Jharkhand (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,dʒʰaːɽkʰəɳɖ) is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. An area of 28,833 sq mi (74,677 km²).
The name Jharkhand comes from the Sanskrit Jharikhanda which is the ancient name of the regions dense forest - Jharikhanda.
Jharkhand is famed for its mineral wealth and forestry products.
Jharkhand is now advancing economically much faster than its northern neighbor, Bihar. Jharkhand's poverty rate declined 2% per year from 1994-2002. Unlike some other Indian states, Jharkhand's reduction in poverty was faster in the rural areas than in the urban ones. Its percentage of immunized children grew from 9% in 1998-99 to nearly 50% now, according to UNICEF. Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children ages 6-11 are enrolled in school as opposed to 56% in 1993-94.
During the period that the creation of a new state was being considered, and before the name "Jharkhand" was settled on, the proposed state was often referred to as Vananchal, a word derived from "vana" (forest) and "anchal" (area).
However, according to some historians, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire.In the ancient days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha(ancient Bihar) Empire and souther part was a tributary to Kalinga(ancient Orissa) Empire. According to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa was accepted as the ruler of Jharkhand by its people in the 13th century. The Singh Deo's of Orissa have been very instrumental in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand's neighbouring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance.This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist to this day.(These are regions which are still semi- autonomous, the degree of autonomy depending on the size of each specific Munda Raja's domain.) Later, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls.
The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule:
All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.
In 1914 the Tana Bhagat resistance movement started, which gained the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and eventually merged with Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience movement.
Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:
Betla National Park (Palamu), 25 km from Daltonganj covers an area of about 250 square kilometres. The national park has a large variety of wild life like tigers, elephants, bisons locally called gaurs, sambhars, hundreds of wild boar and 15 to long python, herds of spotted deer (cheetals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus, blue bull and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupine, hare, wild cats, honey badgers, jackals, Malabar giant squirrel, mongoose, wolf, antelope, etc. In 1974, the park was declared Project Tiger Reserve.
Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Project Tiger Reserve of Palamu, which is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna , as indicated within brackets: mammal (39), Snakes (8), Lizards (4), Fish (6), Insects (21), Birds (170), seed bearing Plants and Tress (97) , Shrubs and Herbs (46), Climbers, Parasites and semi-Parasites (25), and Grasses and Bamboo (17).
The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 km from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.
One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.
Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. In fact, in some of the districts of Jharkhand, the tribal population predominates over the non-tribal one. Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups. These are the Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar.
The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was previously part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India. Jharkhand's poverty rate, while still high by Indian standards, has declined by 2% per year between the period of 1994-2002.
Hinduism is the majority religion in the state, with 68.5% of the population practicing the faith. Islam is followed by 13.8% of the population, followed by Animisitic Sarna religion which comprises 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population makes the fourth largest religious community in Jharkhand. Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practised making few less than 1%.
Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of Rs.204,910 million for 2005.
The administrative head of the State is called Chief Secretary, under whose jurisdiction a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service / State Civil Services function.
Jharkand is one of the thirteen states in which the Naxalite rebels have considerable influence.
On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, some 160km (100 miles) east of state capital, Ranchi.
|Babulal Marandi||BJP||20 November 2000||18 March 2003|
|Arjun Munda||BJP||18 March 2003||2 March 2005|
|Sibu Soren||JMM||2 March 2005||12 March 2005|
|Arjun Munda||BJP||12 March 2005||18 September 2006|
|Madhu Koda||Independent||18 September 2006||26 August 2008|
|Sibu Soren||JMM||27 August 2008||Till date|
See also: District-wise Map
| Largest cities in Jharkhand|
|03||Bokaro Steel City||Bokaro||393,805||08||Giridih||Giridih||98,989|
In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such diseases, organizations like Ramakrishna Mission through Ramakrishna Mission Tuberculosis Sanatorium (set up in 1948), Ranchi, has been doing exemplary work, and supplementing the efforts of the Government and other agencies. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.
Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of a ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.
Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.
Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children ages 6-11 are enrolled in school as opposed to 56% in 1993-94, so this will likely improve literacy a great deal.
A number of non-technical colleges are located in bigger cities as well as in small towns. The Industrial Training Institutes(ITIs) in particular, offer popular 3 year diploma courses.
Jharkhand has 4 Universities: Ranchi University & Birsa Agricultural University at Ranchi, Sidhhu Kanhu University at Dumka and Vinoba Bhave University in Hazaribagh. Each of these has several constituent and affiliated colleges in other cities and towns. The best of these affiliated colleges offer post-graduate and PhD programs.
Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur (Formerly known as RIT, Jamshedpur), Indian School of Mines University (ISMU Dhanbad) and National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology(NIFFT) are famous engineering colleges.
There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Ranchi, M.G.M. Medical College Jamshedpur and Patliputra Medical College And Hospital (PMCH) at Dhanbad.
The famous B-school Xavier Labour Relations Institute (XLRI) is at Jamshedpur. It's PMIR programme is regarded best in the entire Asia-Pacific region.
Print Media=Hindi newspapers like the Ranchi Express and the Prabhat Khabar are the main newspapers, published from the state capital, Ranchi and are available in almost all parts of the state. All important Indian newspapers, in Hindi, English and Bengali are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi, English and Bengali are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors.
Ranchi and Jamshedpur have around five radio stations and All India Radio is available throughout the state. In 2007, private FM Channels have also started operation in the state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities in Jharkhand are served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.
Landline telephone connectivity is provided by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Tata Teleservices (TATA INDICOM) and Reliance Infocomm and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by BSNL, Aircel, Idea, Vodafone, Reliance Telecom and Airtel (GSM Service) and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all of the districts.