Jean Paul

Jean Paul

[pawl for 1–3, 5; poul for 4]
Marat, Jean Paul, 1743-93, French revolutionary, b. Switzerland. He studied medicine in England, acquired some repute as a doctor in London and Paris, and wrote scientific and medical works (some in English), but was frustrated in his attempts to win official recognition for his work. His Philosophical Essay on Man (1773) was attacked by Voltaire for its extreme materialism. When the Revolution began (1789), he founded the journal L'Ami du peuple, in which he vented his bitter hatred and suspicion of all who were in power. Outlawed for his incendiary diatribes and calls for violence, he twice fled to England (in 1790 and the summer of 1791). He continued to publish his paper in secret and successfully attacked Jacques Necker, the marquis de Lafayette, the commune, the comte de Mirabeau, the émigrés, and, finally, the king. Marat's inflammatory articles helped foment the Aug. 10, 1792, uprising and the September massacres (see French Revolution). In Aug., 1792, he was elected (1792) to the Convention. There he led the attack against the Girondists. He was stabbed to death (July 13) in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a royalist sympathizer. As a revolutionary martyr he was the subject of many tributes, most strikingly the famous death portrait of Jacques-Louis David. Selections from his writings have been published as Textes choisis (1945).

See studies by L. R. Gottschalk (1967) and J. Censer, Prelude to Power (1976).

Getty, Jean Paul, 1892-1976, American business executive, one of the richest men in the world during his life, b. Minneapolis, Minn. He inherited his father's oil business, George F. Getty, Inc., becoming its president and general manager in 1930. When it was reorganized (1956) as the Getty Oil Company, he became the firm's director and principal owner. From the early 1950s until his death, Getty resided in Great Britain. From his 16th-century Tudor estate, known as Sutton Place, Getty controlled a vast business empire made up of almost 200 concerns. His personal worth was estimated to be approximately $3 billion.
Jean-Paul-Alban Villeneuve-Barcement (1784 - 1850) was a parliamentary leader of the French legitimists.


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