Born in Montreal to Jean-Baptiste Bouchette and Marie Angelique Duhamel. He later joined the Royal Navy's Provincial Marine on the Great Lakes (1791-1796) and the Royal Canadian Volunteers (1796-1802). He also served during the War of 1812 and rising to the rank of Lieutenant. He was send to Upper Canada in 1792 and helped survey Toronto Harbour and produced maps that included the Toronto Islands.
With thoroughness and precision, he reviewed the territory of Lower Canada for the Government. In 1815, he published his great book Topographical Description of the province of Lower Canada, which was the sum of knowledge of the territory for that day. The book, complete with some essential maps, was published in London in English and French, and was updated in English only in 1831-1832. His regional maps and two topographical descriptions of Lower Canada are still considered an essential reference for knowledge of the territory.
He died in 1841.
The Township of Bouchette in Quebec was named in his honour.