Jat Mahasabha (Hindi:जाट महासभा) or All India Jat Mahasabha (Hindi:अखिल भारतीय जाट महासभा) is the premier organization of Jats in India. Its aim is to raise awareness about the social and economic problems faced by Jats. Many of its officers are politically active and are influential. The Jat Mahasabha spearheaded the community's struggle for reservation in the run-up to the Lok Sabha elections in 1999. Chaudhary Virendra Singh (Retd. IAS) is currently president of the organization. The Mahasabha became a forum for demanding employment and airing Jat grievances over what their poor representation in government service. Leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram were closely associated with the Jat Mahasabha and it remained the leading vehicle for advancing the Jat interests, even after the formation of the Unionist Party, which was concerned with agriculturists' interests in Punjab.
Sir Chhotu Ram explained its objectives as under:
The Jat Mahasabha was initially founded as All India Jat Kshatriya Mahasabha. The founder members were Chaudhary Mamraj Singh Shamli (Muzaffarnagar), Kunwar Kalyan Singh Varkatpur (Bulandshahr), Thakur Tej Singh Vahpur (Bulandshahr), Chaudhary Hari Singh Kurmali (Muzaffarnagar), Shri Ram Lal Hala Raghunathpur (Badayun), Shri Nathu Singh Pardeshi, Kunwar Hukum Singh Angai (Mathura), Shri Lal Singh and Shri Vahal Singh (Saidpur), Chaudhary Gulab Singh Yadnagar, Chaudhary Nanu Singh Delhi, Shri Shadi Ram editor 'Kshatriya' and Sir Chhotu Ram (Rohtak). Kunwar Hukum Singh Angai (Mathura) took pains to bring all the elite people of the society such as Jagirdars, Thikanedars, Raos, Rais, Rai Bahadurs at one platform. Later large number of common people from society joined it. Branches were started at Agra, Aligarh, Bijnor, Muradabad, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Mathura etc. in Uttar Pradesh and Sikar, Ajmer, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur etc. places in Rajasthan. Kunwar Hukum Singh Angai (Mathura) expanded its scope from Brij area to All India in character. The first Executive Committee of All India Jat Mahasabha was constituted on 14 March 1907 in Meerut on the occasion of Nauchandi fair.
From 1918 to 1924, the annual adhiveshans were held at various places. Various decisions were taken regarding the social upliftment, avoiding extravaganza, opening new schools and hostels to spread education amongst masses. Sir Chhotu Ram was appointed Agricultural Minister in Punjab Government in 1924. He had also started the freedom movement against British Rule in India.
The importance of this Institution as a pressure group can be realized from the fact that Britishers were highly concerned for the maintenance and protection of traditions of Jats. Between 1930 and 1932, when the civil disobedience movement spread over the country, it is incredible but true that Governor Malcom Haily had to address the Jat Mahasabha in 1930. The 1930 adhiveshan was the 20th and a historical one and was held at Tishazari ground in Delhi. It was presided over by Rai Bahadur Chaudhary Lalchand Advocate. This was attended by Rana Udaybhanu Singh, the ruler of Dholpur and Chaudhary Sahabuddin, the president of Punjab Legislative Assembly (historical). Sir Chhotu Ram was the coordinator. This was attended by all communities Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs which was the cause of worry for the British Rule. This was also attended by Kunwar Net Ram Singh, Ladu Ram Jakhar, Kunwar Panne Singh, Chaudhary Ram Singh and Swami Baldas from Jaipur.
There was a grand gathering of farmers under the banner of Jat Mahasabha in Jhunjhunu on 11-13 February 1932. 60000 Jat farmers attended it. Thakur Deshraj camped at Jhunjhunu for 15 days to make it a success. The farmers from all parts of India attended it. It was presided by Rao Sahib Chaudhary Rishal Singh Rayees, who was escorted from station to the place of meeting on elephant accompanied by a caravan of camels. This program was of Jats but all the communities cooperated and welcomed. Kunwar Panne Singh Deorod welcomed this rally where as Vidyadhar Singh Sangasi did the welcome of ‘Jaipur Prantiya Jat Kshatriya Sabha’ rallies. Though the Jagirdars did all attempts to make it a failure, but it proved a success. On the appeal of fund collection the participant farmers donated their gold ornaments, which they were wearing. This was the first opportunity of awakening the Shekhawati farmers and proved a grand success. Sardar Harlal Singh and Chaudhary Ghasi Ram had traveled a lot for its publicity and spread its message. Some of the competent people were awarded Kshatriya titles. For example Chaudhary Har Lal Singh was awarded as ‘Sardar’, Ratan Singh of Bharatpur as ‘Kunwar’ and Chaudhary Ram Singh as ‘Thakur’. Thus the Rajput monopoly over these titles vanished.
The Jhunjhunu adhiveshan brought wonderful changes in the life and culture of the farmers of Shekhawati. Their morals were boosted up and other classes accepted the Jats as noble Aryans and Kshatriyas. The success of Jhunjhunu adhiveshan not only changed the life of Shekhawati farmers but those of Jaipur and Bikaner princely states also. After this there were programmes started to improve the social life of the Jat community.
During the Yagya 3000 men and women adopted the Yogyopavit, which was a symbol of "Kisan sangathan"(farmers' organization). Sheetal Kumari daughter of Kunwar Netram Singh adopted yagyopavit. Chaudhary Chimana Ram of Sangasi brought his wife wearing salwar-kurta. The unity of Jat farmers in this Yagya had terrified the Jagirdars of Sikar. The role played by Sardar Har Lal Singh and Thakur Deshraj was unparallel which made this yagya a grand success.
In December 1934, ‘All India Jat Students Federation Conference’ was organized at Pilani; the coordinator of it was Master Ratan Singh. Sir Chhotu Ram, Kunwar Netram Singh, Chaudhary Ram Singh, Thakur Jhumman Singh, Thakur Deshraj and Sardar Har Lal Singh, along with large number of farmers from various states, attended it. This conference gave a great strength to the Jat youth.