Definitions

Jinnah

Jinnah

[jin-uh]
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, 1876-1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Jinnah was a member of the legislative council of the viceroy from 1910 to 1919. He joined the Muslim League in 1913 and was elected its president in 1916 and 1920. He played a major role in negotiating the so-called Lucknow Pact (1916) between the League and the Congress, in which the latter conceded that Muslims should have a separate communal electorate to ensure them adequate legislative representation. Hindu-Muslim cooperation soon broke down, however, and the Congress reversed this position. Finally totally disillusioned with the Congress, Jinnah resigned from in 1930. From 1934 until his death he headed the Muslim League and guided its struggle for an independent Pakistan, a state that would include the predominantly Muslim areas of India. His support of the British during World War II increased his influence. Jinnah's claim that the Muslim League represented the Muslims of India was substantiated in 1946, when in the elections for the Indian constituent assembly, the League won all the seats assigned to the Muslim electorate. Jinnah's firm stand and widespread Hindu-Muslim riots forced the Congress to accept establishment of the separate state of Pakistan, and in Aug., 1947, India was partitioned. Jinnah was appointed the first governor-general of the dominion of Pakistan and, although dying of tuberculosis, was elected president of its constituent assembly.

See H. Bolitho, Jinnah (1954); A. S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan, and Islamic Identity (1997); A. von Tunzelmann, Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire (2007).

Bagh-e-Jinnah (باغ جناح ) (or Jinnah's Garden) is a historical park in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. It was formerly known as Lawrence Gardens. Today, the large green space contains a botanical garden, a mosque, and Jinnah library situated in a Victorian building.

There are also entertainment and sports facilities within the park that comprise of an open-air theatre, a restaurant, tennis courts and the Gymkhana Cricket Ground. It is located on Lawrence Road next to Lahore Zoo, directly across from the Governor's House on The Mall.

Past

Originally built as botanical garden modelled on Kew Gardens, it was named after John Lawrence, Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. The place used to hold his statue, which was later moved to Foyle and Londonderry College in Northern Ireland.

Present

Jinnah Garden Lahore that is situated on 141 Acrs at this time, earlier it was in 176 acres, but the land was given to Lahore zoo, botanical garden govt. college university Lahore and to roads alongside the garden. now it is almost the plant area except roads building is 121 Acres. it is most beautiful and well managed botanical garden in Pakistan. it has almost 150 varieties of trees, 140 types of shrubs, 50 types of creepers, 30 palms, almost 100 succulent and about same indoor along with almost all varieties of annual flowers. garden has a good name in Chrysanthemum shows, it was the first institute that started growing chrysanthemum and maximum no of varieties for it. it has 3 nurseries, 4 hilloaks in it. it has two libraries, quaid-e-azam library and Daruslam in it.

  • The park hosts a famous cricket ground since 1885, built for the entertainment of government officers and civil servants. The ground maintained its Test Status from 1955 till 1959 when the venue moved to Gaddafi Stadium.
  • The park receives a nostalgic mention of the 1970s and 1980s life in Bano Qudsia's remarkable urdu novel Raja Gidh.
  • The Park has a Tomb of Shia' Sufi Known as Baba Turat Muraad Shah, with a heavy number of visitors.

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