Definitions

Jharkhand

Jharkhand

Jharkhand, state (2001 provisional pop. 26,909,428), 30,775 sq mi (79,714 sq km), E central India; created in 2000 from S Bihar, which now forms its northern border. Other bordering states are Chhattisgarh (W), West Bengal (E), and Orissa (S). The capital is Ranchi. Part of the Chotanagpur plateau and a generally hilly region, Jharkhand rises to its greatest height (4,480 ft/1,365 m) in the Parasnath Hills of the east and has two major rivers, the Damodar and the Sawarnrekha. The state is a great source of India's mineral wealth with about a third of the nation's coal deposits as well as quantities of copper, mica, bauxite, quartz, chromite, dolomite, titanium, uranium, gold, and many others. Iron ore is found in the south and is processed at steelworks in Jamshedpur and Bokaro. In addition, the state has mines, factories, and large timber reserves from the forests that cover nearly 30% of its area. Its arable land produces various kinds of fruits and vegetables. Despite these resources, by the beginning of the 21st cent. the state was underdeveloped. The population is characterized by a large number of non-Hindu tribal peoples, many of them from the aboriginal Santal group. A movement advocating the separation of this culturally distinct region from the state of Bihar began in the early years of the 20th cent., recurred a number of times, peaked during the 1980s, and sparked violence in the 1990s.

Jharkhand (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,dʒʰaːɽkʰəɳɖ) is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. An area of 28,833 sq mi (74,677 km²).

The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. Some of the other major cities and industrial centers are Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Sindri, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad.

The name Jharkhand comes from the Sanskrit Jharikhanda which is the ancient name of the regions dense forest - Jharikhanda.

Jharkhand is famed for its mineral wealth and forestry products.

Jharkhand is now advancing economically much faster than its northern neighbor, Bihar. Jharkhand's poverty rate declined 2% per year from 1994-2002. Unlike some other Indian states, Jharkhand's reduction in poverty was faster in the rural areas than in the urban ones. Its percentage of immunized children grew from 9% in 1998-99 to nearly 50% now, according to UNICEF. Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children ages 6-11 are enrolled in school as opposed to 56% in 1993-94.

History

The demand for a separate Jharkhand state can be traced back to the early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, an Indian Hockey captain and Olympian, suggested the idea of a separate state consisting of the southern districts of Bihar. The idea did not become a reality, however, until 2 August 2000, when the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganisation Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000. It became the 28th state of India.

During the period that the creation of a new state was being considered, and before the name "Jharkhand" was settled on, the proposed state was often referred to as Vananchal, a word derived from "vana" (forest) and "anchal" (area).

However, according to some historians, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire.In the ancient days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha(ancient Bihar) Empire and souther part was a tributary to Kalinga(ancient Orissa) Empire. According to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa was accepted as the ruler of Jharkhand by its people in the 13th century. The Singh Deo's of Orissa have been very instrumental in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand's neighbouring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance.This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist to this day.(These are regions which are still semi- autonomous, the degree of autonomy depending on the size of each specific Munda Raja's domain.) Later, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls.

The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule:

  • 1772-1780 Paharia revolt
  • 1780-1785 Tilka Manjhi led the tribal revolt and managed to injure the British army Chief. In 1785, Tilka Manjhi was hanged to death in Bhagalpur
  • 1795-1800 Tamar revolt
  • 1795-1800 Munda revolt under the leadership of Vishnu Manaki
  • 1800-1802 Munda revolt under the stewardship of Dukhan Manaki of Tamar
  • 1819-1820 Munda revolt in Palamu under the leadership of Bhukan Singh
  • 1832-1833 Khewar revolt under the leadership of Bhagirath, Dubai Gosai and Patel Singh
  • 1833-1834 Bhumji revolt under the leadership of Ganga Narain of Birbhum
  • 1855 Santhals waged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis
  • 1855-1860 During late 1850s Sidhu had accumulated about ten thousands Santhal to run parallel government against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. British Government had announced an award of Rs. 10,000 to arrest Sidhu and his brother Kanhu
  • 1856-1857 Martyr Sahid Lal, Vishwanath Shahdeo, Sheikh Bhikhari, Ganpatrai and Budhu Veer led a movement against the British Government during India’s First War of Independence, 1857, also called Sepoy Mutiny
  • 1874 Kherwar Movement shot into fame under the leadership of Bhagirathi Manjhi
  • 1895-1900 Movement against the British raj led by Birsa Munda (born 15 November 1875). Birsa Munda was captured by British forces and declared dead on 9 June 1900 in Ranchi Jail, due to Cholera, according to records of the British colonial government.

All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

In 1914 the Tana Bhagat resistance movement started, which gained the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and eventually merged with Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience movement.

Geography and climate

Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

  1. Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
  2. Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumeritilaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
  3. Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
  4. Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
  5. Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum

Flora and fauna

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Betla National Park (Palamu), 25 km from Daltonganj covers an area of about 250 square kilometres. The national park has a large variety of wild life like tigers, elephants, bisons locally called gaurs, sambhars, hundreds of wild boar and 15 to long python, herds of spotted deer (cheetals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus, blue bull and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupine, hare, wild cats, honey badgers, jackals, Malabar giant squirrel, mongoose, wolf, antelope, etc. In 1974, the park was declared Project Tiger Reserve.

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Project Tiger Reserve of Palamu, which is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna , as indicated within brackets: mammal (39), Snakes (8), Lizards (4), Fish (6), Insects (21), Birds (170), seed bearing Plants and Tress (97) , Shrubs and Herbs (46), Climbers, Parasites and semi-Parasites (25), and Grasses and Bamboo (17).

The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 km from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.

One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.

Demographics

Jharkhand has a population of 26.90 million, consisting of 13.86 million males and 13.04 million females. The sex ratio is 941 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribals, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. There are 274 persons for each square kilometer of land. However, the population density varies considerably from as low as 148 per square kilometer in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometer in Dhanbad district. Around 10% of the population is Bengali speaking and 70% speak various dialect of Hindi.

Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. In fact, in some of the districts of Jharkhand, the tribal population predominates over the non-tribal one. Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups. These are the Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar.

The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was previously part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India. Jharkhand's poverty rate, while still high by Indian standards, has declined by 2% per year between the period of 1994-2002.

Hinduism is the majority religion in the state, with 68.5% of the population practicing the faith. Islam is followed by 13.8% of the population, followed by Animisitic Sarna religion which comprises 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population makes the fourth largest religious community in Jharkhand. Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practised making few less than 1%.

Economy

Jharkhand's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $14 billion at current prices. Born out of partition from old Bihar state in 2000, Jharkhand produces about 70% of the output of the old Bihar state. Since it is rich in minerals, the state per capita income is likely to increase in the coming years.

''' Jharkhand has a concentration of some of the country’s highly industrialized cities such as Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad. It also has several firsts in India, including:

  • Largest fertilizer factory of its time in India (since shut down) at Sindri
  • First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur
  • Largest Steel plant in Asia, Bokaro steel plant.
  • Biggest explosives factory at Gomia
  • First methane gas well
    ,It has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 42.25% and the per capita annual income is US$ 1,490.

Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of Rs.204,910 million for 2005.

Government and politics

The state is headed by a Governor, who is appointed by the President of India. However, the real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government.

The administrative head of the State is called Chief Secretary, under whose jurisdiction a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service / State Civil Services function.

The judiciary is headed by a Chief Justice and Jharkhand has a separate High Court, located in Ranchi.

Jharkand is one of the thirteen states in which the Naxalite rebels have considerable influence.

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, some 160km (100 miles) east of state capital, Ranchi.

Chief Ministers of Jharkhand

Name Party From To
Babulal Marandi BJP 20 November 2000 18 March 2003
Arjun Munda BJP 18 March 2003 2 March 2005
Sibu Soren JMM 2 March 2005 12 March 2005
Arjun Munda BJP 12 March 2005 18 September 2006
Madhu Koda Independent 18 September 2006 26 August 2008
Sibu Soren JMM 27 August 2008 Till date

Ministry

Currently, there are 12 ministers and about 40 departments, leading to the ministers holding posts in various departments.

  • Sibu Soren (Chief Minister)
  • Stephen Marandi
  • Sudhir Mahato
  • Joba Majhi
  • Nalin Soren
  • Dulal Bhuiyan
  • Bandhu Tirkey
  • Bhanu Pratap Shahi
  • Harinarain Rai
  • Enos Ekka
  • Kamlesh Singh
  • Aparna Sengupta

Administrative districts

The state was formed with 18 districts, which were formerly part of south Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganized to form 6 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara, Sahebgunj, Khunti and Ramgarh. Presently, the state has 24 districts Districts of Jharkhand, namely,Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla, Simdega, Palamu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Pakur, Godda, Hazaribagh, Chatra, Koderma, Giridih, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Deoghar, Khunti and Ramgarh.

See also: District-wise Map


Language, literature & culture

Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Angika, Bhojpuri, Khortha, Nagpuri, Sadri, Hindi, Urdu, Oriya and Bengali. Jharkhand is also home to the Munda languages, Kurmali, Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Kharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon(Kurukh) and Paharia (Malto). The primary languages are Hindi and English. A fair part of the state population speaks Oriya and Bengali or blend of Oriya and Bengali language. In whole of Santhal Parganas area Angika is the primary language for communication.

Social infrastructure

Health

On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged – Central Institute of Psychiatry , Ranchi.

In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such diseases, organizations like Ramakrishna Mission through Ramakrishna Mission Tuberculosis Sanatorium (set up in 1948), Ranchi, has been doing exemplary work, and supplementing the efforts of the Government and other agencies. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of a ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.

Veterinary

Jharkhand has a diverse population of animal wealth.Mostly local and crossbred cattle, black bengal goat, chhotanagpuri sheep, murrah and local Buffalo, brahman breed of chicken, broilers, duck of many varieties ar here. Veterinary department runs Govt. Veterinary Dispensaries in all blocks of Jharkhand. Touring Veterinary officers, Block Animal Husbandary Officers ,Touring Veterinary officers(mobile), Assistant Poultry Officers, Veterinary Surgeons are posted to do the various jobs relating to veterinary. Till now no separate directorate is here for veterinary and is hanparing its functions. The less number of staff and doctors is a major hurdle in implementing various programmes like Artificial Insemination of Cattle and buffalo.

Education

The literacy rate in Jharkhand is 69.13% (2001) and female literacy rate is still lower at 60.38%.

Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children ages 6-11 are enrolled in school as opposed to 56% in 1993-94, so this will likely improve literacy a great deal.

Schools

The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Urdu/Bangla/Oriya as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).

Universities

A number of non-technical colleges are located in bigger cities as well as in small towns. The Industrial Training Institutes(ITIs) in particular, offer popular 3 year diploma courses.

Jharkhand has 4 Universities: Ranchi University & Birsa Agricultural University at Ranchi, Sidhhu Kanhu University at Dumka and Vinoba Bhave University in Hazaribagh. Each of these has several constituent and affiliated colleges in other cities and towns. The best of these affiliated colleges offer post-graduate and PhD programs.

Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur (Formerly known as RIT, Jamshedpur), Indian School of Mines University (ISMU Dhanbad) and National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology(NIFFT) are famous engineering colleges.

There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Ranchi, M.G.M. Medical College Jamshedpur and Patliputra Medical College And Hospital (PMCH) at Dhanbad.

The famous B-school Xavier Labour Relations Institute (XLRI) is at Jamshedpur. It's PMIR programme is regarded best in the entire Asia-Pacific region.

Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS) at Ranchi is also well known for it's Personnel management and Rural Development courses.

Sports

Jharkhand has earned itself an important place in the sports arena - thanks to the dashing wicketkeeper batsman - Mahendra Singh Dhoni. Hockey, Football and Cricket are most loved games by the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian Hockey captain and Olympian and Vimal Lakra currently playing for Indian Hockey team. Jharkhand is the host for upcoming National Games.

Media

Electronic Media= ETV Bihar/Jharkhand (Branch Manager- Amit Joy)/ Website-www.etv.co.in (All Jharkhand related News-Johar Jharkhand at 7:30 am & 7:30 pm)

Print Media=Hindi newspapers like the Ranchi Express and the Prabhat Khabar are the main newspapers, published from the state capital, Ranchi and are available in almost all parts of the state. All important Indian newspapers, in Hindi, English and Bengali are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi, English and Bengali are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors.

Ranchi and Jamshedpur have around five radio stations and All India Radio is available throughout the state. In 2007, private FM Channels have also started operation in the state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities in Jharkhand are served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.

Landline telephone connectivity is provided by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Tata Teleservices (TATA INDICOM) and Reliance Infocomm and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by BSNL, Aircel, Idea, Vodafone, Reliance Telecom and Airtel (GSM Service) and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all of the districts.

References

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External links

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