Newberry was born in Waterville, New York and moved with his parents to Michigan when a child, residing successively in Detroit, Ann Arbor, and Romeo. He completed preparatory studies in Romeo Academy and graduated from University of Michigan in 1847. He spent two years in civil engineering on railroads, then studied law in Detroit and was admitted to the bar in 1853. He published the first volume of admiralty reports of decisions of cases arising on western lakes and rivers.
In the early 1860s, Newberry joined the railroad car manufacturing firm of Dean and Eaton, renaming it Newberry, Dean and Eaton Manufacturing Co. When James McMillan joined the firm in 1864, the company was reorganized as the Michigan Car Company. With McMillan, Newberry also established the Detroit Car Wheel Company. He was appointed the first provost marshal for the State of Michigan by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1862 with the rank of captain of Cavalry. Newberry resigned in 1864 and engaged in several large manufacturing and railroad enterprises.
Newberry was elected as a Republican to the Forty-sixth Congress, serving from March 4, 1879–March 3, 1881. He was not a candidate for reelection in 1880. Newberry died in Detroit and is interred there in Elmwood Cemetery.