The Jaunpur sultanate
was an independent kingdom of northern India
between 1394 CE to 1479 CE, whose rulers ruled from Jaunpur
in the present day state of Uttar Pradesh
. The Jaunpur sultanate was ruled by the Sharqi
dynasty. The Khwajah-i-Jahan Malik Sarwar, the first ruler of the dynasty was a wazir (minister) under Sultan Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah IV Tughluq (1390 – 1394 CE). In 1394 CE, he established himself as an independent ruler of Jaunpur and extended his authority over Awadh
and a large part of Ganga
. The dynasty founded by him was named so because of his title Malik-us-Sharq
(the ruler of the east). The most acclaimed ruler of this dynasty was Ibrahim Shah. The last ruler Hussain Shah was overthrown by Bahlul Lodi, and Jaunpur sultanate was permanently annexed to Delhi sultanate
by Sikandar Lodi
Malik Sarwar, Khwajah-i-Jahan
In 1389 CE, Malik Sarwar received the title of Khajah-i-Jahan
. In 1394 CE, he was appointed as the governor of Jaunpur and received his title of Malik-us-Sharq
from Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah II Tughluq (1394 - 1413 CE). Soon, he established himself as an independent ruler and took the title of Atabak-i-Azam
. He suppressed the rebellions in Etawah, Koil and Kanauj. He was also able to bring under his control Kara, Awadh, Sandila, Dalmau, Bahraich, Bihar and Tirhut. The Rai of Jajnagar ane the ruler of Lakhnauti acknowledged his authority and sent him a number of elephants. After his death, he was succeeded by his adopted son Malik Qaranfal, who took the title of Mubarak Shah
After assuming the power in 1399 CE, Mubarak Shah struk coins in his own name and also the Khutba was read in his name. During his reign, Mallu Iqbal tried to recover Jaunpur, but failed. He was succeeded by Ibrahim Shah after his death in 1402 CE.
Ibrahim Shah, the most noted ruler of this dynasty was a patron of Islamic learning and estblished a number of colleges for this purpose. A large number of scholarly works on Islamic theology and law was produced during his reign. He constructed a number of monuments in a new regional style of architecture known as the Sharqi
. During his reign, Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah II Tughluq took refuge in Jaunpur in order to get rid of the control of Mallu Iqbal over him. But he didnot treat Sultan Mahmud Shah well. As a result, his relations with the Sultan became bitter and Mahmud Shah occupied Kanauj. In 1407 he tried to recover Kanauj but failed. His attempt to conquer Bengal also failed. He was succeeded by his son Mahmud Shah after his death.
Mahmud Shah was successful to conquer Chunar, but failed to capture Kalpi. He also conducted campaigns against Bengal and Orissa
. In 1452 CE, he invaded Delhi but was defeated by Bahlul Lodi. Later, he made another attempt to conquer Delhi and marched into Etawah. Finally, he agreed to a treaty which accepted the right of Bahlul Lodi over Shamsabad. But when Bahlul tried to take possession of Shamsabad, he was opposed by the forces of Jaunpur. At this juncture, Mahmud Shah died and he was succeeded by his son Bhikhan, who assumed the title of Muhammad Shah
On assuming power in 1457 CE, Muhammad Shah made peace with Bahlul Lodi and recognised his right over Shamsabad. He picked up a quarrel with his nobles. In 1458 CE, his brother Hussain Shah proclaimed himself as the sultan in Jaunpur while he was in Kanauj and he was soon killed by his army.
The last ruler Hussain Shah, in order to invade Delhi reached the banks of the Jamunawith
a very large army in 1478 CE. Sultan Bahlul Lodi tried to secure peace by offering to retain only Delhi and govern it as a vassal of Hussain Shah but he rejected the offer. As a result, Sultan Bahlul crossed the Jamuna and defeated him. Hussain Shah agreed for truce but again captured Etawah and marched towards Delhi with a huge army and he was again defeated by Bahlul Lodi. He was able to make peace this time also. In March, 1479 CE he again arrived at the banks of Jamuna. He was again defeated by Bahlul Lodi and lost the Parganas of Kampil, Patiali, Shamsabad, Suket, Koil, Marhara and Jalesar to the advancing army of the Delhi Sultan. After the successive defeats in the battles of Senha, Rapri and Raigaon Khaga, he was finally defeated on the banks of the Rahab. He fled to Bihar. In 1486 CE, Bahlul Lodi placed his eldest surviving son Barbak Shah Lodi on the throne of Jaunpur.
Art and architecture
The Sharqi rulers of Jaunpur were known for their patronage of learning and architecture. Jaunpur was known as Shiraz
of India during this period. Most notable examples of Sharqi style of architecture in Jaunpur are the Atala Mosque, the Lal Darwaja Mosque and the Jami Mosque. Though, the foundation of the Atala Mosque was laid by Firuz Shah Tughluq in 1376 CE, it was completed only during the rule of Ibrahim Shah in 1408 CE. The Lal Darwaja Mosque (1450 CE) was built during the reign of the next ruler Mahmud Shah. The Jami Mosque was built in 1470 CE, during the rule of the last ruler Hussain Shah.
The last ruler Hussain Shah assumed the title of Gandharva
and contributed significantly in the development of Khayal
, a genre of Hindustani classical music
. He also composed several new ragas
(melodies). Most notable among these are , , , Hussaini-
or (presently known as Jaunpuri
) and Jaunpuri-basant
The rulers of the Sharqi dynasty
- Khwajah-i-Jahan 1394 – 1399 CE
- Mubarak Shah 1399 – 1402 CE
- Shams-ud-Din Ibrahim Shah 1402 – 1436 CE
- Saif-ud-Din Mahmud Shah 1436 - 1457 CE
- Muhammad Shah 1457 – 1458 CE
- Hussain Shah 1458 – 1479 CE.