Definitions

Johore Strait

Johore Strait

Johore Strait, arm of the Singapore Strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 3 mi (1.6-4.8 km) wide, between Singapore Island and the Malay Peninsula. The eastern part of the strait has a deep channel leading to a port on N Singapore. A causeway (3,443 ft/1,049 m long; opened 1924) connects Johor Baru, Malaysia, and Woodland, Singapore.

Northern arm of the Singapore Strait between the Republic of Singapore and the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It is 30 mi (50 km) long and 0.75–3 mi (1.2–5 km) wide. Its eastern portion has a deepwater access channel to Changi naval base on Singapore's northeastern coast. During World War II it was the scene of heavy fighting in 1942, when the Japanese were driving to conquer Singapore. A causeway now links Singapore to the Malaysian mainland.

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The Straits Settlement and Johore Territrial Waters Agreement of 1927 was signed between Great Britain as the colonial ruler of the Straits Settlements of which Singapore was part, and the Sultanate of Johor which at that time was an independent state, to determine the border between the island of Singapore and Johor along the Straits of Johor. Both Malaysia, of which Johor is a component state, and Singapore are successor states to the agreement. The treaty forms the basis of the current border agreement between Malaysia and Singapore which was signed in 1995.

The agreement was signed in Singapore on 19 October 1927 between Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, then Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements, and Sultan Ibrahim of Johor.

History

Full text of the agreement

Agreement made between His Excellency Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, M.C.S., Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of the Straits Settlements, on behalf of His Britannic Majesty and His Highness Ibrahim, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, bin Almarhom Sultan Abu Bakar, Sultan of the State and Territory of Johore:

Whereas by Article II of the Treaty of the 2nd day of August 1824 made between the Honourable the English East India Company on the one side and Their Highnesses the Sultan and Tumungong of Johore on the other. Their said Highnesses did cede in full sovereignty and property to the said Company, their heirs and successors for ever, the Island of Singapore together with certain adjacent seas, straits and islets:

And whereas His Britannic Majesty is the successor of the Honourable the English East India Company:

And whereas His Britannic Majesty in token of the friendship which he bears towards his Highness Ibrahim bin Almarhom Sultan Abu Bakar, Sultan of the State and Territory of Johore, is desirous that certain of the said seas, straits and islets shall be retroceded and shall again form part of the State and Territory of Johore:

Now, therefore, it is agreed and declared as follows:

Article I

The boundary between the territorial waters of the Settlement of Singapore and those of the State and Territory of Johore shall, except as hereafter specified in this Article, be an imaginary line following the centre of the deep-water channel in Johore Strait, between the mainland of the State and Territory of Johore on the one side and the Northern Shores of the Islands of Singapore, Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong Kechil, and Pulau Tekong Besar on the other side. Where, if at all, the channel divides into two portions of equal depth running side by side, the boundary shall run midway between these two portions. At the Western entrance of Johore Strait, the boundary, after passing through the centre of the deep-water channel Eastward of Pulau Merambong, shall proceed seaward, in the general direction of the axis of this channel produced, until it intersects the limit drawn from the low water mark of the South Coast of Pulau Merambong. At the Eastern entrance of Johore Strait, the boundary shall be held to pass through the centre of the deep-water channel between the mainland of Johore, Westward of Johore Hill, and Pulau Tekong Besar, next through the centre of the deep-water channel between Johore Shoal and the mainland of Johore, Southward of Johore Hill, and finally turning Southward, to intersect the limit drawn from the low water mark of the mainland of Johore in a position bearing 192 degrees from Tanjong Sitapa.

The boundary as so defined is approximately delineated in red on the map annexed hereunto and forming part of this Agreement. Should, however, the map, owing to alterations in the channels, etc., appear at any time to conflict with the text of this Agreement, the text shall in all cases prevail.

Article II

Subject to the provisions of Article I hereof, all those waters ceded by Their Highnesses the Sultan and Tumungong of Johore under Treaty of the 2nd of August 1824 which are within three nautical miles (6 km) of the mainland of the State and Territory of Johore measured from low water mark shall be deemed to be within the Territorial waters of the State and Territory of Johore.

Article III

All islets lying within the Territorial waters of the State and Territory of Johore, as defined in Articles I and II hereof, which immediately prior to this Agreement formed part of His Britannic Majesty’s dominions, are hereby ceded in full sovereignty and property to His Highness the Sultan of the State and Territory of Johore, his heirs and successors for ever.

Article IV

This Agreement shall remain without force or effect until it has received the approval of the British Parliament.

In Witness whereof His Excellency Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, M.C.S., Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, and His Highness Ibrahim, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, bin Almarhom Sultan Abu Bakar have set their respective seals and signatures.

See also

References

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