Josephine

Josephine

[joh-zuh-feen, -suh-]
Josephine, 1763-1814, empress of the French (1804-9) as the consort of Napoleon I. Born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie in Martinique, she was married in 1779 to Alexandre de Beauharnais. Two children were born, Eugène (later viceroy of Italy) and Hortense (later queen of Holland). Josephine's husband was guillotined during the French Revolution, in 1794, but she escaped with brief imprisonment. In 1796 she was married, by a civil ceremony, to Napoleon Bonaparte, whom she had met through Paul Barras. Before Napoleon became emperor, they were remarried in a religious ceremony. Josephine took a prominent part in the social life of the time. Napoleon had the marriage annulled in 1809 because of her alleged infertility, so that he might marry Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor Francis I (Holy Roman Emperor Francis II). Thereafter Josephine lived in retirement at Malmaison.

See biographies by R. M. Wilson (1930), A. Castelot (tr. 1967), and C. Erickson (1999); study by F. Masson.

Baker, Josephine, 1906-75, African-American dancer and singer, b. St. Louis, Mo., as Freda Josephine McDonald. In 1923 and 1924 she appeared in Broadway chorus lines. She became a sensation in Paris in La Revue Nègre (1925), renowned for her jazz singing, dancing, and exotically skimpy costumes. By 1927 she was one of Europe's most famous and highly paid entertainers. Naturalized as a French citizen in 1937, she worked for the Resistance in World War II and was awarded (1961) the Legion of Honor. She died in Paris after 14 triumphant performances of Josephine, celebrating her 50 years as a performer in Paris.

See P. Rose, Jazz Cleopatra (1989); J.-C. Baker and C. Chase, Josephine (1994); B. Jules-Rosette, Josephine Baker in Art and Life (2007).

orig. Freda Josephine McDonald

Josephine Baker.

(born June 3, 1906, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.—died April 12, 1975, Paris, France) U.S.-born French entertainer. She joined a dance troupe at age 16 and soon moved to New York City, where she performed in Harlem nightclubs and on Broadway in Chocolate Dandies (1924). She went to Paris in 1925 to dance in La Revue nègre. To French audiences she personified the exoticism and vitality of African American culture, and she became Paris's most popular music-hall entertainer, receiving star billing at the Folies Bergère. In World War II she worked with the Red Cross and entertained Free French troops. From 1950 she adopted numerous orphans of all nationalities as “an experiment in brotherhood.” She returned periodically to the U.S. to advance the cause of civil rights.

Learn more about Baker, Josephine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie

Joséphine, detail of an oil painting by François Gérard; in the Musée elipsis

(born June 23, 1763, Trois Ilets, Mart.—died May 29, 1814, Malmaison, France) Consort of Napoleon and empress of the French. She married an army officer, Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais, in 1779. He was guillotined during the French Revolution, and Joséphine was imprisoned briefly. A leader of Paris society, she married Napoleon in a civil ceremony in 1796. She was an indifferent and extravagant wife, but during the Consulate she used her social position to advance her husband's political fortunes. After he became emperor (1804), she persuaded him to marry her again, with religious rites. She proved unable to give him a son, and in 1810 he arranged for their marriage to be nullified so that he could make a politically convenient marriage with Marie-Louise.

Learn more about Joséphine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Freda Josephine McDonald

Josephine Baker.

(born June 3, 1906, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.—died April 12, 1975, Paris, France) U.S.-born French entertainer. She joined a dance troupe at age 16 and soon moved to New York City, where she performed in Harlem nightclubs and on Broadway in Chocolate Dandies (1924). She went to Paris in 1925 to dance in La Revue nègre. To French audiences she personified the exoticism and vitality of African American culture, and she became Paris's most popular music-hall entertainer, receiving star billing at the Folies Bergère. In World War II she worked with the Red Cross and entertained Free French troops. From 1950 she adopted numerous orphans of all nationalities as “an experiment in brotherhood.” She returned periodically to the U.S. to advance the cause of civil rights.

Learn more about Baker, Josephine with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Josephine is a city in Collin and Hunt Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 594 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Josephine is located at (33.061018, -96.313227).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles (4.2 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 594 people, 205 households, and 166 families residing in the city. The population density was 364.5 people per square mile (140.7/km²). There were 220 housing units at an average density of 135.0/sq mi (52.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.93% White, 1.18% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.51% Pacific Islander, 4.21% from other races, and 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.61% of the population.

There were 205 households out of which 45.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.0% were non-families. 15.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.22.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 111.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,750, and the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $23,333 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,879. About 11.1% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The City of Josephine is served by the Community Independent School District.

References

External links

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