James Thomson Shotwell

James Thomson Shotwell

[shot-wel, -wuhl]
Shotwell, James Thomson, 1874-1965, Canadian-American historian, b. Strathroy, Ont. A teacher of history at Columbia from 1900 and professor from 1908 to 1942, Shotwell also worked tirelessly to promote international understanding. He was an active member of several national and international labor, peace, and historical conferences, including the Paris Peace Conference (1918-19) and the conference at San Francisco (1945). He was director of the division of economics and history (1942-49) and president (1949-50) of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and served as chairman (1932-43) of the American committee on International Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. Among his many works are An Introduction to the History of History (1922; rev. ed. The History of History, Vol. I, 1939), Plans and Protocols to End War (1925), War as an Instrument of National Policy (1929), The Origins of the International Labor Organization (1934), On the Rim of the Abyss (1936), The Great Decision (1944), and The Long Way to Freedom (1960). Shotwell was also coauthor of several authoritative studies on international relations and editor of Economic and Social History of the World War (150 vol., 1919-29).

See his autobiography (1961).

James Thomson Shotwell, (1874 – 1965) was a Canada-born American history professor. He is perhaps best remembered for his instrumental role in the creation of the International Labor Organization in 1919, as well as for his guiding influence promoting inclusion of a declaration of human rights in the UN Charter.

Born in Strathroy, Ontario, he was educated at the University of Toronto and then went to New York City where he obtained his doctorate from Columbia University in 1900.

Shotwell attended the Paris Peace Conference as a member of "The Inquiry" - President Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy advisory group. After the war he worked tirelessly to counter US isolationism and to promote US entry into the League of Nations. Shotwell met with the French Minister of Foreign Affairs Aristide Briand in Paris and suggested that a bilateral treaty be negotiated that would outlaw war between the U.S. and France. Their work led to the Kellogg-Briand Pact being signed on August 27, 1928.

In 1937, he was appointed Bryce Professor of the History of International Relations at Columbia University. He served as the Director of Economics and History (1942-49) then president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1949-50). He attended the 1945 San Francisco Conference that drafted the Charter of the United Nations as a private consultant to the U.S. State Department.

In addition to his many books, Shotwell was also co-author of several authoritative studies on international relations and was the editor of a series of 150 volumes of the Social and Economic History of the World War as well as a series of twenty-five studies on Canadian-American relations, both sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He also contributed nearly 250 articles to the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

The "James T. Shotwell Professor of International Relations" at Columbia University was named in his honor.

Shotwell was married to Margaret Harvey and had two daughters, Helen and Margaret Grace. He maintained a home in Woodstock, New York and was instrumental in getting American artist Anita Miller Smith to become a writer and to publish the service record of all Woodstock people who had fought in the war as part of Smith's 1959 book on the town's official history.

Books:

  • The Diplomatic History of the Canadian Boundary, 1749-1763 with Max Savelle
  • At the Paris Peace Conference (1937)
  • An Introduction to the History of History (1922)
  • Plans and Protocols to End War (1925)
  • War as an Instrument of National Policy (1929)
  • The Origins of the International Labor Organization (1934)
  • On the Rim of the Abyss (1936)
  • The Great Decision (1944)
  • The Long Way to Freedom (1960).

References

  • Korey, William, NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Curious Grapevine, New York: St Martin's Press, 1998.

Further reading

Josephson, Harold (1974). James T. Shotwell and the Rise of Internationalism in America. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

External links

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