Born in Danville, Virginia, he moved with his parents to Williamsport, Maryland in 1900 where he attended the public schools, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York. Following his service in the aviation corps during World War I, where he was commissioned a first lieutenant he entered the family leather manufacturing business in 1919. He served in the Maryland Senate from 1930 to 1934 and as mayor of Williamsport from 1926 to -1930 as had his grandfather for whom he was named.
In 1940 Byron was challenged by baseball legend, Hall of Famer, and Montgomery County Commissioner Walter Johnson. Byron would narrowly prevail, by a total of 60,037 (53%) to 52,258 (47%), thanks in large part to the power of incumbency and FDR's coat tails.
On February 26, 1941, Congressman Byron boarded Eastern Airlines Flight 21 at Washington. The plane was en route from New York to Brownsville, Texas, with stops at Washington and Atlanta. On its approach to Atlanta's Chandler Field, the Douglas DC-3 crashed, killing 9 of the 16 persons onboard, including Byron. Eddie Rickenbacker, flying ace and President of Eastern, survived with serious injuries. Byron was interred in Riverview Cemetery in Williamsport, Maryland.
His son Goodloe Byron was also a representative from the Maryland 6th congressional district.