "demon."' The National Geographic Society responded that 'Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions'.

Criticism

Theological questions

Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects, because of the apparent contradiction in the idea of "the betrayal of God". The main questions seem to be these:

  • Did Judas exist in his time only to betray Jesus just to fulfill the prophecy?
  • Why did Jesus allow Judas to betray him?
    • Was Jesus unable to prevent the betrayal?
    • Did Jesus willingly allow the betrayal to go ahead?
    • Did Jesus actively try to cause the betrayal to happen?
  • Why is it that the 'villainy' of Judas becomes greater and more pronounced as one reads from Mark to John?

Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. In the Hebrew bible, the book of Zechariah, the one who casts thirty pieces of silver, as Judas does in the Gospels, is a servant of God. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of Jesus in their cosmology.

Origen knew of a tradition according to which the greater circle of disciples betrayed Jesus, but does not attribute this to Judas in particular, and Origen did not deem Judas to be thoroughly corrupt (Matt., tract. xxxv).

The early anti-Christian writer Celsus deemed literal readings of the story to be philosophically absurd, especially because Jesus knew about the treason in advance, and told of it openly to all the disciples at the Passover meal, as well as singling out who the traitor would be without attempting to stop him.

The text of the Gospels suggests that Jesus both foresaw and allowed Judas' betrayal. In April 2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas (see above section) dating back to 200 AD, was translated into modern language, to add weight to the possibility that according to early Christian writings, Jesus may have asked Judas to betray him. While this seems quite at odds with the Gospel of John, where Judas is portrayed as an arch villain, the Gospel of Mark is much more ambiguous and could be considered to be fairly consistent with the stance of the Gospel of Judas on this question.

Philosophical questions

Judas is also the subject of many philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They both allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas' actions and his eternal punishment.

  • If Jesus foresees Judas' betrayal, then it may be argued that Judas has no free will, and cannot avoid betraying Jesus. If Judas cannot control his betrayal of Jesus, then he is not morally responsible for his actions. The question has been approached by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, which differentiates between foreknowledge and predestination, and argues that the omnipotence of the divine is compatible with the existence of free will.
  • If Judas is sent to Hell for his betrayal, and his betrayal was a necessary step in the humanity-saving death of Jesus Christ, then Judas is punished for saving humanity. This goes hand-in-hand with the "free will" argument, and Aquinas's Summa deals with the issue of free will in demons and other beings instrumental in the life of Jesus that are nevertheless damned.
  • If Jesus only suffered while dying on the cross and then ascended into Heaven, while Judas must suffer for eternity in Hell, then does Judas not suffer much more for the sins of humanity than Jesus? Should his role in the Atonement be that much more significant? As Borges puts it in "Three Versions of Judas":

"The ascetic, for the greater glory of God, degrades and mortifies the flesh; Judas did the same with the spirit. He renounced honor, good, peace, the Kingdom of Heaven, as others, less heroically, renounced pleasure."

  • Does Jesus' plea, "Father forgive them, they know not what they do," (Luke 23:34) not apply to Judas? Is his atonement insufficient for Judas' sins?
  • It has been speculated that Judas' damnation, which seems to be possible from the Gospels' text, may not actually stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide. This position is not without its problems, but it does avoid the paradox of Judas' predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation.

The damnation of Judas is not a universal conclusion. The Roman Catholic Church only proclaims individuals' Eternal Salvation through the Canon of Saints. There is no 'Canon of the Damned', nor any official proclamation of the damnation of Judas.

Modern interpretations

Most modern Christians, whether laity, clergy, or theologians, still consider Judas a traitor. Indeed the term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer.

However, some scholars have embraced the alternative notion that Judas was merely the negotiator in a prearranged prisoner exchange (following the money-changer riot in the Temple) that gave Jesus to the Roman authorities by mutual agreement, and that Judas' later portrayal as "traitor" was a historical distortion.

In his book The Passover Plot the British theologian Hugh J. Schonfield argued that the crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and Judas acted with Jesus' full knowledge and consent in "betraying" his master to the authorities.

A similar interpretation became well known to the general population through Martin Scorsese's controversial film The Last Temptation of Christ, based on the novel by Nikos Kazantzakis. Kazantzakis' original concept was that Judas Iscariot's only motivation in betraying Jesus to the Romans was to help him, as Jesus' closest friend, through doing what no other disciple could bring himself to do. This portrayal shows Judas obeying Jesus' covert request to help him fulfill his destiny to die on the cross, thus making Judas the catalyst for the event later interpreted as bringing about humanity's salvation. This view of Judas Iscariot is reflected in the recently discovered and translated mid-second century text, the Gospel of Judas.

The book The Sins of the Scripture, by John Shelby Spong, investigates the possibility that early Christians copied the Judas story from three Old Testament Jewish betrayal stories. He writes, "...the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era". He points out that some of Gospels, after the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as "Twelve", as if Judas were still among them. He compares the three conflicting descriptions of Judas's death - hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling, with three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides.

Spong's conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to distance themselves from Rome's enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed-over Jesus to his Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.

Theologian Aaron Saari contends in his work The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot that Judas Iscariot was the literary invention of the Markan community. As Judas does not appear in the Epistles of Paul, nor in the Q Gospel, Saari argues that the evident anti-Twelve language indicates a split between Pauline Christians, who saw no reason for the establishment of an organized Church, given the imminence of the Parousia, and the followers of Peter. Peter leaves the Gospel of Mark--the first gospel in which Judas appears--in absolute disgrace, no longer the "Rock," but rather as Simon. Saari contends that the denigration of Judas in Matthew and Luke-Acts has a direct correlation to the elevation of Peter in these texts (see, for example, the bestowing of the keys to the kingdom upon Peter, which is special-M material). Saari argues (much as Elaine Pagels does in her work Beyond Belief) that early Christian gospels record the conflicts of communities over Christological and theological concerns. Highly provocative, Saari's theory challenges conventional notions concerning Judas Iscariot.

Representations and symbolism

Hymnography

In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and instead to imitate Mary's example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas. The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas' betrayal: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you."

Gospel of Barnabas

According to medieval copies of the Gospel of Barnabas, it was Judas, not Jesus, who was crucified on the cross. It is mentioned in this work that Judas' appearance was transformed to that of Jesus', when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then was ascended to the heaven. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses, followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested and crucified was Jesus himself. The Gospel then mentions that after three days since burial, Judas' body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumours spread of Jesus being risen from the dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be sent back to the earth, and so he descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers and mentioned to them the truth of what happened, and having said this he ascended back to the heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.

Anti-Semitism

Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby suggests that in the New Testament, the name "Judas" was intended as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Christ. The English word "Jew" is derived from the Latin Iudaeus, which, like the Greek Ιουδαίος (Ioudaios), could also mean "Judaean". In the Gospel of John, the original writer or a later editor may have tried to draw a parallel between Judas, Judaea, and the Judaeans (or Jews) in verses 6:70-7:1, which run like this in the King James Bible:

6:70 Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil? 6:71 He spoke of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve. 7:1 After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.

In Greek, the earliest extant language of the Gospels, the words JudasJewryJews run like this: Ιούδας (Ioudas) — Ιουδαία (Ioudaia) — Ιουδαίοι (Ioudaioi). In Latin, the language of the Vulgate Bible, they run JudasJudaeaJudaei. Whatever the original intentions of the original writers or editors of the Gospel of John, however, there is little doubt that the similarity between the name "Judas" and the words for "Jew" in various European languages has helped facilitate anti-Semitism. In German the same words run JudasJudäaJuden; in Spanish JudasJudeajudíos; French JudasJudéejuifs, and Swedish Judas - Judéen - judar. He has also been seen as parallel to Judah, son of Jacob, by such writers as Charles Fillmore and John Shelby Spong.

Art and literature

Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western culture, with some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story. In Dante's Inferno, he is condemned to the lowest circle of Hell, where he is one of three sinners deemed evil enough that they are doomed to be chewed for eternity in the mouths of the triple-headed Satan. (The others are Brutus and Cassius, who conspired against and assassinated Julius Caesar.)

  • Judas is the subject of one of the oldest surviving English ballads, dating from the 13th century, Judas, in which the blame for the betrayal of Christ is placed on his sister.
  • Edward Elgar's oratorio, The Apostles, depicts Judas as wanting to force Jesus to declare his divinity and establish the kingdom on earth. Eventually he succumbs to the sin of despair.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita presents a parody of the betrayal of Christ, as though first-century Jerusalem were Moscow in the 1920s-1930s. Judas betrays Jesus and is then killed on the instructions of Pilate.
  • In Paul Féval's novel, Vampire City two prominent but unseen rulers of the vampires are Baron Iscariot (implicitly Judas) and Baroness Phryne. This view of Judas as a vampire is also reflected in a series of films beginning with Dracula 2000, which depicts vampirism as a punishment for Judas's betrayal of Christ.
  • In George R.R. Martin's short story "The Way of Cross and Dragon", a sect called the Order of Saint Judas Iscariot promotes a gospel of "Saint Judas" which is quite different than what is in the New Testament.
  • Michael Moorcock's novel Behold the Man offers an alternative, sympathetic portrayal of Judas. In the book, Karl Glogauer, the time traveler from the 20th Century who takes on the role of Christ, asks a reluctant Judas to betray him in order to fulfill the biblical account of the crucifixion.
  • In Simon R. Green's novel "Agents of Light and Darkness" Judas appears to the main character to defuse the Unholy Grail, the cup he drank from at the Last Supper and a force of evil analogue to the Holy Grail as a force of good.
  • Playwright Stephen Adly Guirgis's 2004 play titled "The Last Days of Judas Iscariot" imagines what might happen if the case of Judas was brought before an afterlife appeals court.
  • Judas is a main character in the rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar and is portrayed by Carl Anderson, which portrays him as disillusioned that Jesus' movement is becoming a cult of personality (he does not believe Jesus to be divine), and worried about negative repercussions that his rabid following will invite from the Roman authorities. After the betrayal, Judas feels personal guilt and senses that he has been a pawn in God's plan. He hangs himself, but returns (either from Heaven or Hell depending on the interpretation) as a spirit to sing the show-stopping title number.
  • Judas is also a main character in the musical Godspell. The actor, David Haskell, starts out as John the Baptist – and after the song "Save the People", the actor becomes Judas. Unlike most of the cast, who each get one song they are recognized for, Judas sings several more songs than most. In the song "By My Side", there is a pause from the singing where Judas narrates a passage from the Bible about his agreeing to betray Jesus. He leaves before the Last Supper and reappears after Jesus' temptation of Satan to betray Jesus. Often in productions, Judas is also the one to tie Jesus to the electric fence for the Crucifixion. Although Godspell is based on Matthew's Gospel, which is the only one to describe Judas' death, Judas does not kill himself in the musical.
  • Judas Iscariot is the first track of former Sister Machine Gun frontman Chris Randall's solo blues/vaudeville project, The Devil His Due.
  • Judas is a track on Depeche Mode's album Songs of Faith and Devotion. The track references both Judas and Doubting Thomas.
  • C.K. Steads' 2005 novel My Name Was Judas takes up the story of Judas 40 years after the death of Christ.
  • Judas plays a moderate role in the Jesus miniseries (which stared Jeremy Sisto as the lead role). Judas is seen as a zealot who doesn't understand why Jesus would weep for spilt Roman blood, but nonetheless joins him and becomes an apostle. He urges Jesus to take charge to bring down Rome, but Jesus states that is not why he was sent. Upset by Jesus' actions, Judas hopes to make Jesus save himself and make the people rise up by betraying him. When he sees Jesus won't do anything, he is distraught. As he watches Jesus carry his cross, Judas is accosted by Peter, who says he killed Jesus, but Judas rebukes by commenting on the apostles' own cowardice. He is not seen in the finale of the movie, so it is assumed he died as stated in the Bible. Judas is portrayed by Thomas Lockyer.
  • A movie called Judas was debuted on ABC shortly after The Passion of the Christ, depicting Judas as a wine-maker with his mother, while leading a double life as a zealot (which he became after his father's crucifixion). After he sees Jesus overturn the tables in the temple, he meets him and becomes an apostle. The movie shows Judas bringing his passion as a zealot to the apostles and as a good friend to Jesus. But when his mother dies and he sees that Jesus is not the man he thought he was, Judas betrays Jesus' location for money that he plans to use for his mother's funeral. The centurion, who's slave Jesus healed, refuses to lead the arrest and Judas is forced to. Afterwards, he sees the error of his ways and tries to call for Jesus' release at his trial before Pilate, but Jesus is still crucified. Disgusted with himself, Judas throws down the medallion his father gave to him as a boy and hangs himself. He is found the next day by Peter, James, and John, and they cut him down and pray for him, saying Jesus would have wanted them to. Judas is portrayed by Jonathan Schaech.

See also

References

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