James

James

[jeymz]
Parton, James, 1822-91, American biographer, b. England. He came to the United States in 1827. In 1848 he joined the staff of N. P. Willis's Home Journal in New York City. His biographical writing began with the very successful Life of Horace Greeley (1855) and was followed by biographies of Aaron Burr (1857), Andrew Jackson (1859-60), John Jacob Astor (1865), and others.
James, Saint, d. c.A.D. 43, in the Bible, one of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Greater. He was the son of Zebedee and the brother of St. John; these brothers were the Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder. St. James was killed by Herod Agrippa I. Veneration of St. James has been widespread, especially in Spain (where he is called Santiago); the shrine of the apostle at Santiago de Compostela, Spain, is one of the most celebrated of Europe. Feast: July 25.
James, Saint, in the Bible, one of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Less or St. James the Little. He was the son of Alphaeus; his mother, Mary, was one of those at the cross and tomb. The Western Church identifies him with Saint James, "the Lord's brother." Feast (with St. Philip): May 1.
James, Saint, in the Bible, the "brother" of Jesus. The Gospels make several references to the brothers of Jesus, and St. Paul speaks of "James the Lord's brother." While Protestants generally regard James as a child of Mary and Joseph conceived after the birth of Jesus, Catholic and Orthodox belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary precludes a blood relationship between Jesus and James, leading those churches to posit that James was a stepbrother (assuming a previous marriage for Joseph) or a cousin. The latter hypothesis, which is favored by the Roman Catholic Church, identifies James with St, James the Less.

The James whom Paul calls "the Lord's brother" witnessed the Resurrection and became a leader of the church in Jerusalem, by tradition the first bishop there. He apparently opposed the imposition of Jewish Law on gentile Christians but believed that Jewish Christians should continue to observe it. He is probably the James of the epistle of that name. Some scholars believe that he wrote it himself, others that it was written at a later date under his name. The Jewish historian Josephus records that James was stoned to death at the instigation of the priests c.A.D. 62.

James, in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. Jude. The original does not specify the relationship.
James, Henry, 1811-82, American student of religion and social problems, b. Albany, N.Y.; father of the philosopher William James and of the novelist Henry James. He rebelled against the strict Calvinist theology of his family and of Princeton Theological Seminary, to which he was sent, and sought a personal solution. Swedenborg's teachings opened for him a way and provided the framework for his own thought as expressed in Substance and Shadow; or, Morality and Religion in Their Relation to Life (1863), Society the Redeemed Form of Man, and the Earnest of God's Omnipotence in Human Nature (1879), and other books. He later developed a social philosophy based upon the principles of Charles Fourier. He was a close friend of many literary figures, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thomas Carlyle.

See F. H. Young, The Philosophy of Henry James (1950); biographies by A. Warren (1934) and A. Habegger (1994). See also studies of the James family by F. O. Matthiessen (1947), R. W. B. Lewis (1991), and P. Fisher (2008).

James, Henry, 1843-1916, American novelist and critic, b. New York City. A master of the psychological novel, James was an innovator in technique and one of the most distinctive prose stylists in English.

He was the son of Henry James, Sr., a Swedenborgian theologian, and the brother of William James, the philosopher. Educated privately by tutors in Europe and the United States, he entered Harvard law school in 1862. Encouraged by William Dean Howells and other members of the Cambridge literary circle in the 1860s, James wrote critical articles and reviews for the Atlantic Monthly, a periodical in which several of his novels later appeared in serial form. He made several trips to Europe, and while there he became associated with such notable literary figures as Turgenev and Flaubert. In 1876 he settled permanently in London and became a British subject in 1915.

James devoted himself to literature and travel, gradually assuming the role of detached spectator and analyst of life. In his early novels, including Roderick Hudson (1876), The American (1877), Daisy Miller (1879), and The Portrait of a Lady (1881), as well as some of his later work, James contrasts the sophisticated, though somewhat staid, Europeans with the innocent, eager, though often brash, Americans. In the novels of his middle period, The Bostonians (1886), The Princess Casamassima (1886), and The Tragic Muse (1890), he turned his attention from the international theme to reformers, revolutionaries, and political aspirants.

During and after an unsuccessful six-year attempt (1889-95) to win recognition as a playwright, James wrote a series of short, powerful novels, including The Aspern Papers (1888), What Maisie Knew (1897), The Spoils of Poynton (1897), The Turn of the Screw (1898), and The Sacred Fount (1901). In his last and perhaps his greatest novels, The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903), and The Golden Bowl (1904), all marked by a return to the international theme, James reached his highest development in the portrayal of the intricate subtleties of character and in the use of a complex, convoluted style to express delicate nuances of thought.

Perhaps more than any previous writer, James refined the technique of narrating a novel from the point of view of a character, thereby laying the foundations of modern stream of consciousness fiction. The series of critical prefaces he wrote for the reissue of his novels (beginning in 1907) won him a reputation as a superb technician. He is also famous for his finely wrought short stories, including "The Beast in the Jungle" and "The Real Thing," which are masterpieces of the genre. In addition to fiction and literary criticism, James wrote several books on travel and three autobiographical works. He never married.

Bibliography

See his notebooks, ed. by F. O. Matthiessen and K. B. Murdock (1947); his plays, ed. by L. Edel (1949); his travel writings, ed. by R. Howard (2 vol., 1993); his selected letters, ed. by P. Horne (1999); biographies by L. Edel (5 vol., 1953-71, rev. ed. 1985), R. Gard (1987), F. Kaplan (1992), L. Gordon (1999), and S. M. Novick (2 vol., 1996 and 2007); studies by F. O. Matthiessen (1944), J. W. Beach (rev. ed. 1954), Q. Anderson (1957), S. Sears (1968), P. Buitenhuis (1970), O. Cargill (1961, repr. 1971), and P. Brooks (2007). See also studies of the James family by F. O. Matthiessen (1947), R. W. B. Lewis (1991), and P. Fisher (2008).

James, Jesse (Woodson), 1847-82, American outlaw, b. Clay co., Mo. At the age of 15 he joined the Confederate guerrilla band led by William Quantrill and participated in the brutal and bloody civil warfare in Kansas and Missouri. In 1866, Jesse and his brother Frank became the leaders of a band of outlaws whose trail of robberies and murders led through most of the central states. At first they robbed only banks, but in 1873 they began to rob trains. The beginning of their downfall came in 1876 when, after killing two people and failing to secure any money in an attempted bank robbery at Northfield, Minn., they lost several members of the gang, including the Younger brothers, three of their most trusted followers, who were captured and imprisoned (see Younger, Cole). The James brothers escaped and were quiet until 1879, when they robbed another train. The reward offered by Gov. Thomas T. Crittenden of Missouri for the capture of the James brothers, dead or alive, tempted one of the gang, Robert Ford, who caught Jesse (then living under the name of Thomas Howard) off guard and killed him. Frank James surrendered but was twice acquitted and lived out his life peacefully on his farm near Excelsior Springs, Mo. The melodramatic style of the exploits of the James gang attracted wide public admiration, giving rise to a number of romanticized legends, the famous song "The Ballad of Jesse James," and much popular literature.

See biographies by R. Love (1926) and T. J. Stiles (2002); H. Croy, Jesse James Was My Neighbor (1949, repr. 1962); C. W. Breihan, The Complete and Authentic Life of Jesse James (1953, repr. 1970); J. L. James, Jesse James and the Lost Cause (1961); W. A. Settle, Jesse James Was His Name (1966).

James, P. D. (Phyllis Dorothy James White, Baroness James of Holland Park), 1920-, English mystery novelist, b. Oxford. From 1964 to 1979 she worked in the criminal department of the Department of Home Affairs. Her first mystery, Cover Her Face, was published in 1962. It introduced readers to her most famous character, Scotland Yard's poet-detective Adam Dalgliesh, who appears in most of her subsequent books. Her novels are in the tradition of English detective fiction but go beyond the stereotypical with their subtly realistic characterizations, complex motivations, and sophisticated plots. Her works include An Unsuitable Job for a Woman (1972), in which her female sleuth Cordelia Gray first appears; Death of an Expert Witness (1977); The Skull beneath the Skin (1982); A Taste for Death (1986), which marks the debut of Dalgliesh's assistant Kate Miskin; Devices and Desires (1989); A Certain Justice (1997); Death in Holy Orders (2001); The Lighthouse (2005); and The Private Patient (2008). Many of her novels have been adapted for television. James also won critical and popular acclaim with her psychologically insightful and best-selling non-detective novel Innocent Blood (1980). The Children of Men (1992, film 2006), set in 2027, is the tale of a dystopic Britain in which women can no longer conceive children. James was created a baroness in 1991.

See her memoir Time to Be in Earnest (2000); studies by N. Siebenheller (1981) and R. B. Gidez (1986).

James, Thomas, 1593?-1635?, English navigator and explorer (1631) of James Bay. Financed by Bristol merchants, he sailed in command of the Henrietta Maria in the spring of 1631 to find the Northwest Passage to the East. Having explored James Bay (the south extension of Hudson Bay), which was named for him, he wintered on Charlton Island, and in the summer of 1632 continued his attempt to find the passage, a quest that Luke Fox was also undertaking independently (1631). Upon his return to England, James wrote his Strange and Dangerous Voyage (1633), which was later to have a strong influence on the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

See R. B. Bodilly, The Voyage of Captain Thomas James (1928); C. M. MacInnes, Captain Thomas James and the North West Passage (1967).

James, Thomas, 1782-1847, American fur trader and pioneer, b. Maryland. He accompanied the 1809 expedition of the Missouri Fur Company up the Missouri River. He left the expedition at the Mandan villages (in the vicinity of Bismarck, N.Dak.) and returned to St. Louis, where he became a merchant. With Robert McKnight he led an early expedition (1821-23) over the Santa Fe Trail. Later he settled in S Illinois. He is chiefly remembered for his valuable account of his early expedition, Three Years among the Indians and Mexicans (1846, ed. by W. B. Douglas, 1916).
James, William, 1842-1910, American philosopher, b. New York City, M.D. Harvard, 1869; son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James and brother of the novelist Henry James. In 1872 he joined the Harvard faculty as lecturer on anatomy and physiology, continuing to teach until 1907, after 1880 in the department of psychology and philosophy. In 1890 he published his brilliant and epoch-making Principles of Psychology, in which the seeds of his philosophy are already discernible. James's fascinating style and his broad culture and cosmopolitan outlook made him the most influential American thinker of his day.

His philosophy has three principal aspects—voluntarism, pragmatism, and "radical empiricism." He construes consciousness as essentially active, selective, interested, teleological. We "carve out" our world from "the jointless continuity of space." Will and interest are thus primary; knowledge is instrumental. The true is "only the expedient in our way of thinking." Ideas do not reproduce objects, but prepare for, or lead the way to, them. The function of an idea is to indicate "what conceivable effects of a practical kind the object may involve—what sensations we are to expect from it and what reactions we must prepare." This theory of knowledge James called pragmatism, a term already used by Charles S. Peirce. James's "radical empiricism" is a philosophy of "pure experience," which rejects all transcendent principles and finds experience organized by means of "conjunctive relations" that are as much a matter of direct experience as things themselves. Moreover, James regards consciousness as only one type of conjunctive relation within experience, not as an entity above, or distinct from, its experience. James's other philosophical writings include The Will to Believe (1897), The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), Pragmatism (1907), A Pluralistic Universe (1909), The Meaning of Truth (1909), Some Problems in Philosophy (1911), and Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912).

See his letters (ed. by his son Henry James, 1920); the Harvard Univ. Press edition of The Works of William James (17 vol., 1975-88); biographies by E. C. Moore (1965), G. W. Allen (1967), and L. Simon (1998); studies by B. P. Brennan (1968), J. Wild (1969), and P. K. Dooley (1974); R. B. Perry, The Thought and Character of William James (2 vol. 1935, abr. ed. 1948) and In the Spirit of William James (1938, repr. 1958); H. S. Levinson, The Religious Investigations of William James (1981); J. Barzun, A Stroll with William James (1984). See also studies of the James family by F. O. Matthiessen (1947), R. W. B. Lewis (1991), and P. Fisher (2008).

James. 1 Unnavigable river, 710 mi (1,143 km) long, rising in central N.Dak. and flowing across S.Dak. to the Missouri River at Yankton, S.Dak. Jamestown Dam on the river is an irrigation and flood control unit of the Missouri River basin project of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The James is also known as the Jim River or the Dakota River. 2 River, 340 mi (547 km) long, formed in W central Va. by the union of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers and winding E across Va. to enter Chesapeake Bay through Hampton Roads. One of Virginia's chief rivers, it is navigable for large ships to Richmond, c.100 mi (160 km) upstream; Norfolk, Newport News, and Portsmouth are large ports at its mouth. Its chief tributaries are the Appomattox and Chickahominy rivers. The James's upper course flows through scenic gorges in the Blue Ridge Mts. and the Piedmont; waterfalls and rapids provide power. English colonists founded Jamestown on the lower river in 1607. During the Civil War, Union forces used the river in vain attempts to capture Richmond (see Peninsular campaign; Seven Days battles).
James, letter of the New Testament, traditionally classified among the Catholic, or General, Epistles. The James of its ascription is traditionally identified with St. James the Less. However, the name is more likely a pseudonym. The letter's diverse sayings and admonitions, some of which are recurrent, are interspersed with more lengthy discourses, e.g., on the relationship of faith and works, the need for curbing the tongue, and the danger of envy and ambition. There are many points of contact with sayings of Jesus recorded in the Synoptic Gospels—e.g., on oaths, on rich oppressors, and on loving one's neighbor. Martin Luther rejected James because it seemed to deny his interpretation of justification by faith and to argue instead that a person is justified by works. "Works" are faith in action, i.e., the expression of trust in God. For both James and Paul, loving one's neighbor fulfills the law. Scholars differ widely on the origins and date of the work.

See studies by D. J. Moo (1985) and R. P. Martin (1988).

Levine, James, 1943-, American conductor, b. Cincinnati, Ohio. A piano prodigy, he was a soloist with the Cincinnati Symphony at the age of 10. After extensive musical studies, he served (1964-65) as an apprentice to George Szell with the Cleveland Orchestra, becoming (1965-70) its assistant conductor. Particularly renowned for his wide knowledge and sensitive performances of the operatic repertoire, Levine made his conducting debut with the Metropolitan Opera orchestra in 1971. Extremely popular, he became the opera's principal conductor in 1973, musical director in 1976, and artistic director in 1986. He also was music director of the Munich Philharmonic from 1999 to 2004, when he became music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Levine is a frequent guest conductor of American and European orchestras and festivals.

See Dialogues and Discoveries by R. C. Marsh (1998).

Wilson, James, 1742-98, American jurist, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. near St. Andrews, Scotland. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and, after emigrating to Pennsylvania in 1766, taught Latin at the College of Philadelphia (now Univ. of Pennsylvania). He studied law there under John Dickinson, was later admitted to the bar in 1767, and became a successful lawyer within a few years. He was a member of the Pennsylvania convention (1774) and in the following year was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress. Although he strongly disputed Parliament's authority over the colonies, he opposed independence until July, 1776. Because he vigorously opposed the extremely democratic principles of the Pennsylvania constitution of 1776, he lost (1777) his seat in Congress. He became allied with the conservative faction and argued for it in the Congress of the Confederation (1782-83, 1785-87). Wilson is especially known for his part in the Federal Convention of 1787, where he was a proponent of a strong executive. His influence in drawing up the Constitution was second only to that of James Madison. He was active in drafting the Pennsylvania constitution of 1790 and served as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1789-98). He was the first professor of law (1789) at the College of Philadelphia. Wilson wrote a number of pamphlets, addresses, treatises, and lectures on law.

See biography by C. P. Smith (1956, repr. 1973); the collection of his works, 2 vol., ed by R. G. McCloskey (1804, repr. 1967).

Wilson, James, 1836-1920, American agriculturist and cabinet officer, b. Ayrshire, Scotland. He emigrated to the United States and settled (1851) in Connecticut, later moving (1855) to Tama co., Iowa, where he became a successful farmer. A member of the Republican party, he served in the state legislature (1867-73) and in the U.S. Congress (1873-77, 1883-85). Wilson was (1891-97) director of the agricultural experiment station and professor of agriculture at Iowa State (now Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology). As Secretary of Agriculture (1897-1913) under Presidents William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft, he greatly expanded the services of the department; a number of experimental stations were set up over the country, and the aid of experts and scientists was enlisted.
Wolfe, James, 1727-59, British soldier. After a distinguished record in European campaigns, he was made (1758) second in command to Jeffery Amherst in the last of the French and Indian Wars. Through his skillful siege operations, he became a hero of the capture of Louisburg (1758) from the French, and he was rewarded with the command of an expedition against the French at Quebec, which he himself had urged. After frontal attacks on the positions of General Montcalm at Quebec had failed, Wolfe took 5,000 men in boats down the St. Lawrence by night and forced an open battle with the French on the Plains of Abraham (Sept. 13, 1759). The British were victorious, but both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed. The battle was decisive in the fall of New France to the British. Wolfe is vividly portrayed in Thackeray's Virginians.

See biographies by C. Hibbert (1959) and D. R. Robin (1960); F. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe (1884); R. Howard, Wolfe at Quebec (1965).

Brown, James, 1933-2006, African-American rhythm-and-blues singer known as the "godfather of soul," b. Barnwell, S.C., as James Joe Brown, Jr. Abandoned by his parents, he left school in the seventh grade and turned to petty crime. After three years in reform school, Brown joined (1952) the Gospel Starlighters, which soon became the Famous Flames, the group with which he recorded his first hit, Please, Please, Please (1956). With his soulful, gravel-voiced, gospel-inflected singing style and spectacular stage presence—often screaming (on key) and dancing acrobatically—Brown was a true innovator of rhythm and blues and funk, recording such hit singles as I Got You (I Feel Good) (1965), It's a Man's, Man's, Man's World (1966), the Black Pride anthem Say It Loud (1968), and many albums, e.g., Live at the Apollo (1963) and The Payback (1974). He again hit the top of the charts with his Grammy-winning album Living in America (1985). Jailed (1988) on drug and gun charges, he was released in 1991 and resumed an active singing and recording career. Brown's vocal style has had a great influence on musicians from Elvis Presley to Michael Jackson, the Rolling Stones, and hip-hop artists. The recipient of many music awards, in 1986 Brown was one of the original inductees of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

See his The Godfather of Soul (1986) and I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life of Soul (2005).

Bruce, James, 1730-94, Scottish explorer in Africa. He explored Roman ruins in N Africa (1755) from Tunis to Tripoli and visited Crete, Rhodes, and Asia Minor. In 1768 he traveled down the Red Sea as far as the straits of Bab el Mandeb. From Massawa he struck inland for Gondar, then the capital of Ethiopia. He rediscovered (1770) the source of the Blue Nile, which he followed (1771) to its confluence with the White Nile. He wrote Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, 1768-73 (3d ed. 1813). For his travels in Barbary, see R. L. Playfair, Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce (1877).

See biography by J. M. Reid (1968).

Bruce, James, 8th earl of Elgin: see Elgin, James Bruce, 8th earl of.
Buchanan, James, 1791-1868, 15th President of the United States (1857-61), b. near Mercersburg, Pa., grad. Dickinson College, 1809.

Early Career

Buchanan studied law at Lancaster, Pa., and in practice there gained a considerable reputation for his wide learning and brilliant oratory. Thus prepared, he went into state politics, then entered the national scene as Representative (1821-31), and was later minister to Russia (1832-33) and Senator (1834-45). A Federalist early in his career, he was later a conservative mainstay of the Democratic party.

He served (1845-49) as Secretary of State under President Polk and, although Polk exercised a strong personal hand in foreign affairs, Buchanan ably seconded his efforts. The quarrel with Great Britain over Oregon was settled peacefully. That with Mexico, which followed the annexation of Texas and the failure of the mission of John Slidell, led to the Mexican War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848).

Under President Pierce, Buchanan served (1853-56) as minister to Great Britain. He collaborated with Pierre Soulé, minister to Spain, and John Y. Mason, minister to France, in drawing up the Ostend Manifesto (1854), which was promptly repudiated by the U.S. Dept. of State. His open advocacy of purchasing Cuba (which would presumably have come into the Union as a slaveholding state) won him the hatred of the abolitionists, whom he in turn despised as impractical troublemakers.

Presidency

Buchanan was nominated as a Democratic candidate for the presidency in 1856, with John C. Breckinridge as his running mate, and he won the election over John C. Frémont, the candidate of the newly formed Republican party, and Millard Fillmore, candidate of the Whig and Know-Nothing parties. Buchanan did not have the majority of the popular vote, and his moderate views were disliked and mistrusted by extremists both in the North and in the South.

Although he attempted to keep the "sacred balance" between proslavery and antislavery factions, in his administration the United States plunged toward the armed strife of the Civil War. Buchanan, who disapproved of slavery as morally wrong, felt that under the Constitution slavery had to be protected where it was established and that the inhabitants of a new territory should decide whether that territory should be free or slave. He angered many in the North by renewing efforts to purchase Cuba and by favoring the proslavery Lecompton Constitution in Kansas.

As his administration drew to a close, after the election (1860) of Abraham Lincoln to succeed him as President, Buchanan was faced with the secession of the Southern states. Very learned in constitutional law, he maintained that no state had the right to secede, but he held, on the other hand, that he had no power to coerce the erring states. He believed that the federal government was authorized to use force only in protecting federal property and in collecting customs. Therefore the question of the federal forts in Southern states became of great importance, particularly in South Carolina.

Buchanan tried desperately to keep peace and promised South Carolina congressmen that no hostile moves would be made as long as negotiations were in progress. When Major Robert Anderson moved U.S. troops from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, there was an outcry from South Carolina that the President's promise had been broken. Buchanan defended Anderson but, reluctant to act, sent supplies to Fort Sumter only belatedly. He was battered with criticism from North and South, and shortly after his administration ended, gunfire at Fort Sumter precipitated the war. John Bassett Moore edited his works (12 vol., 1909-11).

Bibliography

See E. B. Smith, The Presidency of James Buchanan (1975) and biographies by G. T. Curtis (1883, repr. 1969) and P. S. Klein (1962).

Crichton, James, 1560?-1583?, Scottish adventurer and scholar, called the Admirable Crichton. A graduate of the Univ. of St. Andrews, he spent some time in France, possibly in military service. By 1579 he was in Italy, where he attracted attention by his scholarly accomplishments and personal charm. Reputedly he spoke 12 languages and displayed amazing erudition and powers of memory in public disputations. He entered the service of a Mantuan nobleman as tutor to his son and was slain by his charge in a street brawl. His fame is due to the extravagant praise given him by Aldus Manutius (grandson of the famous printer of the same name) and by his 17th-century biographer, Sir Thomas Urquhart.
Lenox, James, 1800-1880, American bibliophile and philanthropist, b. New York City. Lenox was a founder of the Presbyterian Hospital, New York City. He amassed a fine collection of paintings and books that, as the Lenox Library, became part of the New York Public Library in 1895 and in 1913 was moved to the central library. The Frick Collection stands on the library's former Fifth Avenue site.

See H. Stevens, Recollections of James Lenox and the Formation of His Library (1886, new ed. by V. H. Paltsits, 1952).

Nicholson, James, c.1736-1804, American naval officer, b. Chestertown, Md.; brother of Samuel Nicholson. During the American Revolution, Nicholson, appointed (1776) a captain in the Continental navy, was senior officer after the dismissal of Esek Hopkins in 1778. While awaiting the Virginia, his first command, Nicholson and his crew fought at the battle of Trenton (Dec., 1776). In attempting to elude the British blockade of Chesapeake Bay, the Virginia ran aground and was captured (1778), although Nicholson escaped. His next ship, the Trumbull, held the Watt to a draw in 1780, but in 1781 it was captured by superior British forces. Nicholson later lived in New York City, where he was active as a Jeffersonian in politics.
Boswell, James, 1740-95, Scottish author, b. Edinburgh; son of a distinguished judge. At his father's insistence the young Boswell reluctantly studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1766, he practiced throughout his life, but his true interest was in a literary career and in associating with the great men of his day. Boswell first met Samuel Johnson on a trip to London in 1763. The same year he traveled about the Continent, where he made the acquaintance of Rousseau and Voltaire. He achieved literary fame with his Account of Corsica (1768), based on his visit to that island and on his acquaintance with the Corsican patriot Pasquale Paoli. Boswell married his cousin Margaret Montgomerie in 1769.

In 1773 Boswell became a member of Johnson's club, to which Burke, Garrick, Reynolds, Goldsmith, and other 18th-century luminaries also belonged. Later that year he and Johnson toured Scotland, a visit Boswell described in The Journal of a Tour of the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1785; complete edition from manuscript, 1936). His great work, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., appeared in 1791. In it Boswell recorded Johnson's conversation minutely, but with a fine sense of critical judgment. So skillful was his work that Johnson is perhaps better remembered today for his sayings in the biography than for his own works. The curious combination of Boswell's own character (he was vainglorious, a heavy drinker, and a libertine) and his genius at biography have intrigued later critics, many of whom conclude that he is the greatest biographer in Western literature. Misconduct led to poverty and ill health in his final years.

In the 20th cent. great masses of Boswell manuscripts—journals, letters, and other papers—were discovered, most of them at Malahide Castle, Ireland. Lt. Col. Ralph H. Isham purchased the first in 1927 and sold these and later finds to Yale Univ. Publication of these "Yale Editions of the Private Papers," under the editorship of Frederick A. Pottle and others, reached many volumes. The recent findings, most particularly his voluminous journals, have enhanced Boswell's literary reputation. Always lively and, at times, even exciting, the journals portray Boswell's daily life in extraordinary detail. They are written in an easy, colloquial style, which resembles the style of many 20th-century authors.

See F. A. Pottle, James Boswell: The Earlier Years, 1740-1769 (2d ed. 1984), F. Brady, James Boswell: The Later Years, 1769-95 (1984), and P. Martin, A Life of James Boswell (2000); studies by J. L. Clifford (1970), D. L. Passler (1971), H. Pearson (1958, repr. 1972), W. R. Siebenschuh (1972), and A. Sisman (2001).

Bowdoin, James, 1726-90, American political leader, b. Boston. He was elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1753 and served until 1774. Illness prevented him (1774) from taking his place as a delegate to the Continental Congress. Bowdoin was (1775-77) a leading figure in the council that governed Massachusetts during the Revolution, presided over the state constitutional convention in 1779, and served (1785-87) as governor of the state. A conservative, as governor he played an active role in suppressing Shays's Rebellion and also forwarded the movement toward a centralized national government. Bowdoin College, in Maine, was named for him.
Bowie, James, c.1796-1836, American frontiersman, b. Logan co., Ky. With his brother, Rezin, he engaged in land speculation in Louisiana and Arkansas. In Texas from 1828, Bowie became a leader of American settlers who opposed the Mexican government and joined in the Nacogdoches disturbances of 1832. When the Texas revolution began in 1835, he was appointed colonel; he died at the Alamo. The legend attributing the bowie knife to his invention is disputed.

See C. L. Douglas, James Bowie (1944); R. W. Thorp, Bowie Knife (1948); W. C. Davis, Three Roads to the Alamo (1998).

Larkin, James, 1876-1947, Irish labor leader. The Irish Transport and General Workers' Union, which he organized and of which he was secretary, had as its goal the combining of all Irish industrial workers, skilled and unskilled, into one organization. After his activity in the general strike of 1913 he was tried by the British for sedition and jailed briefly. When World War I began, Larkin traveled to the United States to raise funds for the Irish to fight the British. His radical socialist manifestos and close association with the founders of the American Communist party resulted in a conviction (1920) for criminal anarchy. Pardoned in 1923 by the governor of New York, Alfred E. Smith, Larkin was deported to Ireland. There he organized (1924) the Workers' Union of Ireland and served in the Dáil Éireann (1937-38, 1943-44), on the Dublin Trades Council, and on the Dublin Corporation.

See biographies by R. M. Fox (1957) and E. J. Larkin (1965).

Lawrence, James, 1781-1813, American naval hero, b. Burlington, N.J. He entered the navy in 1798 and saw his first important service in the Tripolitan War. In the War of 1812, as commander of the Hornet, he defeated and sank (1813) the British Peacock. He was promoted to captain and was given command of the Chesapeake at Boston. On his way out of Boston harbor he met, engaged, and was defeated by the British frigate Shannon, which had been blockading Boston. His words "Tell the men to fire faster and not to give up the ship" shouted as he was carried from the deck, mortally wounded, became the popular naval battle cry "Don't give up the ship!"

See biography by A. Gleaves (1904); P. Padfield, Broke and the Shannon (1968).

Quin, James, 1693-1766, English actor. He made his London debut in 1714. The successor of Barton Booth, he was the last of the declamatory school. At his best in declaiming the great tragic roles, Quin was in constant rivalry with the young Garrick until Quin left the stage in 1751. He was regarded as one of the greatest interpreters of the role of Falstaff.
Hoban, James, c.1762-1831, American architect, b. Ireland. By 1789, Hoban had immigrated to the United States. He designed the South Carolina statehouse, which was burned in 1865. In 1792 he moved to Washington, D.C., and won the competition for the design of a mansion for the President (later called the White House), which he built from 1792 to 1799 and rebuilt after it was burned by the British in 1814. He was one of the supervising architects who served at the Capitol in the execution of Dr. William Thornton's design, and he worked on public buildings for more than 25 years.
Murray, James, 1721?-94, British general, first civil governor of Canada, b. Scotland. He went to Canada as an army officer in 1757 and was prominent at the siege of Louisburg (1758) and in the crucial battle on the Plains of Abraham. Murray was given command of Quebec and withstood the efforts of the French. He was made military governor of Quebec and after the Treaty of Paris (1763) became (1764) the first civil governor of Canada, then called the Province of Quebec. His efforts to protect the French Canadians prepared the way for the Quebec Act (1774) and earned him the enmity of many of the English. Summoned (1766) to England to face charges of betraying British interests, he was vindicated. Although he continued in the governorship until 1768, he did not return to Canada. He remained in the army and reached the rank of full general (1783).
Dickey, James, 1923-97, American poet and novelist, b. Atlanta. After serving in the air force during World War II, he attended Vanderbilt Univ., graduating in 1946. He was an English teacher and an advertising executive. Dickey's poetry has great energy. He made use of the ordinary in his verse, joining the natural and mechanical on such topics as war, nature, and machinery. His volumes of poetry include Into the Stone and Other Poems (1960), Buckdancer's Choice (1965), The Zodiac (1976), and Falling, May Day, Sermon, and Other Poems (1981). He is probably best known for his novel Deliverance (1969), in which a group of businessmen on a hunting trip are forced to fight for their lives. He also wrote the screenplay for the film version (1972). His nonfiction includes Self-Interviews (1970) and several works of criticism.

See H. Hart, ed., The James Dickey Reader (1999), M. J. Bruccoli and J. S. Baughman, ed., Crux: The Letters of James Dickey (1999); biography by H. Hart (2000); studies by R. Baughman (1985) and N. Bowers (1985).

Abercromby, James, 1706-81, British general in the French and Indian Wars, b. Scotland. He arrived in America in 1756 and in 1758 replaced the earl of Loudoun as supreme British commander. After failing to take Ticonderoga from General Montcalm, Abercromby was replaced (1758) by Jeffery Amherst.
Logan, James, 1674-1751, American colonial statesman and scholar, b. Ireland. While engaged in the shipping trade, Logan met William Penn and became (1699) his secretary. He emigrated to Philadelphia with Penn and remained his confidential adviser for many years. He served as provincial secretary and clerk of the provincial council, where he was a member from 1702 to 1747. A leader of the aristocratic proprietary party, he often came into bitter conflict with David Lloyd. Logan became mayor of Philadelphia (1722), justice of the court of common pleas (1727), and chief justice of the supreme court (1731). He was acting governor of the province from 1736 to 1738. Logan became very wealthy through land investment and trade with Native Americans. He maintained a large estate, where his hospitality to the Native Americans established their long-lasting friendship with the colony. Logan's wide scholarly interests included botanical research that received recognition from Carolus Linnaeus, who named the genus Logania after him. He was also the author of numerous scientific works, and at his death he left his large library of classical and scientific books to Philadelphia.

See Correspondence between William Penn and James Logan, ed. by D. Logan and E. Armstrong (2 vol., 1870-72, repr. 1972); biography by F. B. Tolles (1957).

Logan, James, c.1725-1780, chief of the Mingo, b. Pennsylvania. He took his name from James Logan (1674-1751) and is frequently called simply Logan. He was a leader of the Native Americans on the Ohio and Scioto rivers. Logan was long the friend of the whites, but when his family was massacred by white settlers (1774), his attacks against them helped bring on Dunmore's War. Logan refused to participate in making the treaty, and his eloquent speech became famous. He served with the British during the American Revolution.

See biography by G. S. Haber (1958).

Longstreet, James, 1821-1904, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Edgefield District, S.C. He graduated (1842) from West Point and served in the Mexican War, reaching the rank of major. At the outbreak of the Civil War he resigned from the U.S. army and became a Confederate brigadier general. He took part in the first battle of Bull Run and in the Peninsular campaign. His creditable performance at the second battle of Bull Run (1862), at Antietam, and at the battle of Fredericksburg led to his promotion (Oct., 1862) to lieutenant general. In 1862-63 he held a semi-independent command S of the James River, returning too late to aid General Lee at Chancellorsville. He commanded the right wing at Gettysburg (1863), where his delay in taking the offensive is generally said to have cost Lee the battle (see Gettysburg campaign). He fought at Chickamauga in the Chattanooga campaign and unsuccessfully besieged Knoxville (1863). Returning to Virginia in 1864, he distinguished himself in the Wilderness campaign, where he was wounded. Longstreet participated in the last defense of Richmond, surrendering with Lee at Appomattox. After the war he settled in New Orleans, became a Republican, and held a number of federal posts. He criticized Lee's conduct at Gettysburg harshly and was long unpopular in the South. As a general, he is considered to have been a poor independent commander and strategist but an excellent combat officer. His opinions on the war are expressed in his From Manassas to Appomattox (1896, repr. 1960).

See G. Tucker, Lee and Longstreet at Gettysburg (1968); W. G. Piston, Lee's Tarnished Lieutenant: James Longstreet and His Place in Southern History (1987).

Hutton, James, 1726-97, Scottish geologist, chemist, and naturalist. He was initially attracted to chemistry; he entered the legal profession at the Univ. of Edinburgh; turned to medicine, as it closely resembled chemistry; and then became a farmer to allow him to study rocks and be able to pursue his interests in geology. He formulated controversial theories of the origin of the earth and of atmospheric changes (see uniformitarianism) that paved the way to modern geological science. After 1768, he moved to Edinburgh to discuss his ideas with other scholars including the physician and mathematician John Playfair, and chemist Joseph Black. Hutton started a controversy by standing against the popular Neptunists (rocks developed in a great flood) and the Plutonists (all rocks are of igneous origin) schools, proposing the theory of uniformity of causes, concluding that the earth's history can be explained by observing the geological forces now at work, because these forces are identical to the ones that operated in the past. By studying the Devonian Old Red Sandstone along the Scotland coast, he discovered that sedimentary rocks originated from, not a single flood, but a series of successive floods; noted that the intrusion of igneous rocks were distinct from sedimentary deposits; recorded the gradual actions of geomorphic processes; and discussed the lengths of geologic time. His ideas influenced Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which in turn influenced Charles Darwin's theories of adaptive evolution. Hutton's great work was The Theory of the Earth (2 vol., 1795; MS fragment for Vol. III ed. by Archibald Geikie, 1899); it was simplified by John Playfair as Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (1802).

See study by E. B. Bailey (1967).

Van Der Zee, James, 1886-1983, American photographer, b. Lenox, Mass. The son of Ulysses S. Grant's maid and butler, Van Der Zee opened his first studio in Harlem, New York City, in 1915. For 60 years, working in obscurity, he made a visual record of Harlem life unsurpassed in scope and detail. In 1967 the Metropolitan Museum of Art discovered Van Der Zee's remaining 40,000 prints and negatives and displayed many of them in its "Harlem on My Mind" exhibit (1969).

See monograph by L. de Cock and R. McGhee (1973).

Gregory, James, 1638-75, Scottish mathematician. He invented a reflecting telescope (1661), which he described in his Optica promota (1663). In 1668 he became professor of mathematics at the Univ. of St. Andrews and, in 1674, professor of mathematics at the Univ. of Edinburgh. He originated a photometric mode of measuring the distance of stars and wrote Geometriae pars universalis (1668) and Exercitationes geometricae (1668).
Groppi, James, 1931-85, American Roman Catholic cleric and political activist, b. Milwaukee. Groppi, who grew up in the Milwaukee slums, attended St. Francis' Seminary and was ordained in 1960. In 1967 he helped lead Milwaukee's black population in more than 100 demonstrations against segregated housing; his actions resulted in an open housing ordinance. Groppi directed his protest activities primarily to the state and city levels. Having had long-standing differences with the church hierarchy, he left the priesthood and St. Michael's Parish in Milwaukee in 1976 when he married activist Margaret Rozga.
Hargreaves, James, 1720?-1778, English engineer. In 1762 he made an unsuccessful attempt to develop a machine for carding, a process preparatory to spinning, and in 1764 he invented the spinning jenny, which resulted in doubling production in the carding process.
Harrington, James, 1611-77, English political writer. His Commonwealth of Oceana (1656) pictured a utopian society in which political authority rested entirely with the landed gentry. Harrington advocated definite agrarian reforms, however, in order to achieve a greater equality of power. He sought to abolish primogeniture and to limit the amount of land an individual could hold. He also advocated division of the powers of government, a written constitution, and the principle of rotation in office. Penn's government in Pennsylvania is said to owe much to the Oceana. Harrington's ideas can be seen in the doctrines of the American Revolution and the French Revolution.

See studies by C. Blitzer (1960, repr. 1970) and H. F. Russell-Smith (1971).

Harrod, James, 1742-93, American frontiersman, b. Bedford co., Pa. He fought in the French and Indian Wars and in 1773 made a journey down the Ohio River to Kentucky. In 1774 he returned to Kentucky and began a settlement, the first in the state; it was named Harrodsburg in his honor. Later he opposed the colonization schemes of Richard Henderson and his Transylvania Company. In 1777, 1779, and 1782 he took part in campaigns against native tribes and was a member of the Virginia assembly (1779). Harrod disappeared mysteriously while trapping with two companions and never returned. He probably was murdered.

See biography by K. H. Mason (1951).

Adam, James: see Adam, Robert.
Franck, James, 1882-1964, German physicist. He was professor of physics at Göttingen and at Johns Hopkins (1935-38) and professor of physical chemistry at the Univ. of Chicago from 1938. He specialized in atomic structure and photosynthesis. With Gustav Hertz he shared the 1925 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery (1914) of the laws governing the effect of the impact of the electron on the atom.
Naismith, James, 1861-1939, American athletic director, inventor (1891) of basketball, b. Almonte, Ontario. While an instructor of physical education at the International YMCA Training School (now Springfield College) at Springfield, Mass., he originated basketball as a gymnasium sport. The game was originally played with a soccer ball and two peach bushel baskets, from which the game took its name. Twelve of the thirteen rules Naismith created are still basic to the game. Naismith was later (1898-1937) director of physical education at the Univ. of Kansas.

See biography by B. L. Webb (1973).

Rainwater, James, 1917-86, American physicist, Ph.D. Columbia, 1946. After working on the Manhattan Project as a student during World War II, he became a professor of physics at Columbia in 1952. His theory that not all atomic nuclei are spherical was verified experimentally by Danish physicists Aage N. Bohr and Benjamin R. Mottelson. For their work the three researchers shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics. Rainwater also received the Atomic Energy Commission's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Prize for Physics in 1963.
Hogg, James, 1770-1835, Scottish poet, called the Ettrick Shepherd. Sir Walter Scott established Hogg's literary reputation by including some of his poems in Border Minstrelsy. Hogg's verse, notable for its earthy vigor, includes The Mountain Bard (1807) and The Queen's Wake (1813). He also wrote several prose works, including recollections of Scott (1834).

See his memoirs, Confessions of a Fanatic (1824); study by L. Simpson (1962).

Biddle, James, 1783-1848, U.S. naval officer and diplomat, b. Philadelphia. He became a midshipman in 1800. At the beginning of the War of 1812 he was first lieutenant on the Wasp; he later commanded the sloop Hornet. Sent out in the Ontario in 1817, he took formal possession of the Oregon country for the United States in 1818. Afterward he protected U.S. shipping in South American waters when the difficult times of the new Latin American republics made the rights of neutrals hard to maintain. In 1846, James Biddle negotiated the first treaty between the United States and China.
Fitzgerald, James: see Kildare, James Fitzgerald, 20th earl of.
Nayler, James, 1617?-1660, English Quaker leader. He served in the parliamentary army during the English civil war. In 1651 he became a Quaker and a disciple of George Fox, but gradually gathered a band of followers about himself. In 1656 he rode into Bristol, his followers crying "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Israel." Nayler's explanation that his disciples were worshiping the "Christ within him" rather than himself did not prevent a parliamentary trial (1656). He was sentenced to be pilloried, whipped, branded, and imprisoned. Nayler was author of a number of well-written religious pamphlets; his collected works were published in 1716.
Cook, James, 1728-79, English explorer and navigator. The son of a Yorkshire agricultural laborer, he had little formal education. After an apprenticeship to a firm of shipowners at Whitby, he joined (1755) the royal navy and surveyed the St. Lawrence Channel (1760) and the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador (1763-67). Cook was then given command of the Endeavour and sailed (1768) on an expedition to chart the transit of Venus; he returned to England in 1771, having also circumnavigated the globe and explored the coasts of New Zealand, which he accurately charted for the first time, and E Australia.

Cook next commanded (1772-75) an expedition to the South Pacific of two ships, the Resolution and the Adventure. On this voyage he disproved the rumor of a great southern continent, explored the Antarctic Ocean and the New Hebrides, visited New Caledonia, and by the observance of strict diet and hygiene prevented scurvy, heretofore the scourge of long voyages. Cook sailed again in 1776; in 1778 he visited and named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and unsuccessfully searched the coast of NW North America for a Northwest Passage. On the return voyage he was killed by natives on the island of Hawaii. During the course of his journeys Cook visited about ten major Pacific island groups and more than 40 individual islands, also making first European contact with a wide variety of indigenous peoples.

See the definitive edition of his journals, ed. by J. C. Beaglehole (4 vol. and portfolio, repr. 1999); selections from journals, ed. by A. G. Price (1958, repr. 1969); biographies by A. Villiers (1967), J. C. Beaglehole (1974), and R. Hough (1995); A. Moorehead, The Fatal Impact (1966); H. Zimmerman, The Third Voyage of Captain Cook (1988); L. Withey, Voyages of Discovery (1989); G. Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook (1992); N. Thomas, Cook (2003).

Carroll, James, 1854-1907, American bacteriologist and army surgeon, b. Woolwich, England, M.D. Univ. of Maryland, 1891. He went to Canada at 15 and later joined the U.S. army. A member of the Yellow Fever Commission under Walter Reed, he voluntarily submitted to the bite of an infected mosquito, contracted yellow fever, and recovered. This proved the mosquito to be the carrier of the disease. Carroll also proved that the infectious agent is a filterable virus.
Tassie, James, 1735-99, Scottish gem engraver and modeler. At first a stonemason, he went to Dublin, where he assisted the gem engraver Dr. Henry Quin. With him Tassie invented an especially hard and fine-textured white enamel for making replicas of gems. In 1766 he went to London, where he duplicated famous gem collections, notably many thousands of specimens for Catherine the Great. R. E. Raspe prepared a catalog of Tassie's work in 1791. Working often for Wedgwood, he made the first plaster cast of the Portland vase. Many of his portrait medallions are in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh.
Barron, James, 1768-1851, U.S. naval officer, b. Hampton, Va. Of a seafaring family, he served in the Virginia navy in the Revolution, entered the U.S. navy as a lieutenant in 1798, and held commands in the Mediterranean at the time of the Tripolitan War. Promoted to commodore in 1807, he had just left Norfolk, Va., when his flagship, the Chesapeake, was halted and then bombarded by the British warship Leopard on June 22, 1807. The incident, notable in the troubles over the right of the British to search American vessels, aroused American anger. Barron was court-martialed, found guilty of "neglecting, on the probability of an engagement, to clear his ship for action" and suspended (1808) from duty for five years. Later, embittered and convinced (perhaps with justice) that Stephen Decatur was barring his return to honorable standing in the navy, Barron challenged him to a duel, in which Decatur was mortally wounded (Mar. 22, 1820). Though reinstated to duty (1821) Barron never regained his earlier status. He retired in 1848.

See biography by W. O. Stevens (1969).

Bassett, James, 1834-1906, American Presbyterian missionary, b. Canada. In 1872, under the auspices of the American Board, he founded the first American mission at Tehran, Persia (now Iran). Under his supervision other mission stations were founded, and in 1882 he became senior missionary and head of the Eastern Mission of Persia. He wrote Persia, the Land of the Imams (1886) and Persia, Eastern Mission (1890).
Beard, James, 1903-85, American cooking teacher, b. Portland Oregon. His interest in food was encouraged by his mother, who had been a hotel proprietor. He was a syndicated columnist, a frequent guest on television and radio, and an adviser to restaurateurs and food manufacturers. He briefly hosted his own television program, I Love to Cook (1946-47). In 1955, Beard established a cooking school in his Greenwich Village home, where he taught until he was 81. It is now The James Beard House, America's first culinary center and a showcase for chefs. His belief in the virtues of American cuisine helped create a gastronomic revolution in the United States. Beard wrote some two dozen cookbooks, including American Cooking (1972) and The Cook's Catalogue (1975).
Beattie, James, 1735-1803, Scottish poet and essayist. Educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, he later became professor of moral philosophy there. His fame in his own lifetime rested on two works, Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth (1770), an attack on Hume, and The Minstrel (1771-74), an autobiographical poem in Spenserian stanzas. In describing the formation of a poet's mind, The Minstrel emphasizes the effect of nature; the poem influenced the 19th-century romantics, particularly Lord Byron.
Usher, James: see Ussher, James.
Ussher or Usher, James, 1581-1656, Irish prelate and scholar. While a fellow (1599-1605) of Trinity College, Dublin, he was ordained (1601). By 1605 he was chancellor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. In 1615 a convocation of clergy called upon him to draft the articles of doctrine and discipline of the Irish Protestant church. These showed a Calvinistic tendency. In 1620 or 1621 he became bishop of Meath and later (1625) archbishop of Armagh. He often went to England, where he enjoyed association with noted scholars and statesmen. He was there when the Irish rebellion of 1641 broke out, and he never returned to Ireland. Although he refused to sit (1643) in the Westminster Assembly and upheld the doctrine of the divine right of kings, he was in 1647 elected preacher of Lincoln's Inn; by Cromwell's order he was given a state funeral in Westminster Abbey. His learning, attested by his numerous works in Latin and English, awakened great admiration. In his chronological study, the Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti (2 vol., 1650-54), Ussher worked out a system of dates (setting the creation at 4004 B.C.) afterward long used in some editions of the King James Version of the Bible. His works were edited by C. R. Elrington and J. H. Todd (17 vol., 1847-64).

See W. B. Wright, The Ussher Memoirs (1889) and the biography by R. B. Knox (1967).

Schouler, James, 1839-1920, American historian and lawyer, b. West Cambridge (now Arlington), Mass. Admitted to the bar in 1862, he served in the Union army and returned to Boston in 1863 to practice law. From 1871 to 1873 he published the United States Jurist in Washington, D.C. He lectured on law at Boston Univ. (1883-1902) and at the National Univ., Washington, D.C. (1888-1908), and on American history at Johns Hopkins (1891-1908). His History of the United States of America under the Constitution (7 vol., 1880-1913, repr. 1970), covering the period 1783-1877, is primarily a political and constitutional interpretation. Other works, aside from a number of treatises on legal subjects, include Thomas Jefferson (1893), Alexander Hamilton (1901), and Ideals of the Republic (1908). His Historical Briefs (1896) in part covers his own experience as a historian.
Clinton, James, 1733-1812, American Revolutionary general, b. Orange co., N.Y.; brother of George Clinton and father of De Witt Clinton. He served in the French and Indian Wars and early in the Revolution took part in the disastrous Quebec campaign. His most noted exploit was his heroic but futile defense of Fort Clinton (near Kingston, N.Y.) against the British drive up the Hudson valley under Sir Henry Clinton in 1777. James Clinton later fought (1779) with Gen. John Sullivan against the Native Americans and served at Yorktown (1781).
Bogardus, James, 1800-1874, American architect, b. Catskill, N.Y. Among the first to use cast iron in the construction of building facades, Bogardus was noted for his commercial building designs in New York City. Bogardus's success with cast-iron exteriors led eventually to the adoption of steel-frame construction for entire buildings. See cast-iron architecture.
Bolger, James, 1935-, New Zealand political leader. A sheep rancher, he entered Parliament in 1972 as a member of the National party. In Robert Muldoon's government, he served as minister of fisheries (1977-78), immigration (1978-81), and labour (1978-84). His party fell out of power after 1984 and in 1986 he became opposition leader. In 1990, he became prime minister after securing a landslide victory for his party; the National party was narrowly returned to power in 1993. Bolger was ousted as party leader and prime minister by Jenny Shipley in 1997.
Jones, James, 1921-77, American novelist, b. Robinson, Ill. Written in the tradition of naturalism, his novels often celebrate the endurance of man. From Here to Eternity (1951), his best-known work and the first of a trilogy, is a powerful story of army life in Hawaii immediately before the attack on Pearl Harbor; The Thin Red Line (1962) and Whistle (1978) complete the series. His other novels include Some Came Running (1957) and A Touch of Danger (1973). Viet Journal (1974) is an account of his trip to Vietnam.

See biography by F. MacShane (1985); study by J. R. Giles (1981).

Joyce, James, 1882-1941, Irish novelist. Perhaps the most influential and significant novelist of the 20th cent., Joyce was a master of the English language, exploiting all of its resources. His novel Ulysses, which is among the great works of world literature, utilizes many radical literary techniques and forms.

Life and Works

The eldest of ten children born in a Dublin suburb, Joyce was educated at Jesuit schools—Clongowes Wood College in Clane (1888-91) and Belvedere College in Dublin (1893-99)—and then attended University College in Dublin (1899-1902). Although a brilliant student, he was only sporadically interested in the official curriculum. In 1902 he lived briefly in Paris and returned to the Continent in 1904 with Nora Barnacle, the woman who would eventually become his wife. For the next 25 years Joyce, Nora, and their children lived at various times in Trieste, Zürich, and Paris.

Joyce returned to Ireland briefly in 1909 in a futile attempt to start a chain of motion picture theaters in Dublin, and again in 1912 in an unsuccessful attempt to arrange for the publication of the short story collection Dubliners, which had to be abandoned due to fears of prosecution for obscenity and libel. Although the plates were destroyed, Dubliners was finally published in England in 1914. A short volume of poetry, Chamber Music, was his first published volume; it appeared in 1907. He published two subsequent volumes of poetry, Pomes Pennyeach (1927) and Collected Poems (1937).

Joyce and his family spent the years of World War I in Zürich, where he finished his novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. It first appeared in The Egoist, a periodical edited by Harriet Shaw Weaver, and was published in book form in 1916. In 1917, Joyce contracted glaucoma; for the rest of his life he would endure pain, periods of near blindness, and many operations. At this time he also wrote his only play, the Ibsenesque Exiles (1918).

Ulysses, written between 1914 and 1921, was published in parts in The Little Review and The Egoist, but Joyce encountered the same opposition to publishing the novel in book form that he had confronted with Dubliners. It was published in Paris in 1922 by Shakespeare & Company, a bookstore owned by Sylvia Beach, an American expatriate. Its publication was banned in the United States until 1933. For many years he lived mainly on money donated by patrons, notably Harriet Shaw Weaver.

From 1922 until 1939 Joyce worked on Finnegans Wake (1939), a complex novel that attempts to connect multiple cycles of Irish and human history into the framework of a single night's events in the family of a Dublin publican. In 1931 Joyce finally married Nora. Her practical, sometimes cynical response to Joyce's work provided a needed complement to his own self-absorption. Joyce and Nora had a turbulent relationship; both were profoundly affected by the progressive insanity of their daughter. Joyce died in Zürich in 1941 after an operation for a perforated duodenal ulcer.

Technique and Vision

Joyce's career displays a consistent development. In each of his four major works there is an increase in the profundity of his vision and the complexity of his literary technique, particularly his experiments with language. Dubliners is a linked collection of 15 short stories treating the sometimes squalid, sometimes sentimental lives of various Dublin residents. The stories portray a city in moral and political paralysis, an insight that the reader is intended to achieve through a succession of revelatory moments, which Joyce called epiphanies. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is an autobiographical account of the adolescence and youth of Stephen Dedalus, who comes to realize that before he can be a true artist he must rid himself of the stultifying effects of the religion, politics, and essential bigotry of Ireland.

Ulysses recreates the events of one day in Dublin—June 16, 1904; widely known as "Bloomsday"—centering on the activities of a Jewish advertising-space salesman, Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly, and the aforementioned Stephen Dedalus, now a teacher. The fundamental design of Ulysses is based on Homer's Odyssey; each chapter in the novel parallels one in the epic and is also associated with an hour of the day, color, symbol, and part of the body. Attempting to recreate the total life of his characters—the surface life and the inner life—Joyce mingles realistic descriptions with verbal representations of his characters' most intimate and random thoughts, using techniques of interior narration.

Interspersed throughout the work are historical, literary, religious, and geographical allusions, evocative patterns of words, word games, and many-sided puns, all of which imbue the ordinary events of the novel with the copious significance of those in an epic. Despite its complexities, Ulysses is an extraordinarily satisfying book, a celebration of life unparalleled in its humor, characterization, and tragic irony. A new edition of Ulysses, edited by H. Gabler, appeared in 1986, claiming to correct more than 5,000 errors that had been discovered in previous editions; it was itself flawed, and the publisher has subsequently reissued the 1961 edition in tandem with Gabler's.

Joyce's last work, Finnegans Wake, presents the dark counterpart of "Bloomsday" of Ulysses. Framed by the dream-induced experiences of a Dublin publican, the novel recapitulates the cycles of Irish history, and in its multiple allusions almost reveals a universal consciousness. In order to present this new reality Joyce manipulated and distorted language that pushed the work to the furthest limits of comprehensibility.

Because of its complexity Finnegans Wake is perhaps more talked about than read, and despite the publication of the manuscripts and drafts of the novel in 1978, probably will never be completely understood. Other posthumous publications include part of an early version of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man called Stephen Hero (1944). In June, 1962, a Joyce museum, containing pictures, papers, and first editions of Joyce's books, was opened in Dublin.

Bibliography

Joyce's works have acquired a small army of scholars, patiently unraveling their numerous textual obscurities. Many of their articles appear in the James Joyce Quarterly. See his letters (Vol. I ed. by S. Gilbert, 1957; Vol. II and III ed. by R. Ellman, 1966); biographies by C. H. Peake (1977), R. Ellman (rev. ed. 1982), C. J. Anderson (1986), B. K. Scott (1987), and E. O'Brien (1999); studies by A. Burgess (1968), A. W. Litz (1964, 1972), R. Ellman (1977), H. Kenner (1978, 1987), and D. Attridge (1990); see also the bibliographies by J. J. Slocum and H. Cohoon (1953, repr. 1972) and T. F. Staley (1989).

Rosenquist, James, 1933-, American painter, b. Grand Forks, N.Dak. He moved to New York City in 1955. Identified with the pop art movement, Rosenquist incorporates disparate and fragmented images of everyday American life into his huge canvases. Although they are realistically painted, they can appear abstract because of their vast scale and color. Rosenquist borrowed from his earlier experience as a billboard painter for these works. His best-known painting, F-111 (1965), is a 51-panel work occupying the walls of an entire room; it enigmatically juxtaposes such images as a warplane, a child under a hair dryer, a cake, a mushroom cloud and beach umbrella, light bulbs, a tire, and a mass of spaghetti. Rosenquist, who has sometimes worked in sculpture, mixed media, and collage, is also a prolific printmaker.

See J. Goldman, James Rosenquist (1985); C. W. Glenn, Time Dust: James Rosenquist Complete Graphics 1962-1992 (1993); J. Hopps et al., James Rosenquist: A Retrospective (2003).

Thurber, James, 1894-1961, American humorist, b. Columbus, Ohio, studied at Ohio State Univ. After working on various newspapers he served on the staff of the New Yorker from 1927 to 1933 and was later a principal contributor to the magazine, considerably influencing its tone through his various drawings, stories, and anecdotes of his misadventures. Beneath the vague outlines of Thurber's cartoons and the wistful and ironic improbabilities of his writings—often dealing with incidents and characters from his Midwestern childhood or with the vexed relationship between the sexes—there is a deep psychological insight that sets him apart from most 20th-century humorists.

With E. B. White he wrote and illustrated Is Sex Necessary? (1929), a satire of books on popular psychoanalysis. The Male Animal (1940), a play he wrote with Elliott Nugent, satirizes collegiate life. Collections of his drawings and writings include The Owl in the Attic (1931), The Seal in the Bedroom (1932), My Life and Hard Times (1933), Fables for Our Time (1940), The Thurber Carnival (1945), Thurber Country (1953), Thurber's Dogs (1955), The Wonderful O (1957), and Credos and Curios (1962). Among his other works are The Thirteen Clocks (1950), a children's book, and The Years with Ross (1959), a memoir of his days with the New Yorker. Thurber's later career was hampered by his growing blindness.

See H. Thurber and E. Weeks, ed., Selected Letters of James Thurber (1981) and H. Kinney and R. A. Thurber, ed., The Thurber Letters (2003); biographies by C. S. Holmes (1972), B. Bernstein (1975, repr. 1985), R. E. Long (1988), N. A. Grauer (1994), and H. Kinney (1995).

Tobin, James, 1918-2002, American economist, b. Champaign, Ill., Ph.D. Harvard, 1947. A professor at Yale Univ. from 1950 until his death, he was also an influential member (1961-62) of President Kennedy's Council of Economic Advisers. Tobin's work advanced the significant "portfolio theory," which holds that diversification of interests offers the best possibility of security for investors, and that investments should not always be based on highest rates of return. He also wrote on the process of information exchange between financial markets and "real" markets. Tobin was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1981.
Merrill, James (James Ingram Merrill), 1926-95, American poet, b. New York City. Born into wealth as the son of Charles Merrill, he studied at Amherst College (grad. 1947) and was free to live as he pleased and to devote much of his time to poetry. One of the most admired poets of his generation, he is noted for the technical virtuosity, elegant formality, refined lyricism, and witty urbanity of verse that, while always reserved, became more autobiographical, intimate, and colloquial over the years. His early volumes include First Poems (1951), Water Street (1962), Nights and Days (1966), The Fire Screen (1969), and Braving the Elements (1972). His most ambitious work was published in three parts (1976-80) and released in its entirety as The Changing Light at Sandover (1982). In it, Merrill (with his companion David Jackson) used a Ouija board to invoke the spirits (and the spirit) of his aesthetic forebears. Among later volumes are Late Settings (1985), The Inner Room (1988), and A Scattering of Salts (1995). His lyrics are gathered in James Merrill: Collected Poems (2001). Merrill won every major literary award for poetry, including the Pulitzer and Bollingen prizes and two National Book Awards. He also wrote plays, e.g., The Immortal Husband (1955); novels, e.g., The Seraglio (1957); and essays, e.g., Recitative (1986).

See his memoir, A Different Person (1993); his Collected Novels and Plays (2002), Collected Prose (2004), and Selected Poems (2008), ed. by J. D. McClatchy and S. Yenser; R. Labrie, James Merrill (1982), J. Moffett, James Merrill: An Introduction (1984), S. Yenser, The Consuming Myth: The Work of James Merrill (1986); M. Blasing, Politics and Form in Postmodern Poetry: O'Hara, Bishop, Ashbery, and Merrill (1995); A. Lurie, Familiar Spirits: A Memoir of James Merrill and David Jackson (2001).

Gibbs, James, 1682-1754, English architect, b. Scotland, studied in Rome under Carlo Fontana. Returning to England in 1709, he was appointed a member of the commission authorized to build 50 churches in London. Only 10 of these were completed; they include two of Gibbs's most distinguished works, St. Mary-le-Strand (1714-17) and St. Martin-in-the-Fields (1721-26); the latter formed a basic inspiration for many of the steepled churches of the colonial period in America. Gibbs did considerable work for the universities, including the circular Radcliffe Camera at Oxford (1739-49), considered his finest design, and the Senate House at Cambridge, where from 1722 onward he was constantly employed. He designed also many town and country houses. His works have the distinction characteristic of the Georgian period and of the work of Sir Christopher Wren, by whom he was chiefly influenced. He wrote a Book of Architecture (1728, repr. 1968) and Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture (1732).

See study by B. Little (1955).

Gillray, James, 1757-1815, English caricaturist and illustrator. He was essentially self-trained although he studied at the Royal Academy and on the Continent. His caricatures of the court of George III made him immensely popular. His masterly delineations, vigorous, clever, often subtle, sometimes vulgar and grotesque, numbered more than 12,000. Among his best-known cartoons are A New Way to Pay the National Debt (1796), Social Elements in Skating (1805), and A Rake's Progress at the University (1806). Insanity ended his career in 1811.
Glaisher, James, 1809-1903, English meteorologist and balloonist, b. London. He served as superintendent of the department of meteorology and magnetism at Greenwich Observatory from 1838 to 1874. He established the Meteorological Society in 1850 and later became one of the founders of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. Between 1862 and 1866 he made a series of balloon ascensions with Henry T. Coxwell. He wrote many scientific books and papers; his best-known work is Travels in the Air (1867, in French; tr. 1871).
Rennell, James, 1742-1830, English cartographer, geographer, and oceanographer. He was surveyor general (1764-77) of Bengal and published A Bengal Atlas (1779). He constructed the first approximately correct map of India (1783). A specialist on the geography of W Asia and of North Africa, he wrote on the geographical knowledge of Herodotus (1800), on the topography of the plain of Troy (1814), and on Xenophon's retreat (1816). He was a pioneer in the scientific study of winds and of ocean currents.
Renwick, James, 1818-95, American architect, b. New York City, grad. Columbia, 1836. His design for Grace Church (1843-46) in New York City was followed by that for St. Patrick's Cathedral; he was chosen as architect for the cathedral in 1853, and it was dedicated in 1879, the most ambitious essay in Gothic that the revival of the style produced. In Washington he built the original Corcoran Gallery and the Smithsonian Institution. Other of his works were the first building of Vassar College and the distribution reservoir for the Croton Aqueduct in New York.
Dean, James (James Byron Dean), 1931-55, American film actor, b. Marion, Ind. After a few stage and television roles, Dean was chosen to play the moody, rebellious son in the film East of Eden (1953). He was further identified with restless, inarticulate youth in his second film Rebel without a Cause (1954). Dean was killed when his racing car crashed the day after he finished work on Giant (1955). His death set off a worldwide wave of popular mourning unequaled since the death of Rudolph Valentino, and he has remained a cult hero.

See V. Herndon, James Dean: A Short Life (1974); D. Dalton and R. Cayen, James Dean: American Icon (1984); P. Alexander, Boulevard of Broken Dreams: The Life, Times and Legend of James Dean (1994).

Fisk, James, 1834-72, American financial speculator, b. Pownal, Vt. In his youth he worked for a circus and as a wagon peddler of merchandise. During the Civil War he became wealthy purchasing cotton in occupied areas of the South for Northern firms and selling Confederate bonds in England. In 1866 he established a brokerage house in New York City with the aid of Daniel Drew, whom he had formerly served as agent. He audaciously helped Drew and Jay Gould conduct the famous struggle with Cornelius Vanderbilt for control of the Erie RR. Afterward he and Gould unscrupulously manipulated Erie stock so as to gain millions for themselves but wreck the road. They also engineered the attempt to corner the gold market in 1869, causing the famous Black Friday scandal. Other raids by Fisk and his associates upset markets and aroused public indignation. Fisk controlled the Fall River and Bristol steamboat lines on Long Island Sound, operated ferries on the Hudson, and bought an opera house in New York City, producing drama and light opera there. He was killed by Edward S. Stokes, a former business associate who was a rival for the attentions of the well-known actress Josie Mansfield.
Connolly, James, 1870-1916, Irish nationalist and socialist. An advocate of revolutionary syndicalism, he went (1903) to the United States, where he helped to organize the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Returning to Ireland, he became an organizer of the Belfast dock workers. He helped James Larkin to organize the Irish Transport and General Workers Union and, during the great lockout of the Dublin transport workers in 1913, organized a citizen army. Convinced that the triumph of Irish nationalism was a prerequisite for the success of Irish socialism, he joined the Easter Rebellion of 1916. He was wounded, court-martialed, and executed.

See two selections from his writings: Socialism and Anatomy (with intro. and notes by D. Ryan, 1948) and The Workers' Republic (ed. by D. Ryan, 1951); biography by C. D. Greaves (1972).

Northcote, James, 1746-1831, English historical and portrait painter. He worked as assistant to Reynolds and studied at the Royal Academy. From 1777 to 1780 he studied in Italy and on his return painted a series of pictures for Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, including the well-known Murder of the Princes in the Tower (1791; now destroyed). Northcote was the author of biographies of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1813) and of Titian (1830).
Habersham, James, 1713-75, colonial statesman, acting governor of Georgia (1771-73), b. Beverley, Yorkshire, England. He came to Georgia (1738) and was associated with George Whitefield and the Bethesda Orphanage until he became (1744) a merchant. He favored the introduction of slavery into the colony and played an important role in the colonial politics after Georgia became a royal province. Unlike his son Joseph, he was a strong Loyalist, and he dissolved (1773) the assembly for its radical actions in the unrest preceding the American Revolution.
Hall, James, 1811-98, American geologist and paleontologist, b. Hingham, Mass., grad. Rensselaer School (later Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), 1832. An authority on stratigraphy and invertebrate paleontology, he joined the New York state geological survey in 1836 and in 1839 became state geologist for New York. He wrote Paleontology of New York (8 vol. in 13, 1847-94), a monumental report on the paleontology of the state; his work formed the basis for the later geological histories of North America. He also served briefly as state geologist for Iowa and Wisconsin and was director (1866-94) of the New York State Museum at Albany.

See studies by R. C. Randall (1964) and J. M. Clarke (1921, repr. 1973).

Hamilton, James, 1st earl of Arran, 1477?-1529, Scottish nobleman; son of the 1st Baron Hamilton and Mary, daughter of James II of Scotland. He was privy councilor to James IV, by whom he was created (1503) earl of Arran. After the death (1513) of James and the marriage of his widow, Margaret Tudor, to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, Arran opposed their custody of the young James V. He rebelled against the new regent, John Stuart, duke of Albany, in 1515 but thereafter supported him, serving on the council of regency during Albany's absences (1517-20 and 1522-24). When Angus returned (1524) to Scotland, Arran had to come to terms with him and assisted him in keeping the king prisoner. After James's escape (1528), however, Arran joined the royal party.
Hamilton, James, 2d earl of Arran, d. 1575, Scottish nobleman; son of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran. After the death (1542) of James V, he stood next in line to the throne after the infant Mary Queen of Scots. A Protestant and member of the pro-English party, he was chosen regent in preference to Cardinal David Beaton. However, in 1543 he became a Catholic and joined the French party. Although he had previously negotiated a marriage treaty with England, he consented to the marriage of the young queen to the French dauphin (later Francis II) and was created (1548) duc de Châtelherault in France. Forced (1554) to give up the regency to the queen mother, Mary of Guise, he joined (1559) the Protestant uprising of the lords of the congregation. He was exiled from Scotland after Queen Mary married Lord Darnley (1565). In 1569 he returned and was imprisoned until he agreed (1573) to recognize James VI (later James I of England) as king.
Hamilton, James, 3d earl of Arran, 1530-1609, Scottish nobleman; son of James Hamilton, 2d earl of Arran. He spent some years (1550-58) as a soldier in France, but his espousal of Protestantism brought his recall to Scotland, where his father, with the concurrence of John Knox, unsuccessfully proposed him as a suitor for Elizabeth I of England and then for Mary Queen of Scots. In 1562 he accused the earl of Bothwell of conspiring to abduct Queen Mary. He was clearly insane, however, and as a result was imprisoned until 1566. Arran succeeded to his father's estates in 1575, but because of his insanity he was placed under the care of his brother, John Hamilton, 1st marquess of Hamilton. The Arran estates and title were forfeited to James Stuart (see Stuart, James, earl of Arran) in 1580 but restored in 1585. Arran, however, remained in confinement for the rest of his life.
Mason, James, 1909-84, British stage and film actor. Mason, trained at Cambridge as an architect, became a leading man in British films in the 1940s and thereafter an international star. With a velvet smooth voice and introspective good looks, he played villains and romantic figures with equal skill. Among his best-known films are Odd Man Out (1946), Rommel, Desert Fox (1951), Julius Caesar (1953), A Star is Born (1954), Lolita (1962), Georgy Girl (1966), and The Seagull (1968).
Wright, James, 1927-80, American poet, b. Ohio. He studied at Kenyon College and the Univ. of Washington. The master of an elegant, beautifully controlled style, his early poems contained surrealistic juxtapositions. Later works abandoned willed complexity in favor of a plainer diction. His works include The Green Wall (1957), Shall We Gather at the River? (1968), To a Blossoming Pear Tree (1977), and the posthumous The Shape of Light (1986).

See his collected prose, ed. A. Wright (1982).

Wyatt, James, 1746-1813, English architect. He worked in many styles but is best known as one of the originators of the Gothic revival. Appointed surveyor at Westminster Abbey in 1776, he did cathedral restorations at Salisbury, Durham, and elsewhere and completed (1776-94) the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford. He designed many residences in various parts of England. Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, built for William Beckford, was notable for its huge Gothic tower, which collapsed several times. Wyatt was also known for his interior decoration in the manner of Robert Adam.

See studies on James Wyatt by R. Turnor (1950) and A. Dale (1956).

His son and pupil, Benjamin Dean Wyatt, 1775-1850?, succeeded him as surveyor (1813-27) at Westminster Abbey. He began the rebuilding of Drury Lane Theatre and wrote Observations on the Design for the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane (1813).

Gadsden, James, 1788-1858, American railroad promoter and diplomat, b. Charleston, S.C.; grandson of Christopher Gadsden. He served in the War of 1812, under Andrew Jackson against the Seminole, and, later, as commissioner to remove the Seminole to their reservation in Florida. He was a promoter of railroads and advocated a Southern rail system, the purpose of which would be to control the trade of the South and the West, thereby freeing those regions from their dependency on the North. To further this end he promoted Southern commercial conventions, and at a convention in Memphis in 1845 he boldly urged the construction of a railroad to the Pacific. In 1853, when his friend Jefferson Davis was Secretary of War in Pierce's cabinet, Gadsden was appointed minister to Mexico to negotiate for territory along the border. The result was the Gadsden Purchase. He was recalled (1856) for exceeding his instructions.
Galanos, James, 1925-, American fashion designer, b. Philadelphia. His luxurious designs employ the most exacting workmanship and are extremely expensive. His most famous client is Nancy Reagan, wife of former President Ronald Reagan, for whom he designed inaugural gowns of rich fabrics. He is known as a master of ready-to-wear fashions including his look of full, loose dresses and chiffon coats over simple sheaths. He is also noted for the use of silk fabrics.
Burnett, James: see Monboddo, James Burnett, Lord.
Ballantyne, James, 1772-1833, Scottish editor and publisher. Ballantyne and his brother John set up a publishing business in Edinburgh with the aid of Sir Walter Scott. The firm published Scott's works, beginning in 1802 with Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border.
Thomson, James, 1700-1748, Scottish poet. Educated at Edinburgh, he went to London, took a post as tutor, and became acquainted with such literary celebrities as Gay, Arbuthnot, and Pope. His most famous poem, The Seasons, was published in four parts, beginning with "Winter" (1726), which achieved an immediate success. "Summer" (1727) was followed by "Spring" (1728) and then "Autumn" in the first collected edition (1730); a revised edition appeared in 1744. In The Seasons, Thomson's faithful, sensitive descriptions of external nature were a direct challenge to the urban and artificial school of Pope and influenced the forerunners of romanticism, such as Gray and Cowper. His other important poems are Liberty (1735-36), a tribute to Britain, and The Castle of Indolence (1748), written in imitation of Spenser and reflecting the poet's delight in idleness. Thomson also wrote a series of tragedies along classical lines, with a strong political flavor. The most notable were Sophonisba (1730); Edward and Eleanora (1739), which was banned for political reasons; and Tancred and Sigismunda (1745). In 1740 he collaborated with his friend David Mallet on a masque, Alfred, which contains his famous ode "Rule Britannia."

See his poetical works (ed. by J. L. Robertson, 1908, repr. 1965); biographies by H. H. Campbell (1979) and M. J. Scott (1988); studies by R. Cohen (1963 and 1970) and R. R. Agrawal (1981).

Thomson, James, 1834-82, Scottish poet and essayist. He is remembered for his darkly pessimistic poem The City of Dreadful Night. He was raised in an orphan asylum and became (1851) an army teacher at Ballincollig, Ireland. In 1862 he was dismissed from the service for a very minor offense, became a clerk in London, and contributed (using the signature B.V.) to the National Reformer, the magazine of his friend Charles Bradlaugh. Thomson's life in London was lonely and impoverished, aggravated by insomnia, his own incredibly melancholic disposition, and periodic bouts with alcoholism. His greatest poetical work, The City of Dreadful Night (1880, first published in the National Reformer, 1874), gives brilliant, haunting expression to his despair. The poem "Sunday up the River" (first published in Fraser's Magazine, 1869) is an example of his lyric gift. Vane's Story (1880) and A Voice from the Nile (1884) are later collections of his poems. Thomson also wrote many essays and criticisms. His collected poems appeared in 1895 and a volume of prose in 1896.

See biography by H. S. Salt (rev. ed. 1914); study by I. B. Walker (1950).

Mill, James, 1773-1836, British philosopher, economist, and historian, b. Scotland; father of John Stuart Mill. Educated as a clergyman at Edinburgh through the patronage of Sir John Stuart, Mill gave up the ministry and went to London in 1802 to pursue a career writing for and editing periodicals. He met Jeremy Bentham c.1808 and became an ardent advocate of utilitarianism. On the strength of his History of British India (3 vol., 1817), on which he had worked for over 10 years, Mill secured a permanent position with the British East India Company. His other works include Elements of Political Economy (1821), Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (2 vol., 1829), and A Fragment on Mackintosh (1835), which contains the best exposition of his psychological and ethical theories. Mill furnished a psychological basis for utilitarian ethics by expanding the associationism of David Hume. According to Mill, association by contiguity, where ideas that occur frequently together form combinations, may be such a subtle process that the merging of ideas may occur without leaving any trace of the elements that went into their formulation. Derived conceptions may thus achieve autonomy of value quite apart from their obvious egoistic advantage. This is seen as the origin of altruistic motives, which are otherwise difficult to explain on utilitarian grounds, and also as the origin of conscience.

See W. H. Burston, James Mill on Philosophy and Education (1973); B. Mazlish, James and John Stuart Mill (1975, repr. 1988).

Innes, James, 1754-98, American lawyer, b. Caroline co., Va. As commander of a Virginia regiment, he took part in many battles of the American Revolution. He was president of the board of war for Virginia (1779) and a member of the state legislature (1780-82, 1785-87). A noted lawyer, considered second only to Patrick Henry as an orator, Innes was chosen to make the final appeal for adoption of the Constitution in the Virginia ratifying convention (1788) and greatly impressed all those present. He defeated (1786) John Marshall for the office of attorney general of Virginia, but he declined an appointment as U.S. Attorney General.

See study by J. Carson (1965).

McCosh, James, 1811-94, Scottish-American philosopher and educator, b. Ayrshire, Scotland, grad. Univ. of Edinburgh, 1833. He was called to the United States in 1868 to become president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), and he retained the position until 1888. His successful career as administrator and teacher laid an enduring foundation for the liberal development of the college. His philosophical position was that of the Scottish school of Thomas Reid and Sir William Hamilton; he is philosophically important as the expounder of the Scottish tradition to America. Chief among his works are Method of Divine Government (1850), The Intuitions of the Mind Inductively Investigated (1860), Christianity and Positivism (1871), Scottish Philosophy from Hutchinson to Hamilton (1875), and Psychology (1886-87).

See W. M. Sloane, ed., The Life of James McCosh (1896).

McGready, James, c.1758-1817, American Presbyterian minister and evangelist, b. Pennsylvania. His preaching (1797-99) in Logan co., Ky., began the great religious revival which in 1800 swept over the South and the West. Gatherings encamped for McGready's revivals were the forerunners of later camp meetings. Some of his methods were questioned by the Presbyterian Church; in the division that resulted, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was established. Later McGready was received back into his presbytery and sent (1811) to Indiana to found churches.
McHenry, James, 1753-1816, American political leader, b. Ireland. He emigrated to Philadelphia in 1771 and, after studying medicine under Benjamin Rush, served as a surgeon in the Continental Army in the American Revolution. Captured by the British at Fort Washington on Harlem Heights, N.Y., he was exchanged in the spring of 1778. He was George Washington's secretary from 1778 to 1780, when he became attached to General Lafayette's staff. McHenry was (1781-86) a member of the Maryland senate, served (1783-86) as a delegate to the Confederation Congress, and attended (1787) the U.S. Constitutional Convention, where he maintained a conservative course. Later he advocated adoption of the Constitution. As secretary of war (1796-1800), he followed the political leadership of Alexander Hamilton rather than that of President John Adams. Adams finally demanded and received his resignation, and thereafter McHenry lived in retirement. Fort McHenry at Baltimore was named for him.
Macpherson, James, 1736-96, Scottish author. Educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, he spent his early years as a schoolmaster. In later life he held a colonial secretaryship in West Florida (1764-66), and he was a member of Parliament from 1780 until his death. In 1760, at the insistence of John Home and others, he published Fragments of Ancient Poetry Collected in the Highlands of Scotland, supposedly his own translations of ancient Gaelic poems. Later he published translations of two epic poems, Fingal (1761) and Temora (1763), which were represented as the work of a 3d-century Irish bard named Ossian. A collection, The Works of Ossian, appeared in 1765. Samuel Johnson and others heatedly challenged the authenticity of the poems. After Macpherson's death an investigating committee of scholars agreed that he had used some ancient Gaelic poems and traditions, but composed most of the supposedly ancient poetry himself. His prose poems, written in a loose, rhythmical style, filled with supernaturalism and melancholy, influenced powerfully the rising romantic movement in literature, especially German literature. Macpherson also wrote several histories.

See T. B. Saunders, Life and Letters of James Macpherson (1894, repr. 1969); study by D. S. Thomson (1951); I. Haywood, The Making of History: A Study of the Literary Forgeries of James Macpherson and Thomas Chatterton in Relation to 18th Century Ideas of History and Fiction (1987).

Madison, James, 1751-1836, 4th President of the United States (1809-17), b. Port Conway, Va.

Early Career

A member of the Virginia planter class, he attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), graduating in 1771. Like George Washington and others, he opposed the colonial measures of the British. His distinctive contribution to the colonial cause was a deep knowledge and understanding of government and political philosophy—resources that first proved their value in 1776 when Madison helped to draft a constitution for the new state of Virginia.

He served in the Continental Congress (1780-83, 1787) and represented his county in the Virginia legislature (1784-86), where he played a prominent part in disestablishing the Anglican Church. During this time he watched the ineffectual floundering of Congress under the Articles of Confederation with apprehension and became convinced of the necessity for a strong national authority.

Master Builder of the Constitution

Madison played important role in bringing about the conference between Maryland and Virginia concerning navigation of the Potomac. The meetings at Alexandria and Mt. Vernon in 1785 led to the Annapolis Convention in 1786, and at that conference he endorsed New Jersey's motion to call a Constitutional Convention for May, 1787. With Alexander Hamilton he became the leading spokesman for a thorough reorganization of the existing government, and his influence on the Virginia plan, which advocated a strong central government, is evident.

At the convention his skills in political science and his persuasive logic made him the chief architect of the new governmental structure and earned him the title "master builder of the Constitution." His journals are the principal source of later knowledge of the convention. He fought to get the Constitution adopted. He contributed with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to the brilliantly polemical papers of The Federalist, and in Virginia he led the forces for the Constitution against the opposition of Patrick Henry and George Mason.

Congressman

As a Representative from Virginia (1789-97), he had a hand in getting the new government established and was a strong advocate of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution (the Bill of Rights). Yet, although modern historians have demonstrated the conservative nature of the Constitution and its founders, Madison was an opponent of the policies of the conservative wing in the Washington administration, a steadfast enemy of Alexander Hamilton and his financial measures, and a supporter of Thomas Jefferson. He especially deplored Hamilton's frank Anglophilia. After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Madison attacked these measures and prepared the protesting Virginia resolutions (see Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions).

Presidency

When Jefferson triumphed in the election of 1800, Madison became (1801) his Secretary of State. He served through both of Jefferson's terms, and he was Jefferson's choice as presidential candidate. As President, Madison had to deal with the results of the foreign policy that, as Secretary of State, he had helped to shape. The Embargo Act of 1807 was in effect dissolved by Macon's Bill No. 2. The bill provided, however, that if either Great Britain or France should remove restrictions on American trade, the President was empowered to reimpose the trade embargo on the other.

Madison, accepting an ambiguous French statement as a bona fide revocation of the Napoleonic decrees on trade, reinstated the trade embargo with Great Britain, an act that helped bring on the War of 1812. This move alone, however, did not bring about the war with Great Britain; equally significant were the activities of the "war hawks," led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, who, hungry for the conquest of Canada and for free expansion, clamored for action. They helped to bring about the declaration of war against Great Britain on June 18, 1812.

The War of 1812 was the chief event of Madison's administration. New England merchants and industrialists were already disaffected by the various embargoes, and their discontent grew until at the Hartford Convention they talked of sedition rather than continuing "Mr. Madison's War." Even the friends of the President and the promoters of the war grew discouraged as the fighting went badly. Victories in late 1813 and in the autumn of 1814 lifted the gloom somewhat, but disaster came in Sept., 1814, when the British took Washington and burned the White House. Nevertheless the war ended in stalemate with the Treaty of Ghent.

Madison's remaining years in office witnessed the beginning of postwar national expansion. He encouraged the new nationalism, which hastened the split in the Democratic party, evident in the rise of Jacksonian democracy. Through these later upheavals Madison lived quietly with his wife, Dolley Madison, after his retirement in 1817 to Montpelier.

Bibliography

Madison's writings were edited by G. Hunt (9 vol., 1900-1910). See biography in his own words, ed. by M. D. Peterson (1974); biographies by I. Brant (6 vol., 1941-61; abr. ed. 1970), N. Riemer (1968), R. Ketcham (1971), R. A. Rutland (1981), and G. Wills (2002); studies by D. R. McCoy (1989) and L. Banning (1995).

Sharp, James, 1613-79, Scottish prelate. As a Presbyterian minister, Sharp became (1650) a leader of the moderate wing of the Scottish church called the Resolutioners. He was captured (1651) by Oliver Cromwell's forces and imprisoned until 1652. Sent (1657) to London to represent the interests of the Resolutioners, Sharp became involved with George Monck in his schemes for the restoration of the monarchy and secretly shifted his loyalties to the restoration of episcopacy in Scotland. After the Restoration of Charles II he was appointed (1661) archbishop of St. Andrews and primate of Scotland and thereupon embarked on a policy of severe repression of the principles of the Covenanters. He was murdered by a group of Covenanters on Magus Moor. In Scottish history Sharp is usually pictured as a hated figure.
Stanley, James: see Derby, James Stanley, 7th earl of.
Wilkinson, James, 1757-1825, American general, b. Calvert co., Md. Abandoning his medical studies in 1776 to join the army commanded by George Washington, he served as a captain in Benedict Arnold's unsuccessful Quebec campaign. Later he was Gen. Horatio Gates's deputy adjutant general in the Saratoga campaign and was given the honor of bringing to Congress the news of General Burgoyne's defeat. Congress censured Wilkinson for delay in carrying the dispatch but rewarded him by promoting him to brigadier general (1777) and making him secretary to the board of war (1778), a position he was forced to leave because of his implication in the Conway Cabal. He was (1779-81) clothier general of the army but resigned when charged with irregularities in his accounts. Wilkinson moved to Kentucky in 1784. Shortly thereafter, he became a key figure in the plan to induce what was then the SW United States to form a separate nation allied to Spain. Wilkinson apparently took an oath of allegiance to Spain and received a Spanish pension of $2,000 (and later $4,000) a year. To the Spanish authorities in New Orleans he represented his agitation for the separation of Kentucky from Virginia as part of this scheme; there is no indication, however, that he revealed any such motivation to the Kentucky conventions, in which others had expressed sentiments in favor of a separate republic of Kentucky. In 1791, Wilkinson reentered the army as a lieutenant colonel, and in 1792 he again attained the rank of brigadier general, serving under Anthony Wayne. On Wayne's death (1796) Wilkinson became ranking army officer. While governor (1805-6) of the Louisiana Territory, he became involved in the schemes of Aaron Burr. Alarmed when he realized that his association with Burr was common knowledge, Wilkinson informed President Jefferson that Burr was plotting to disrupt the Union. Although he was chief prosecution witness at Burr's trial, he narrowly escaped indictment. Subsequently (1811) he was cleared, but just barely, by an army board of inquiry. In the War of 1812 he failed signally in the campaign to take Montreal and was relieved of his command. Once again an official inquiry left him untouched. He wrote Memoirs of My Own Times (3 vol., 1816) in an attempt to answer his many critics. He died in Mexico, where he spent his last years. See biographies by J. R. Jacobs (1938) and T. R. Hay and M. R. Werner (1941); J. E. Weems, Men without Countries (1969).
Monroe, James, 1758-1831, 5th President of the United States (1817-25), b. Westmoreland co., Va.

Early Life

Leaving the College of William and Mary in 1776 to fight in the American Revolution, he served in several campaigns and was wounded (Dec., 1776) at the battle of Trenton. He later studied law (1780-83) under Thomas Jefferson, and the friendship that sprang up between them was the foundation for Monroe's political career.

Political and Diplomatic Career

Monroe was elected to the Virginia legislature in 1782 and served (1783-86) in the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation. He was not a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and in his own state he supported Patrick Henry in opposing the Constitution, which seemed to him to create a government so centralized that it encroached on states' rights.

Under the new government, he served (1790-94) in the U.S. Senate, where he proved himself an outstanding lieutenant of Jefferson and a vigorous opponent of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Federalists. Appointed (1794) minister to France in the hope that his Francophile sympathies would smooth the ruffled relations between the two nations, he did nothing to lessen French resentment over Jay's Treaty, and he was recalled in 1796.

Governor of Virginia from 1799 to 1802, he was sent (1802) by President Jefferson to France as a special envoy. There he assisted Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813; see Livingston, family) during negotiations (1803) for the Louisiana Purchase. The next year, in Spain, he aided Charles Pinckney in the unsuccessful negotiations with the Spanish government. A later mission, to England, was even more disastrous. Monroe and William Pinkney struggled to arrive at a commercial treaty to end the disputes between Great Britain and the United States over shipping, but they could get no concessions, and Jefferson did not even submit the treaty they drafted (1806) to the Senate for approval.

In 1808, Monroe made a bid for the presidential nomination. He thus alienated James Madison, but the estrangement did not last long, and Monroe, after serving again as governor of Virginia, was Madison's Secretary of State (1811-17). For a time he was also Secretary of War (1814-15), after the dismissal of John Armstrong.

Presidency and the Monroe Doctrine

In 1816 Monroe obtained the presidential nomination and was easily elected. During his first administration, serious differences over the question of slavery in the territories were accommodated by the Missouri Compromise, which Monroe signed despite his sympathy for the South in this matter. In foreign affairs a number of settlements were reached. The Rush-Bagot agreement with Great Britain (1817) provided for mutual limitation of armaments on the Great Lakes, and the U.S.-Canadian boundary question was also settled. U.S. possession of the Floridas was confirmed by Andrew Jackson's campaigns and a treaty with Spain (1819).

In the 1820 election, despite economic depression, Monroe lost only one vote in the electoral college that reelected him. Late in 1823, he issued what came to be known as the Monroe Doctrine, one of the most important principles of U.S. foreign policy. Although this declaration was as much the work of Monroe's Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, as of the President himself, the initiative for presenting it in the annual message to Congress was Monroe's. The experiment of the American Colonization Society in settling Liberia was undertaken with Monroe's blessing, and Monrovia was named for him.

At the end of his term Monroe retired to his estate, Oak Hill, near Leesburg, Va. In 1829 he presided over the Virginia constitutional convention and supported the conservatives on suffrage and slavery. He died during a visit to New York City.

Bibliography

Monroe's writings were edited by S. M. Hamilton (7 vol., 1898-1903, repr. 1969). See his autobiography (ed. with introd. by S. G. Brown, 1959); biographies by G. Morgan (1921, repr. 1969), A. Styron (1945), and W. P. Cresson (1946, repr. 1971); studies by L. Wilmerding (1960) and H. Ammon (1971).

Couzens, James, 1872-1936, U.S. Senator, industrialist, and philanthropist, b. Ontario, Canada. He moved (1887) to Detroit, and after he entered (1903) into partnership with Henry Ford, he became vice president and general manager of the Ford Motor Company. In 1919 he sold his interests to the Fords for $35 million. As mayor (1919-22) of Detroit, Couzens installed municipal street railways. Serving (1922-36) in the U.S. Senate, he acted with the Progressive Republicans, advocating such measures as high, graduated income taxes and public ownership of utilities. He established the Children's Fund of Michigan with $10 million, gave $1 million for relief in Detroit, and began a loan fund for the physically handicapped. His support of the New Deal cost him (1936) the senatorial renomination.

See biography by H. Barnard (1958).

Black, James, 1823-93, American temperance leader. A Pennsylvania lawyer, he was active in state and national temperance work. His plan for a National Publication House was adopted by the National Temperance Convention (1865). In 1872, as presidential nominee of the Prohibition party, he gained some 5,000 votes.
Blair, James, 1656-1743, Church of England clergyman, missionary to colonial Virginia, and founder of the College of William and Mary, b. Scotland. At the request of the bishop of London, Blair traveled to Virginia in 1685 to revive and reform the church in the colony. He returned to England (1691) to petition for a college, which when chartered in 1693 was named William and Mary after the monarchs. Blair was made president for life. In 1694 he was appointed by the king to the Virginia council, of which he was a lifelong member (except for a brief period) and in 1740-41 president. With Henry Hartwell and Edward Chilton, Blair wrote The Present State of Virginia and the College (1727, ed. by H. D. Farish, 1940).

See biography by P. Rouse (1971).

Stuart or Stewart, James, earl of Arran, d. 1595, Scottish nobleman. He spent his early years as a soldier of fortune fighting in the Dutch revolt against Spain, returned to Scotland in 1597, and ingratiated himself at the court of the young James VI (later James I of England). As a reward for his services in accusing the earl of Morton of the murder of Lord Darnley, Stuart was made a member of the council and granted (1381) the earldom of Arran, then in the possession of the insane James Hamilton, 3d earl of Arran. The king's arrest by the Protestant lords in the raid of Ruthven (1582) led to Arran's imprisonment. After the king's escape (1583), however, he was released and appointed lord chancellor. Arran set out to crush his opponents in Scotland, driving the Protestant lords into exile and seizing their lands. He and James also determined to overthrow Presbyterianism, and in 1584 Parliament passed an act requiring the church to acknowledge the king as its head. Arran's reckless use of power soon alienated his few supporters in Scotland, while his agent in England treacherously undermined the good relations that he had established initially with Elizabeth I. In 1585 the English queen accused Arran of the murder of Lord Francis Russell in a border fray. James was compelled to imprison Arran. After the return in force of the banished Protestant lords, Arran himself was banished (1586). He later returned to live in Scotland as Capt. James Stuart and intrigued unsuccessfully to return to power. He was slain in 1595 by Sir James Douglas, nephew of the earl of Morton, in revenge for Arran's part in the death of Morton.
Stuart or Stewart, James, 1st earl of Murray: see Murray, James Stuart, 1st earl of.
Stuart, James, 1713-88, English architect, archaeologist, and painter. After working his way to Rome in 1742, Stuart accompanied Nicholas Revett on an archaeological expedition to Naples. Under the auspices of the Society of Dilettanti of London, they also went to Greece. In Athens (1751) they made accurate measurements of the ruins, particularly those of the Acropolis, and published their findings in The Antiquities of Athens, the first volume of which appeared in 1762. Its excellent illustrations depicted for the first time the great achievements of Greek architecture. Their work aroused wide attention and acted as a prime influence in the classic revival.
Shirley, James, 1596-1666, English dramatist. Ordained in the Church of England, he later was converted to Roman Catholicism and became a schoolmaster. He resigned that position, however, soon after the success of his first play, Love Tricks, in 1625. Included among his more than 37 plays are the comedies Hyde Park (1632) and The Lady of Pleasure (1635); the tragedies The Traitor (1631) and The Cardinal (1641); and the masques The Triumph of Peace (1633) and The Contention of Ajax and Ulysses (1659). Shirley is best remembered for his witty, satiric comedies, which brilliantly and realistically portray London society.

See studies by B. Lucow (1981) and S. A. Burner (1988).

Granger, James, 1723-76, English clergyman and biographer. He published his Biographical History of England from Egbert the Great to the Revolution in 1760. By 1824 various editors had increased it to six volumes by adding illustrations and biographies taken from other books. Because many books were robbed of steel engravings to put into Granger's history, such mutilation came to be known as grangerizing.
Bradley, James, 1693-1762, English astronomer. His discovery of the aberration of light, announced in 1728, provided an important line of evidence for the motion of the earth around the sun. In 1742 Bradley became the third Astronomer Royal. Under his direction the observatory at Greenwich was supplied with new instruments; with some of these he cataloged the positions of more than 3,000 stars. His second important discovery, the nutation, or "nodding," of the earth's axis, was only made known in 1748, after it had stood the test of careful observations over a period of nearly 19 years.
Braid, James, 1795?-1860, English surgeon and writer on hypnotism and magic. The first to use the term hypnotism instead of mesmerism or animal magnetism, he also demonstrated that it was achieved by suggestion. His writings prepared the way for investigations into what was later called the unconscious mind.
Bridger, James, 1804-81, American fur trader, one of the most celebrated of the mountain men, b. Virginia. He was working as a blacksmith in St. Louis when he joined the Missouri River expedition of William H. Ashley in 1822. From that time until the fur trade declined in the 1840s he was a trader and trapper in the mountains, becoming familiar with most of the country N of Spanish New Mexico and E of California. He was associated with Thomas Fitzpatrick and Jedediah Smith in many of their journeys, and he is generally credited with being the first white man to see (1825) Great Salt Lake. He was the guide for the party of Marcus Whitman, and in 1843 he and a partner, Louis Vasquez, opened Fort Bridger on the Oregon Trail. They later were forced by the Mormons to give up the post. Bridger was a guide, notably to Gen. A. S. Johnston on the Mormon campaign in 1857, to an expedition to the present Yellowstone Park (a region he did much to publicize), and to the surveying party of Gen. G. M. Dodge for the Union Pacific RR. He came to be famous for his talk, was a fine spinner of "tall tales," and was one of the most picturesque figures of the frontier.

See biographies by J. C. Alter (1925; rev. ed. 1962, repr. 1967), S. Vestal (pseud. of W. S. Campbell; 1946, repr. 1970), and G. Caesar (1961); B. De Voto, Across the Wide Missouri (1947).

Stephens, James, 1882-1950, Irish poet and fiction writer, b. Dublin. One of the leading figures of the Irish literary renaissance, Stephens is best known for his fanciful and highly colored prose writings—The Crock of Gold (1912), The Demi-Gods (1914), Irish Fairy Tales (1920), Deirdre (1923), and In the Land of Youth (1924). In these works and others he made vivacious use of Irish legend and folklore. His first volume of poetry, Insurrections, appeared in 1909. Later volumes include Songs from the Clay (1915) and Kings and the Moon (1938). Possessed of a superb speaking voice, he gave many recitations of his poetry and, in later years, lectured on the radio.

See A James Stephens Reader (ed. by L. Frankenberg, 1962).

Iredell, James, 1751-99, American jurist, b. Lewes, England. He emigrated (1767) to North Carolina, where he entered the customs service at Edenton and was made (1774) collector for the port. He was admitted to the bar in 1771, and after the outbreak of the American Revolution he helped to organize the North Carolina court system. He became (1777) a judge and later (1779-81) was attorney general. His strong support of the proposed U.S. Constitution helped procure its adoption by North Carolina. In 1790, Iredell was made an associate justice of the newly established U.S. Supreme Court. Among his notable opinions was his dissent in Chisholm v. Georgia (1793) when the majority holding was that a state might be sued in the federal courts without its consent. The Eleventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (adopted 1798) made that view the law of the land.

See biography by G. J. McRee (1857, repr. 1949).

Lind, James, 1716-94, English naval surgeon. Considered the founder of naval hygiene in England, Lind observed on a ten-week cruise (1746) that 80 seamen of 350 came down with scurvy. In his Treatise of the Scurvy (1753) he emphasized the preventive effect of ingesting fresh fruit or lemon juice, thus reviving a practice of Dutch and English seafarers of the 16th cent. However, it was not until 1795, and through the efforts of Sir Gilbert Blane (1749-1834), that lemon juice was officially ordered as part of naval rations by the Admiralty. Lind also improved sanitary conditions aboard ships of the line, advocated the distilling of seawater for drinking purposes on long journeys, and, through his writings on tropical diseases, helped prevent much unnecessary loss of life during British campaigns.
Loeb, James, 1867-1933, American banker and philanthropist, b. New York City; son of Solomon Loeb. He entered (1888) Kuhn, Loeb and Company and retired from business at 34. Most of the rest of his life was spent abroad. He founded and endowed the Loeb Classical Library, a series of inexpensive yet attractive books containing on facing pages the original Greek and Latin texts and the English translations. He also founded (1905) in New York City the Institute of Musical Art, now part of the Juilliard School, and a clinic for psychiatric study in Munich.
Duane, James, 1733-97, political figure in the American Revolution, b. New York City. Admitted to the bar in 1754, Duane soon gained renown and wealth as a lawyer. Although he took a cautious approach in the prerevolutionary agitation in New York City, his sincere interest in colonial rights won him a seat in the Continental Congress (1774), where he served until 1783. His support of Joseph Galloway's conciliatory plan and his habitual caution in Congress incurred numerous attacks on his patriotism. He served on various Revolutionary committees and helped draft the Articles of Confederation. Toward the close of the war Duane was a member of George Clinton's council and from 1784 to 1789 served as mayor of New York City. He was at the same time state senator and was a member of the convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution. From 1789 until his retirement (1794) he was U.S. district judge for New York. Duane, who invested heavily in land in Vermont and W New York, was long an ardent advocate of New York's claims to the New Hampshire Grants. His last years were spent in Duanesburg (in the Mohawk valley), which he was chiefly responsible for establishing in 1765.

See biography by E. P. Alexander (1938).

Robertson, James, 1742-1814, American frontiersman, a founder of Tennessee, b. Brunswick co., Va. He was reared in North Carolina. After the failure of the Regulator movement, he led (1771) a group of settlers from Orange co., N.C., to Tennessee, where he became a leader of the Watauga Association. In 1779, Robertson explored the Cumberland River country for Richard Henderson and his Transylvania Company and in 1780 began the settlement of Nashborough, later renamed Nashville. Under the Cumberland Compact he became the chief civil and military officer of the community, and his wise leadership was largely responsible for its survival. When the state of Tennessee was organized in 1796, Robertson was prominent in drafting its first constitution. In his later years he served in the state senate (1798) and as agent to the Chickasaw.

See biography by A. W. Putnam (1859, repr. 1971).

Cagney, James, 1899-1986, American movie actor, b. New York City. He worked on Broadway as an actor and dancer before appearing in films. He is best remembered as a brash, sadistic, tough guy in such movies as Public Enemy (1931) and The Roaring Twenties (1939). He displayed equal vigor in sympathetic parts, appearing in numerous comedies and musicals. He broke a twenty-year retirement to appear in the film Ragtime (1981). His many other films include Angels With Dirty Faces (1936), The Bride Came C.O.D. (1942), Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942), White Heat (1949), Love Me or Leave Me (1955), Man of a Thousand Faces (1957), and One Two Three (1961).

See his autobiography, Cagney by Cagney (1976); biography by J. McCabe (1997).

Otis, James, 1725-83, American colonial political leader, b. Barnstable co., Mass. A lawyer first in Plymouth and then in Boston, he won great distinction and served (1756-61) as advocate general of the vice admiralty court. He resigned to oppose the issuing of writs of assistance by the superior court of Massachusetts; the writs, which authorized customs officials to search for smuggled goods, were virtually general search warrants. Arguing eloquently before the court, Otis claimed that the writs violated the natural rights of the colonials as Englishmen and that any act of Parliament violating those rights was void. Otis lost the case but soon became the leader of the radical wing of the colonial opposition to British measures. He was elected (1761) to the colonial assembly and was made head (1764) of the Massachusetts committee of correspondence. In his speeches and pamphlets, Otis defined and defended colonial rights. He proposed and participated in the Stamp Act Congress (see Stamp Act), and his ideas were used in the protests drafted by that body. Hated by the conservatives, his election (1766) as speaker of the assembly was vetoed by the royal governor. After the passage of the Townshend Acts (1767) Otis helped Samuel Adams draft the Massachusetts circular letter to the other colonies denouncing the acts. In 1769, Otis was struck on the head during a quarrel with a commissioner of customs. He subsequently became insane and took no further part in political affairs.

See C. F. Mullett, ed., Some Political Writings of James Otis (1929); biography by W. Tudor (1823, repr. 1970).

Dalrymple, James: see Stair, James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount.
Smith, James, c.1719-1806, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Ireland. He settled in Pennsylvania in his youth and practiced law at York. He served in provincial assemblies and conventions and advocated independence early. He was (1776-78) a member of the Continental Congress.
Smith, James, 1775-1839: see Smith, Horatio.
Douglas, James, 2d earl of Douglas and Mar, 1358?-1388, Scottish nobleman; son of William Douglas, 1st earl of Douglas and Mar. In 1373 he married Isabel Stuart, daughter of Robert II. With the aid of a French contingent he made raids on the English border in 1385. In the famous battle of Otterburn, celebrated in the ballads Chevy Chase and the Battle of Otterburn, Douglas himself was killed, but his forces were victorious, and his opponent, Sir Henry Percy, was taken captive.
Douglas, James, 9th earl of Douglas, 1426-88, Scottish nobleman, last earl of Douglas. Following the murder of his brother William, the 8th earl, by James II, he led a rebellion against the king in 1452 but was defeated. He soon entered into a conspiracy with the English, and in 1455 he was again defeated by James. Douglas escaped to England, but in 1484 was captured while on a raid in Scotland and was imprisoned the rest of his life. His lands, which had been confiscated, were granted to another branch of the family, headed by the earls of Angus.
Douglas, James, d. 1581: see Morton, James Douglas, 4th earl of.
Douglas, James, 1658-1712: see Hamilton, James Douglas, 4th duke of.
Douglas, James, 1662-1711: see Queensberry, James Douglas, 2d duke of.
Martineau, James, 1805-1900, English philosopher and Unitarian clergyman; brother of Harriet Martineau. He strongly upheld the theist position against the negations of physical science. A renowned teacher and minister, he achieved international distinction in academic and religious circles. Besides numerous essays contributed to periodicals, he was the author of A Study of Spinoza (1882), Types of Ethical Theory (1885), and A Study of Religion (1888).

See study by H. Sidgwick (1902, repr. 1968).

Agee, James, 1909-55, American writer, b. Knoxville, Tenn., grad. Harvard, 1932. He soon joined the literary and journalistic life of New York City, becoming (1932) a writer for Fortune magazine, a book reviewer and movie critic for Time (1939-48), and a film critic for The Nation (1942-48). During the 1950s he was a film scriptwriter, e.g., The African Queen (with John Huston, 1951) and The Night of the Hunter (1955), and also wrote for television. Agee's first major book is Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941), a prose commentary on the life of tenant farmers in the South in the 1930s with accompanying photographs by Walker Evans. His second major book, and probably best-known work, is the autobiographical and posthumously published novel A Death in the Family (1957; Pulitzer Prize), which recounts in poetic prose the tragic impact of a man's death on his wife and family. Agee's other works include The Morning Watch (1954), a novella with strong autobiographical elements,; Agee on Film (2 vol., 1958-60), a collection of reviews, comments, and scripts; Letters of James Agee to Father Flye (1962), a collection of letters to a former teacher; Collected Poems (1968); and Collected Short Prose (1969).

See his collected works, ed. by M. Sragow (2 vol., 2005); M. A. Lofaro, ed., A Death in the Family: A Restoration of the Author's Text (2008); biographies by G. Moreau (1977) and L. Bergreen (1984); R. Spears and J. Cassidy, ed., Agee: His Life Remembered (1985); studies by P. H. Ohlin (1966), A. G. Barson (1972), V. A. Kramer (1975), M. A. Doty (1981), M. A. Lofaro (1992), J. Lowe (1994), A. Spiegel (1998), and H. Davis (2008).

Baldwin, James, 1924-87, American author, b. New York City. He spent an impoverished boyhood in Harlem, became a Pentecostal preacher at 14, and left the church three years later. He moved to Paris in 1947 and his first two novels, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), reflecting his experience as a young preacher, and Giovanni's Room (1956), which dealt with his homosexuality, as well as the intensely personal, racially charged essay collection Notes of a Native Son (1955), were written while he lived there. Baldwin returned to the United States in 1957 and participated in the civil-rights movement, later returning to France where he lived for the remainder of his life. Another Country (1962), a bitter novel about sexual relations and racial tension, received critical acclaim, as did the perceptive essays in what is probably his most celebrated book, The Fire Next Time (1963). His eloquence and unsparing honesty made Baldwin one of the most influential authors of his time. Other works include the play Blues for Mr. Charlie (1964); a volume of short stories, Going to Meet the Man (1964); and the novels If Beale Street Could Talk (1974), the story of a young black couple victimized by the judicial system, and Just above My Head (1979). Collections of essays include Nobody Knows My Name (1961), No Name in the Street (1972), and The Price of a Ticket (1985).

See biographies by W. J. Wetherby (1989), J. Campbell (1991), and D. Leeming (1994); interviews in James Baldwin: The Legacy (1989, ed. by Q. Troupe) and Conversations with James Baldwin (1989, ed. by F. L. Standley and L. H. Pratt); studies by L. H. Pratt (1985), H. A. Porter (1989), D. A. McBride, ed. (1999), D. Q. Miller (2000), L. O. Scott (2002), H. Bloom, ed. (2006), D. Field, ed. (2009), and M. J. Zaborowska (2009).

Watt, James, 1736-1819, Scottish inventor. While working at the Univ. of Glasgow as an instrument maker, Watt was asked to repair a model of Thomas Newcomen's steam engine. He devised improvements that resulted in a new type of engine (patented 1769) with a separate condensing chamber, an air pump to bring steam into the chamber, and parts of the engine insulated. He also perfected a rotary engine. Matthew Boulton financed Watt's work and was his partner (1775-80) in manufacturing the engines at Soho near Birmingham. Watt coined the term horsepower. The watt, a unit of electrical power, was named for him.

See his correspondence, Partners in Science, ed. by E. H. Robinson and D. McKie (1970); study by E. H. Robinson and A. E. Musson (1969).

Kent, James, 1763-1847, American jurist, b. near Brewster, N.Y. He was admitted to the bar in 1785 and began practice in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Active in the Federalist party, he served several terms in the New York legislature. In 1793, Kent moved to New York City, where his reputation for learning established him as first professor of law at Columbia College. His lectures (1794-98) were not especially well received, and he welcomed the appointment in 1798 as a judge of the state supreme court. He was made chief judge in 1804, and from 1814 until his statutory retirement in 1823 he presided over the state court of chancery. Kent's written opinions as chancellor were instrumental in reviving equity, which had largely lapsed in the United States after the American Revolution. He refashioned many of the doctrines in that area by combining concepts from English chancery jurisprudence with the principles of Roman law. After his retirement he again (1824-26) was professor of law at Columbia, but found the delivery of lectures tedious and soon resigned. He vastly expanded the material of his courses to prepare his Commentaries on American Law (4 vol., 1826-30), a systematic treatment of international law, American constitutional law, the sources of state law, and the law of personal rights and of property. It was enthusiastically received by the legal profession and in Kent's lifetime went through six editions.

See Memoirs and Letters of James Kent by his great-grandson, William Kent (1898, repr. 1970); study by J. T. Horton (1939, repr. 1969).

James Wolfe, painting attributed to J.S.C. Schaak; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Jan. 2, 1727, Westerham, Kent, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1759, Quebec) British army commander. After a distinguished military career in Europe, in 1758 he helped lead Gen. Jeffery Amherst's successful expedition against the French on Cape Breton Island. In 1759 he was appointed commander of the British army on its mission to capture Quebec from the French. In the ensuing Battle of Quebec, he defeated the French in a battle lasting less than an hour. Wounded twice early in the battle, he died of a third wound, but not before he knew Quebec had fallen to his troops.

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(born Sept. 14, 1742, Fife, Scot.—died Aug. 21, 1798, Edenton, N.C., U.S.) American colonial lawyer, politician, and jurist. Immigrating to North America in 1765, he taught Greek and rhetoric in the College of Philadelphia and then studied law under John Dickinson. In 1774 he published a widely read treatise proposing a commonwealth of British colonies. He was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775–77), and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He helped draft the U.S. Constitution and the Pennsylvania state constitution and delivered lectures that became landmarks in American jurisprudence. He served on the U.S. Supreme Court (1789–98).

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(born March 13, 1870, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died May 22, 1938, Westport, Conn.) U.S. painter. He worked as a newspaper illustrator in Philadelphia and later in New York City. In 1891 he met Robert Henri, and he subsequently became a member of The Eight and the Ash Can school. He favoured colourful street scenes of urban middle-class life, heavily influenced by Impressionism. He was a prolific draftsman, and his drawings (e.g., Seated Woman, 1902) reveal an elegant style not seen in his paintings. In 1912 he traveled to Europe to buy paintings for the collection of Albert C. Barnes. In 1913 he helped organize and exhibited in the Armory Show.

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William James

(born Jan. 11, 1842, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1910, Chocorua, N.H.) U.S. philosopher and psychologist. Son of the philosophical writer Henry James (1811–82) and brother of the novelist Henry James, he studied medicine at Harvard, where he taught from 1872. His first major work, The Principles of Psychology (1890), treated thinking and knowledge as instruments in the struggle to live. His most famous work is The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). In Pragmatism (1907), he generalized the theories of Charles Sanders Peirce to assert that the meaning of any idea must be analyzed in terms of the succession of experiential consequences to which it leads and that truth and error depend solely on these consequences (see pragmatism). He applied this doctrine to the analysis of change and chance, freedom, variety, pluralism, and novelty. His pragmatism was also the basis for his polemic against monism, the idealistic doctrine of internal relations, and all views that presented reality as a static whole. He was also a leader of the psychological movement known as functionalism.

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James Wilkinson, portrait by J.W. Jarvis; in the Filson Club Collection, Louisville, Ky.

(born 1757, Calvert county, Md.—died Dec. 28, 1825, Mexico City, Mex.) American army officer and double agent. He served in the American Revolution under Horatio Gates and was involved in the Thomas Conway cabal. He settled in Kentucky in 1784 and schemed to ally the Kentucky region with Spain, though he was in fact working against Spain. He served as governor of part of the Louisiana territory (1805–06). He allegedly planned to conquer the Mexican provinces of Spain and conspired with Aaron Burr to establish an independent government; when he betrayed Burr's plan, he was investigated but cleared. In the War of 1812 he commanded U.S. forces on the Canadian border, but his campaign against Montreal failed.

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(born July 11, 1834, Lowell, Mass., U.S.—died July 17, 1903, London, Eng.) U.S.-born British painter, etcher, and lithographer. He attended West Point but soon abandoned the army for art. In 1855 he arrived in Paris to study painting and adopted a bohemian lifestyle. In 1863 he moved to London, where he had considerable success, becoming widely famous for his wit and large public presence. During the 1860s and '70s he began to use musical terms in the h1s of his paintings, such as Symphony and Harmony, reflecting his belief in the “correspondences” between the arts. During this period he started to paint his “nocturnes”—scenes of London, especially of Chelsea, that have poetic intensity. For them he evolved a special technique by which paint, in a very liquid state he called a sauce, was stroked onto the canvas in fast sweeps of the brush, somewhat in the manner of Japanese calligraphy (he was an outspoken advocate of Japanese arts). From the 1870s onward he was preoccupied by the problems of portrait painting, creating a number of masterpieces, including Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist's Mother (1871–72), known as Whistler's Mother. These paintings underline his aestheticism, his liking for simple forms and muted tones, and his dependence on the 17th-century Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. In 1877 he brought a libel suit against John Ruskin for attacking his Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875); he won his case but received damages of only a farthing, and the costs of the suit temporarily bankrupted him. Considered one of the leading painters of his day, after his death his reputation declined. Only in the later 20th century did Whistler begin to receive serious acclaim once again.

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(born June 12, 1833, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1912, Des Moines, Iowa) U.S. politician. An advocate of the Greenback movement, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Iowa (1879–81, 1885–89). He helped form the People's Party (see Populist movement) and was its candidate for president in 1892, receiving more than 1 million popular votes and 22 electoral votes. After helping effect the party's merger with the Democratic Party, he retired to Iowa.

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James Watt, oil painting by H. Howard; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Jan. 19, 1736, Greenock, Renfrewshire, Scot.—died Aug. 25, 1819, Heathfield Hall, near Birmingham, Warwick, Eng.) Scottish engineer and inventor. Though largely self-taught, he began work early as an instrument maker and later as an engineer on the Forth and Clyde Canal. Watt's major improvement to Thomas Newcomen's steam engine was the use of a separate condenser (1769), which reduced the loss of latent heat and greatly increased its efficiency. With Matthew Boulton he began manufacture of his new engine in 1775. In 1781 he added rotary motion (a so-called sun-and-planet gear) to replace the up-and-down action of the original engine. In 1782 he patented the double-acting engine, in which the piston pushed as well as pulled. This engine required a new method of rigidly connecting the piston to the beam, a problem he solved in 1784 with an arrangement of connected rods that guided the piston rod in a perpendicular motion. His application of the centrifugal governor for automatic control of the speed of the engine (1788) and his invention of a pressure gauge (1790) virtually completed the Watt engine, which had immense consequences for the Industrial Revolution. He introduced the concept of horsepower; the watt, a unit of power, is named for him.

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(born April 6, 1928, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. geneticist and biophysicist. He earned his Ph.D. at Indiana University in 1950. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, he began work in Britain with Francis Crick on the problem of DNA structure. In 1952 he determined the structure of the protein coat surrounding the tobacco mosaic virus. In early 1953 he determined that the essential DNA components, four organic bases, must be linked in definite pairs, a discovery that enabled Watson and Crick to formulate a double-helix molecular model for DNA. In 1962 the two scientists and Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize. Watson's The Double Helix (1968), a best-selling personal account of the DNA discovery, aroused controversy. He taught at Harvard University (1955–76) and served as director of the Carnegie Institute's laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor (1968–94). Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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(born Aug. 24, 1795, London, Eng.—died Dec. 25, 1864, New York, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. actor-manager. Born into a London stage family, he acted in Shakespearean roles from age 12 and made his U.S. debut as Macbeth in 1818. He performed in London and New York City until 1852, crossing the Atlantic 35 times. In 1837–39 he comanaged New York's National Theatre with his brother Henry John Wallack (1790–1870), the company's leading player. In 1852–62 he comanaged the Lyceum Theatre (renamed Wallack's Lyceum) with his son Lester (1820–88) as stage manager. Succeeding his father as general manager, Lester staged polished productions of English plays and trained most of the major 19th-century U.S. stage performers.

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known as Jimmy Walker

(born June 19, 1881, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1946, New York City) U.S. politician. He entered politics after graduating from New York Law School, becoming a member of the Assembly (1909) and then of the State Senate (1914). Backed by Gov. Alfred E. Smith and Tammany Hall, he was elected mayor (1925–32). A popular figure known for his charm and wit but particularly for his enthusiastic participation in the high life typical of the era, he made improvements in sanitation, hospitals, and subways. In 1931 the state legislature, investigating the city's affairs, charged Walker with corruption; he resigned in 1932.

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(born June 29, 1886, Lenox, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1983, Washington, D.C.) U.S. photographer. By 1906 he had moved with his family to Harlem in New York City. After a brief stint at a portrait studio in Newark, N.J., he returned to Harlem to set up his own studio. The portraits he took from 1918 to 1945 chronicled the Harlem Renaissance; among his many renowned subjects were Countee Cullen, Bill Robinson, and Marcus Garvey. After World War II his fortunes declined until the Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibited his photographs in 1969.

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(born Dec. 5, 1902, Edgefield, S.C., U.S.—died June 26, 2003, Edgefield) U.S. senator (1954–2003). He served as a South Carolina state senator (1933–38) and circuit court judge (1938–41). As governor (1947–51), he expanded the state educational system. At the 1948 Democratic convention, Thurmond led the bolt of Southern delegates who objected to the civil rights plank in the party platform; called Dixiecrats, they nominated Thurmond as their presidential candidate, and he won 39 electoral votes. In 1954 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, and in 1964 he switched party affiliation to the Republican Party. In 1996 he became the oldest person to serve in Congress. An archconservative, he advocated states' rights, opposed civil rights legislation, and supported increases in military spending.

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(born April 22, 1926, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 25, 1992, London, Eng.) Scottish architect. He began working (1956–63) in the New Brutalist style with his partner James Gowan (see Brutalism). His engineering building at Leicester University (1963), with its precise crystalline forms, brought him early fame. From 1971 he worked with Michael Wilford. In the 1970s Stirling developed his own brand of postmodernism that made use of complex geometric abstraction, bold colours, and Classical elements. The Neue Staatsgalerie (1977–84) in Stuttgart, Ger., is among his finest statements. In 1981 Stirling received the Pritzker Architecture Prize.

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James Stewart in It's a Wonderful Life (1946).

(born May 20, 1908, Indiana, Pa., U.S.—died July 2, 1997, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. film actor. He made his film debut in 1935, but at first, Stewart's slow, halting line delivery (perhaps his most readily identifiable trademark) and angular features made him difficult to cast. His engaging manner, however, led to quick acceptance by the movie-going public, and he played endearingly simple and idealistic characters in Frank Capra's You Can't Take It with You (1938) and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939). He won an Academy Award for best actor for his performance in The Philadelphia Story (1940). After serving as a bomber pilot in World War II, he starred in It's a Wonderful Life (1946), which became a Christmas classic. He was known for his portrayals of diffident but morally resolute characters. His many movies include Destry Rides Again (1939), The Glenn Miller Story (1954), The Man from Laramie (1955), Anatomy of a Murder (1959), and Alfred Hitchcock's Rope (1948), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1955), and Vertigo (1958).

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(born 1673, Paris, France—died Feb. 5, 1721, London, Eng.) English soldier and statesman. He began a military career in 1691 and rose rapidly to become commander in chief of the English army in Spain in 1708 in the War of the Spanish Succession. He was defeated and captured by the French (1710), then returned to England (1712) and regained his seat in the House of Commons (1701–21). He served in the Whig government as secretary of state and negotiated the Quadruple Alliance against Spain (1718). Stanhope served as first lord of the treasury (1717–18), but his ministry was discredited by the South Sea Bubble scandal.

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(born June 14, 1924, Uddingston, Scot.) Scottish pharmacologist. Through studying interactions between receptors on cells and chemicals in the bloodstream that attach to them, Black developed the first of the beta-blocking drugs, to relieve angina pectoris. He used a similar approach to develop drugs for stomach and duodenal ulcers. He shared a 1988 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Gertrude Elion.

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(born May 9, 1860, Kirriemuir, Angus, Scot.—died June 19, 1937, London, Eng.) Scottish playwright and novelist. After moving to London, he wrote Auld Licht Idylls (1888), a book about his native Scotland. His best-selling novel The Little Minister (1891) was made into a play in 1897. His plays Quality Street (1901) and The Admirable Crichton (1902) ran successfully in London. After creating the stories of Peter Pan for a friend's sons, he won great success with his classic children's play Peter Pan, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). His other plays include The Twelve-Pound Look (1910) and Dear Brutus (1917).

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(born Sept. 11, 1877, London, Eng.—died Sept. 16, 1946, Dorking, Surrey) British physicist and mathematician. After teaching at Cambridge and Princeton, he worked as a research associate at the Mount Wilson Observatory (1923–44). He proposed that matter was continuously created throughout the universe (see steady-state theory). He wrote on a wide variety of phenomena but is perhaps best known as a writer of popular books about astronomy.

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(born 1748, Gibraltar—died Jan. 12, 1812, London, Eng.) British army officer and governor-general of Canada (1807–11). In the American Revolution, he was wounded at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775 and helped repel the American army's invasion of Canada in 1776. He later served in India. As governor-general in Canada, he cooperated with the governing clique in Quebec but conducted an unpopular repressive policy toward French Canadians. He resigned in 1811 and returned to England.

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Sir James George Frazer, 1933.

(born Jan. 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scot.—died May 7, 1941, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.) British anthropologist, folklorist, and classical scholar. Frazer attended Glasgow University and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a professor and remained the rest of his life. In The Golden Bough (1890; enlarged to 12 vols., 1911–15), Frazer examined the evolution of modes of thought from the magical to the religious and, finally, to the scientific. Although his evolutionary sequence is no longer accepted, Frazer's synthesis of the new science of cultural anthropology with traditional humanistic concerns and his lively descriptions of exotic cultural beliefs and practices had a wide influence. His other works include Totemism and Exogamy (1910) and Folk-Lore in the Old Testament (1918).

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(born April 22, 1926, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 25, 1992, London, Eng.) Scottish architect. He began working (1956–63) in the New Brutalist style with his partner James Gowan (see Brutalism). His engineering building at Leicester University (1963), with its precise crystalline forms, brought him early fame. From 1971 he worked with Michael Wilford. In the 1970s Stirling developed his own brand of postmodernism that made use of complex geometric abstraction, bold colours, and Classical elements. The Neue Staatsgalerie (1977–84) in Stuttgart, Ger., is among his finest statements. In 1981 Stirling received the Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Learn more about Stirling, Sir James (Frazer) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 15, 1803, Demerara, British Guiana—died Aug. 2, 1877, Victoria, B.C., Can.) Canadian statesman, known as “the father of British Columbia.” He joined the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 and became a senior member in charge of operations west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1849 he moved the company's headquarters from Oregon to Vancouver Island. He served as governor of Vancouver from 1851 to 1864. When gold was discovered on the Fraser River in 1858, he extended his authority to the mainland to preserve Britain's Pacific foothold. When Britain created the colony of British Columbia, Douglas was appointed governor (1858–64).

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(born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine-on-Forth, Scot.—died March 27, 1923, London, Eng.) British chemist and physicist. In 1891 he built a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity. His Dewar flask for storing liquefied gases—a double-walled flask has insulating vacuum between the inner and outer walls—became essential in low-temperature scientific work; its principle is used in the Thermos bottle. Dewar was the first to liquefy and solidify hydrogen, and his 1905 discovery that cooled charcoal can help create high vacuums was useful in atomic physics.

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(born Feb. 7, 1837, Denholm, Roxburghshire, Scot.—died July 26, 1915, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) Scottish lexicographer. He taught in a grammar school (1855–85). His Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873) and a major article on English for Encyclopædia Britannica (1878) established him as a leading philologist. He was hired by the Philological Society as editor of the vast New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, later called the Oxford English Dictionary, in 1879, and he applied himself to the work with legendary energy and resourcefulness. The first volume appeared in 1884, and by his death he had completed about half the dictionary.

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(born Aug. 15, 1822, Kelso, Roxburgh, Scot.—died Feb. 3, 1888, Cannes, France) British jurist and legal historian. He taught civil law at the University of Cambridge (1847–54) and lectured on Roman law at the Inns of Court. These lectures became the basis of his Ancient Law (1861) and Early History of Institutions (1875), which influenced both political theory and anthropology. In 1869 he became the first professor of comparative jurisprudence at the University of Oxford; in 1887 he became professor of international law at Cambridge. As a member of the council of the governor-general of India (1863–69), he shaped plans for the codification of Indian law. He was knighted in 1871.

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or James the Great

(born Galilee, Palestine—died AD 44, Jerusalem; feast day July 25) One of the 12 Apostles of Jesus. He and his brother John (see St. John the Apostle) were fishermen on the Sea of Galilee and were among the first disciples to be called. As a member of the inner circle of disciples, he witnessed the major events in the ministry of Jesus, including the Transfiguration and the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. He was beheaded in AD 44 by order of Herod Agrippa. By tradition, his body was taken to Santiago de Compostela, Spain; his shrine there has long been a place of pilgrimage.

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(born Nov. 29, 1933, Grand Forks, N.D., U.S.) U.S. painter. His youthful employment as a billboard painter influenced the enlarged imagery and cool, impersonal style of painting that he developed by the early 1960s. In a typical painting, he juxtaposed imagery from pop culture, advertising, and other mass media using bright colours and a large canvas. This interest in popular culture has led many to define him as a precursor to Pop art. He has also created large works combining lithography, screenprinting, etching, and collage.

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(born June 29, 1863, Bloomington, Ill., U.S.—died Feb. 16, 1936, New York, N.Y.) U.S. historian. Robinson received his doctorate from the University of Freiburg and returned to the U.S. to teach European history, principally at Columbia University (1895–1919). In The New History (1912), he called for the use of the social sciences in historical scholarship and put forth his controversial contention that the study of the past should serve primarily to improve the present. Among his other works are The Mind in the Making (1921) and several influential textbooks, including The Development of Modern Europe (1907–08; with Charles Beard).

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(born Oct. 7, 1849, Greenfield, Ind., U.S.—died July 22, 1916, Indianapolis, Ind.) U.S. poet. He came into touch with the populace of rural Indiana through his early work experiences. His verse contributions to the Indianapolis Daily Journal, written in Hoosier dialect ostensibly by a farmer, established his reputation as “the poet of the common people.” His best-known poems include “When the Frost Is on the Punkin” and “The Raggedy Man.” Among his many collections are The Old Swimmin' Hole (1883), Pipes o' Pan at Zekesbury (1888), and Home Folks (1900).

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(born Nov. 3, 1909, Clydebank, Dumbartonshire, Scot.—died Dec. 6, 1995, Washington, D.C., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. columnist and editor. His family moved to the U.S. when he was 10 years old. He was a sportswriter before joining The New York Times in 1939, where he worked as a reporter, a nationally syndicated columnist, Washington bureau chief (1953–64), executive editor (1968–69), and vice president (1969–74) before retiring in 1989. One of the most influential U.S. journalists, he had unrivaled personal access to U.S. presidents and world leaders and was often the first to break major stories. He won two Pulitzer Prizes (1945, 1957), helped create the first Op-Ed page (1970; a forum for columnists' opinion pieces), and recruited and trained many talented young journalists.

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(born Feb. 4, 1947, Indianapolis, Ind., U.S.) U.S. politician. After earning a law degree, he served as associate publisher of his family's Huntington Herald-Press (1974–76). He served two terms in the U.S. House of Representatives (1977–81) and two in the Senate (1981–89). Chosen as the Republican Party candidate for vice president in 1988, he was elected with George H.W. Bush. During his term, Quayle traveled abroad on goodwill missions but was criticized for various verbal gaffes. He and Bush ran for reelection in 1992 but were defeated. He briefly campaigned for the Republican nomination for president in 2000.

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James K. Polk, daguerreotype by Mathew Brady, 1849.

(born Nov. 2, 1795, Mecklenburg county, N.C., U.S.—died June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tenn.) 11th president of the U.S. (1845–49). He was a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson, who helped Polk win election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1825. He left the House in 1839 to become governor of Tennessee. At the deadlocked 1844 Democratic Party convention Polk was nominated as the compromise candidate; he is considered the first dark-horse presidential candidate. A proponent of western expansion, he openly laid claim to the whole territory that extended as far north as latitude 54° 40' with the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” (see Oregon Question). Elected at the age of 49, the youngest president to that time, he successfully concluded the Oregon border dispute with Britain (1846) and secured passage of the Walker Tariff Act (1846), which lowered import duties and helped foreign trade. He led the prosecution of the Mexican War, which resulted in large territorial gains but reopened debate over the extension of slavery. His administration also established the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the Smithsonian Institution; oversaw revision of the treasury system; and proclaimed the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. Though an efficient and competent president and deft in his handling of Congress, he was exhausted by his efforts and did not seek reelection; he died three months after leaving office.

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(born April 25, 1940, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. actor. He began his career as a stage actor, winning Tony Awards for Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? (1969) and later for The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel (1977). He played Michael Corleone in The Godfather (1972) and its sequels (1974, 1990). Known for his intense, explosive acting style, he also starred in Serpico (1973), Dog Day Afternoon (1975), And Justice for All (1979), Scarface (1983), Scent of a Woman (1992, Academy Award), The Insider (1999), and Insomnia (2002).

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(born Feb. 5, 1725, West Barnstable, Mass.—died May 23, 1783, Andover, Mass., U.S.) American Revolutionary statesman. He argued before the colonial court against the British-imposed writs of assistance (1761), reportedly stating “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” He served in the provincial legislature (1761–69) and was a leading opponent, along with Samuel Adams, of the Stamp Act. He wrote political pamphlets upholding the colonists' cause, including The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (1764). Struck on the head in a scuffle with a British official in 1769, he later became mentally unbalanced.

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John Osborne

(born Dec. 12, 1929, London, Eng.—died Dec. 24, 1994, Shropshire) British playwright and film producer. Initially an actor, he cowrote his first play, The Devil Inside Him (1950), with Stella Linden. His Look Back in Anger (1956; film, 1959) ushered in a spate of vigorously realistic plays about contemporary British working-class life, making Osborne the first of the postwar Angry Young Men. His next play, The Entertainer (1957; film, 1960), told the story of a failing music-hall comedian; it was commissioned by the actor Laurence Olivier, who starred in the stage and film versions. Osborne wrote the screenplay for the film Tom Jones (1963, Academy Award), and his other plays include Luther (1961) and Inadmissible Evidence (1964).

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(born Oct. 19, 1610, London, Eng.—died July 21, 1688, Kingston Lacy, Dorset) Anglo-Irish statesman. Born into the prominent Butler family of Ireland, he succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde in 1632. In service to the English crown in Ireland from 1633, he fought against the Catholic rebellion from 1641. He concluded a peace with the Catholic confederacy in 1649, then rallied support for Charles II, but he was forced to flee when Oliver Cromwell landed at Dublin. He was Charles's adviser in exile (1650–60). After the Restoration he was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland (1662–69, 1677–84), where he encouraged Irish commerce and industry. He was created a duke in 1682.

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(born July 9, 1947, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) U.S. football player. At the University of Southern California as a running back (1965–68), he set rushing records, was named All-American, and won the Heisman Trophy (1968). He joined the Buffalo Bills in 1969, with whom he continued to set records, and he became a great box-office draw. Knee injuries led to his being traded in 1978 to the San Francisco 49ers; he retired after the 1979 season. Handsome and genial, he became a popular film and television actor. In 1994 he was charged with the murders of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. The resulting trial and acquittal generated unprecedented media coverage and public debate. A separate civil trial in 1997 found Simpson guilty in a wrongful-death suit. He later collaborated on If I Did It, a hypothetical confession to the murders. Public outrage prevented its initial publication in 2006, but a bankruptcy court subsequently awarded the book's rights to the Goldman family, who released the work in 2007. Later that year, Simpson was arrested after he and several other men entered a Las Vegas hotel room and took memorabilia items that Simpson claimed had been stolen from him. In 2008 he was convicted of a number of crimes related to the incident, including armed robbery and kidnapping, and sentenced to a minimum of nine years in prison.

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(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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(born Feb. 7, 1837, Denholm, Roxburghshire, Scot.—died July 26, 1915, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) Scottish lexicographer. He taught in a grammar school (1855–85). His Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873) and a major article on English for Encyclopædia Britannica (1878) established him as a leading philologist. He was hired by the Philological Society as editor of the vast New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, later called the Oxford English Dictionary, in 1879, and he applied himself to the work with legendary energy and resourcefulness. The first volume appeared in 1884, and by his death he had completed about half the dictionary.

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(born circa 1516—died June 2, 1581, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish nobleman. Appointed chancellor by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563, he conspired with other Protestant nobles to murder Mary's adviser David Riccio and probably was involved in the murder of Lord Darnley. He led the nobles that drove Mary's husband, the earl of Bothwell, from Scotland and forced her to abdicate in favour of her infant son, James (later James I of England). He became regent for James in 1572 and restored the rule of law to Scotland. Resented by the other nobles, he was forced to resign in 1578; he was later charged with complicity in Darnley's murder and executed.

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(born 1612—died May 21, 1650, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish general in the English Civil Wars. He served in the Covenanter army that invaded northern England (1640) but remained a royalist. Appointed lieutenant-general by Charles I (1644), he led his royalist army of Highlanders and Irish to victories in major battles in Scotland. After Charles's defeat in 1645, Montrose fled to the European continent. He returned to Scotland in 1650 with 1,200 men, but he was defeated, captured, and hanged.

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James Monroe, oil sketch by E.O. Sully, 1836, after a contemporary portrait by Thomas Sully; in elipsis

(born April 28, 1758, Westmoreland county, Va.—died July 4, 1831, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Fifth president of the U.S. (1817–25). After serving in the American Revolution, he studied law under Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Virginia. From 1783 to 1786 he served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he opposed the adminstration of George Washington. He nevertheless became Washington's minister to France in 1794, though he was recalled two years later for misleading the French about U.S. politics. From 1799 to 1802 he served as governor of Virginia. In 1803 Pres. Jefferson sent him to France to help negotiate the Louisiana Purchase; he was then appointed minister to Britain (1803–07). He returned to Virginia and was again elected governor in 1810, though he resigned the office after 11 months to serve as U.S. secretary of state (1811–17) and secretary of war (1814–15). He served two terms as president, presiding in a period that became known as the Era of Good Feelings. He oversaw the Seminole War of 1817–18 and the acquisition of the Floridas (1819–21), and he signed the Missouri Compromise (1820). With Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, he developed the principles of U.S. foreign policy later called the Monroe Doctrine.

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(born April 6, 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scot.—died June 23, 1836, London, Eng.) Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist. After studying at the University of Edinburgh and teaching, he went to London in 1802, where he met Jeremy Bentham and became a major promulgator of Bentham's utilitarianism. He wrote for several journals, including the Edinburgh Review (1808–13), and contributed articles on government and education to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. He helped found London University in 1825. After completing his History of British India (3 vol., 1817), he was appointed an official in India House (1819) and later became head of the examiner's office (1830). His criticism of British rule led to changes in the government of India. His Elements of Political Economy (1821) summarized the views of David Ricardo, and his Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829) associated psychology with utilitarianism, a doctrine continued by his son, John Stuart Mill. Mill is considered the founder of philosophical radicalism.

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(born Feb. 3, 1907?, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 16, 1997, Austin, Texas) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. Michener was a foundling discovered in Doylestown, Pa., and he was raised as a Quaker. From 1944 to 1946 he was a naval historian in the South Pacific, the setting of his early fiction; his Tales of the South Pacific (1947, Pulitzer Prize) was adapted as the Broadway musical South Pacific (1949; film, 1958). He is best known for epic and detailed novels drawing on extensive research, including Hawaii (1959; film, 1966), Iberia (1968), Centennial (1974), Chesapeake (1978), Space (1982), and Mexico (1992).

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(born March 3, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1995, Tucson, Ariz.) U.S. poet. Son of a founder of the investment firm Merrill Lynch, he attended Amherst College. Inherited wealth enabled him to devote his life to poetry. His lyric and epic poems are known for their fine craftsmanship, erudition, and wit. Many of his later works were stimulated by sessions with a Ouija board. His collections include Nights and Days (1966), the trilogy of Divine Comedies (1976, Pulitzer Prize), Mirabell: Books of Number (1978), and Scripts for the Pageant (1980), published together in The Changing Light at Sandover (1982). A Different Person, his memoir, was published in 1993. His last book of poetry, A Scattering of Salts, was published posthumously in 1995.

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(born June 13, 1831, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Nov. 5, 1879, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.) Scottish physicist. He published his first scientific paper at age 14, entered the University of Edinburgh at 16, and graduated from Cambridge University. He taught at Aberdeen University, King's College London, and Cambridge (from 1871), where he supervised the building of Cavendish Laboratory. His most revolutionary achievement was his demonstration that light is an electromagnetic wave, and he originated the concept of electromagnetic radiation. His field equations (see Maxwell's equations) paved the way for Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. He established the nature of Saturn's rings, did important work on colour perception, and produced the kinetic theory of gases. His ideas formed the basis for quantum mechanics and ultimately for the modern theory of the structure of atoms and molecules.

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(born Nov. 3, 1798, Fairfax county, Va., U.S.—died April 28, 1871, Alexandria, Va.) U.S. politician. A grandson of George Mason, he practiced law in his native Virginia from 1820. He served in the state legislature (1826, 1828–32), the U.S. House of Representatives (1837–39), and the U.S. Senate (1847–61). An advocate of secession, he resigned his Senate seat in 1861. Appointed Confederate commissioner to England, he was captured at sea with John Slidell aboard the Trent and imprisoned for two months (see Trent Affair). Released in 1862, he remained in England until 1865 but was unable to win support for the Confederate cause.

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(born May 15, 1909, Huddersfield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died July 27, 1984, Lausanne, Switz.) British film actor. After studying architecture at the University of Cambridge, he made his screen debut in Late Extra (1935) and soon became a star in British films such as The Man in Grey (1943), The Seventh Veil (1945), and Odd Man Out (1947). He moved to Hollywood in the late 1940s but continued to make films in Britain as well. Noted for his urbane characterizations of flawed individuals, he appeared in more than 100 movies, including Madame Bovary (1949), A Star Is Born (1954), North by Northwest (1959), Lolita (1962), Georgy Girl (1966), The Boys from Brazil (1978), and The Verdict (1982).

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(born Aug. 15, 1822, Kelso, Roxburgh, Scot.—died Feb. 3, 1888, Cannes, France) British jurist and legal historian. He taught civil law at the University of Cambridge (1847–54) and lectured on Roman law at the Inns of Court. These lectures became the basis of his Ancient Law (1861) and Early History of Institutions (1875), which influenced both political theory and anthropology. In 1869 he became the first professor of comparative jurisprudence at the University of Oxford; in 1887 he became professor of international law at Cambridge. As a member of the council of the governor-general of India (1863–69), he shaped plans for the codification of Indian law. He was knighted in 1871.

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(born March 16, 1751, Port Conway, Va.—died June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Va., U.S.) Fourth president of the U.S. (1809–17). After graduating from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), he served in the Virginia state legislature (1776–80, 1784–86). At the Constitutional Convention (1787), his Virginia, or large-state, Plan furnished the Constitution's basic framework and guiding principles, earning him the h1 “father of the Constitution.” To promote its ratification, he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist papers, a series of articles on the Constitution and republican government published in newspapers in 1787–88 (Madison wrote 29 of the 85 articles). In the U.S. House of Representatives (1789–97), he sponsored the Bill of Rights. He split with Hamilton over the existence of an implied congressional power to create a national bank; Madison denied such a power, though later, as president, he requested a national bank from Congress. In protest of the Alien and Sedition Acts, he drafted one of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in 1798 (Thomas Jefferson drafted the other). From 1801 to 1809 he was Jefferson's secretary of state. Elected president in 1808, he immediately faced the problem of British interference with neutral U.S. merchant vessels, which Jefferson's Embargo Act (1807) had failed to discourage. Believing that Britain was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, Madison proclaimed nonintercourse with Britain in 1810 and signed a declaration of war in 1812. During the ensuing War of 1812 (1812–14), Madison and his family were forced to flee Washington, D.C., as advancing British troops burned the executive mansion and other public buildings. During Madison's second term (1813–17) the second Bank of the United States was chartered and the first U.S. protective tariff was imposed. He retired to his Virginia estate, Montpelier, with his wife, Dolley (1768–1849), whose political acumen he had long prized. He participated in Jefferson's creation of the University of Virginia, later serving as its rector (1826–36), and produced numerous articles and letters on political topics.

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(born Oct. 12, 1866, Lossiemouth, Moray, Scot.—died Nov. 9, 1937, at sea en route to South America) British politician, first Labour Party prime minister of Britain (1924, 1929–31, 1931–35). He joined the precursor of the Labour Party in 1894 and was its secretary from 1900 to 1911. He was a member of the House of Commons (1906–18), where he served as leader of the Labour Party (1911–14), before he was forced to resign after opposing Britain's participation in World War I. Reelected to Parliament in 1922, he led the Labour opposition. He became prime minister in 1924 with Liberal Party support, but he was forced to resign later that year when Conservatives regained a majority. In 1929 Labour won a majority and he returned as prime minister. In 1931 he offered his resignation during the Great Depression but decided instead to remain in office as head of a national coalition until 1935, when Stanley Baldwin became prime minister. MacDonald remained in the government as lord president of the council until 1937.

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James Russell Lowell.

(born Feb. 22, 1819, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 12, 1891, Cambridge) U.S. poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He received a law degree from Harvard but chose not to practice. In the 1840s he wrote extensively against slavery, including the Biglow Papers (1848), satirical verses in Yankee dialect. His other most important works are The Vision of Sir Launfal (1848), a long poem on the brotherhood of mankind; and A Fable for Critics (1848), a witty evaluation of contemporary authors. After his wife's death in 1853, he wrote mainly essays on literature, history, and politics. A highly influential man of letters in his day, he taught at Harvard, edited The Atlantic Monthly and The North American Review, and served as minister to Spain and ambassador to Britain.

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(born , Jan. 8, 1821, Edgefield District, S.C., U.S.—died Jan. 2, 1904, Gainesville, Ga.) U.S. army officer. He graduated from West Point but resigned from the U.S. Army when South Carolina seceded. Appointed brigadier general in the Confederate army, he fought in the battles of Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. He was second in command to Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, where his delay in attacking contributed to the Confederate defeat. He later directed the Confederate attack at Chickamauga. He was badly wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness but later resumed his command. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox Court House. He later served as U.S. minister to Turkey (1880–81) and commissioner of Pacific railways (1898–1904).

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orig. Tah-gah-jute

(born circa 1725, probably at Shamokin, Pa.—died 1780, near Lake Erie) American Indian leader. He was the son of the Oneida chief Shikellamy, who was a friend of the secretary of the Pennsylvania colony, James Logan (1674–1751). He moved to the Ohio River valley, where he became friendly with Indians and white settlers. After his family was massacred by a frontier trader in 1774, he led Indian raids on white settlements in Lord Dunmore's War. He refused to participate in peace negotiations, sending his grievances in a message known as “Logan's Lament.” He was allied with the British in the American Revolution.

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(born 1716, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 13, 1794, Gosport, Hampshire, Eng.) Scottish naval surgeon and physician. Having observed thousands of scurvy, typhus, and dysentery cases and the shipboard conditions that caused them, he published A Treatise on Scurvy in 1754, a time when scurvy killed more British sailors than combat. He recommended giving citrus fruits and juices (sources of vitamin C) to sailors on long voyages, a practice known to the Dutch for nearly two centuries. When the practice was fully instituted in 1795, scurvy disappeared from the ranks “as if by magic.” Lind also suggested shipboard delousing and use of hospital ships, and he arranged for distillation of seawater for drinking.

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(born June 23, 1943, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. conductor. He debuted as a pianist at age 10 with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. At Juilliard he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne (1880–1976) and conducting with Jean Morel (1903–75). He was assistant conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1964 to 1970. A guest appearance conducting Tosca (1971) led to his appointment as principal conductor (1973) and later music director (1975) and artistic director (1986) of the Metropolitan Opera. He built the flagging Met orchestra into a virtuoso ensemble and became recognized as one of the world's greatest conductors. He served as director of Chicago's Ravinia Festival from 1973 to 1993 and was named music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 2004.

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(born Oct. 1, 1781, Burlington, N.J., U.S.—killed in action June 1, 1813, in a sea battle off Boston, Mass.) U.S. naval officer. He served under Stephen Decatur in the Tripolitan War. In the War of 1812 he commanded the USS Hornet in the capture of the British Peacock. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to captain of the USS Chesapeake. In 1813 he accepted a challenge from the British Shannon to a sea fight off the coast of Boston. The Chesapeake was defeated in less than an hour, and Lawrence was mortally wounded. His last words, “Don't give up the ship,” came to express one of the U.S. Navy's most cherished traditions.

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(born July 31, 1763, Fredericksburgh, Putnam county, N.Y.—died Dec. 12, 1847, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. jurist who helped shape common law in the U.S. A lawyer at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., from 1785 and a New York state legislator from 1790, he taught law at Columbia University (1793–98, 1823–26) and later served as chief justice of the New York Supreme Court (1804–14) and chancellor of the Court of Chancery (1814–23), then the state's highest judicial office. As chancellor, he is said to have made U.S. equity jurisprudence effective for the first time. His Commentaries on American Law (1826–30) proved influential both in the U.S. and in England.

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James Joyce, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1939.

(born Feb. 2, 1882, Dublin, Ire.—died Jan. 13, 1941, Zürich, Switz.) Irish novelist. Educated at a Jesuit school (though he soon rejected Catholicism) and at University College, Dublin, he decided early to become a writer. In 1902 he moved to Paris, which would become his principal home after years spent in Trieste and Zürich. His life was difficult, marked by financial troubles, chronic eye diseases that occasionally left him totally blind, censorship problems, and his daughter Lucia's mental illness. The remarkable story collection The Dubliners (1914) and the autobiographical novel Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), his early prose volumes, were powerful examples of his gift for storytelling and his great intelligence. With financial help from friends and supporters, including Ezra Pound, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), and Harriet Shaw Weaver (1876–1961), he spent seven years writing Ulysses (1922), the controversial masterpiece (initially banned in the U.S. and Britain) now widely regarded by many as the greatest English-language novel of the 20th century. It embodies a highly experimental use of language and exploration of such new literary methods as interior monologue and stream-of-consciousness narrative. He spent 17 years on his final work, the extraordinary Finnegans Wake (1939), famous for its complex and demanding linguistic virtuosity.

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(born Dec. 24, 1818, Salford, Lancashire, Eng.—died Oct. 11, 1889, Sale, Cheshire) English physicist. After studying under John Dalton, in 1840 he described “Joule's law,” which stated that the heat produced in a wire by an electric current is proportional to the product of the resistance of the wire and the square of the current. In 1843 he published his value for the amount of work required to produce a unit of heat, called the mechanical equivalent of heat, and established that heat is a form of energy. He established that the various forms of energy are basically the same and can be changed from one into another, a discovery that formed the basis of the law of conservation of energy, the first law of thermodynamics. In his honour, the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat is usually represented by the letter math.J, and a standard unit of work is called the joule.

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(born Jan. 17, 1931, Arkabutla, Miss., U.S.) U.S. actor. He studied acting in New York City and made his Broadway debut in 1957. He was praised for his performance in Othello (1964) and in roles with the New York Shakespeare Festival (1961–73). He starred as the black boxer in The Great White Hope (1969, Tony Award; film, 1970). After returning to Broadway in Paul Robeson (1978) and Fences (1985, Tony Award), he starred in the television series Paris (1979–80) and Gabriel's Fire (1990–91, Emmy Award). He has appeared in numerous films; his sonorous voice lent gravity to the character of Darth Vader in Star Wars (1977) and its sequels and to the Mufasa role in The Lion King (1994).

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(born June 17, 1871, Jacksonville, Fla., U.S.—died June 26, 1938, Wiscasset, Maine) U.S. writer. He practiced law in Florida before moving with his brother, the composer J. Rosamond Johnson (1873–1954), to New York; there the two collaborated on some 200 songs for the Broadway stage. Johnson held diplomatic posts in Venezuela and Nicaragua and served as executive secretary of the NAACP (1920–30). From 1930 he taught at Fisk University. His writings include the novel Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (1912), Fifty Years and Other Poems (1917), and his best-known work, God's Trombones (1927), a group of dialect sermons in verse. The brothers collaborated on the pioneering anthologies Book of American Negro Poetry (1922) and American Negro Spirituals (1925, 1926). Their most famous original song, “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” became an anthem of the civil rights movement.

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John Osborne

(born Dec. 12, 1929, London, Eng.—died Dec. 24, 1994, Shropshire) British playwright and film producer. Initially an actor, he cowrote his first play, The Devil Inside Him (1950), with Stella Linden. His Look Back in Anger (1956; film, 1959) ushered in a spate of vigorously realistic plays about contemporary British working-class life, making Osborne the first of the postwar Angry Young Men. His next play, The Entertainer (1957; film, 1960), told the story of a failing music-hall comedian; it was commissioned by the actor Laurence Olivier, who starred in the stage and film versions. Osborne wrote the screenplay for the film Tom Jones (1963, Academy Award), and his other plays include Luther (1961) and Inadmissible Evidence (1964).

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orig. Fougère Rabin or Jean Rabin later Jean-Jacques Fougère Audubon

(born April 26, 1785, Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue, West Indies —died Jan. 27, 1851, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. ornithologist, artist, and naturalist known for his drawings and paintings of North American birds. Born to a French merchant in Haiti, he returned with his father to France, where he briefly studied painting with Jacques-Louis David before moving to the U.S. at age 18. From his father's Pennsylvania estate, he made the first American bird-banding experiments. After failing in business ventures, he concentrated on drawing and studying birds, which took him from Florida to Labrador. His extraordinary four-volume Birds of America was published in London in 1827–38. He simultaneously published the extensive accompanying text Ornithological Biography (5 vol., 1831–39). His multivolume Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1842–54) was completed by his sons. Though his bird poses are sometimes unrealistic (the result of painting dead birds wired into position) and some details are inaccurate, few argue with the excellence of his illustrations as art, and his studies were fundamental to New World ornithology.

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(born Sept. 11, 1877, London, Eng.—died Sept. 16, 1946, Dorking, Surrey) British physicist and mathematician. After teaching at Cambridge and Princeton, he worked as a research associate at the Mount Wilson Observatory (1923–44). He proposed that matter was continuously created throughout the universe (see steady-state theory). He wrote on a wide variety of phenomena but is perhaps best known as a writer of popular books about astronomy.

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William James

(born Jan. 11, 1842, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1910, Chocorua, N.H.) U.S. philosopher and psychologist. Son of the philosophical writer Henry James (1811–82) and brother of the novelist Henry James, he studied medicine at Harvard, where he taught from 1872. His first major work, The Principles of Psychology (1890), treated thinking and knowledge as instruments in the struggle to live. His most famous work is The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). In Pragmatism (1907), he generalized the theories of Charles Sanders Peirce to assert that the meaning of any idea must be analyzed in terms of the succession of experiential consequences to which it leads and that truth and error depend solely on these consequences (see pragmatism). He applied this doctrine to the analysis of change and chance, freedom, variety, pluralism, and novelty. His pragmatism was also the basis for his polemic against monism, the idealistic doctrine of internal relations, and all views that presented reality as a static whole. He was also a leader of the psychological movement known as functionalism.

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Henry James, 1905.

(born April 15, 1843, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 28, 1916, London, Eng.) U.S.-British novelist. Born to a distinguished family, the brother of William James, he was privately educated. He traveled frequently to Europe from childhood on; after 1876 he lived primarily in England. His fundamental theme was to be the innocence and exuberance of the New World in conflict with the corruption and wisdom of the Old. Daisy Miller (1879) won him international renown; it was followed by The Europeans (1879), Washington Square (1880), and The Portrait of a Lady (1881). In The Bostonians (1886) and The Princess Casamassima (1886), his subjects were social reformers and revolutionaries. In The Spoils of Poynton (1897), What Maisie Knew (1897), and The Turn of the Screw (1898), he made use of complex moral and psychological ambiguity. The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903), and The Golden Bowl (1904) were his great final novels. His intense concern with the novel as an art form is reflected in the essay “The Art of Fiction” (1884), his prefaces to the volumes of his collected works, and his many literary essays. Perhaps his chief technical innovation was his strong focus on the individual consciousness of his central characters, which reflected his sense of the decline of public and collective values in his time.

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James Wolfe, painting attributed to J.S.C. Schaak; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Jan. 2, 1727, Westerham, Kent, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1759, Quebec) British army commander. After a distinguished military career in Europe, in 1758 he helped lead Gen. Jeffery Amherst's successful expedition against the French on Cape Breton Island. In 1759 he was appointed commander of the British army on its mission to capture Quebec from the French. In the ensuing Battle of Quebec, he defeated the French in a battle lasting less than an hour. Wounded twice early in the battle, he died of a third wound, but not before he knew Quebec had fallen to his troops.

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(born Sept. 14, 1742, Fife, Scot.—died Aug. 21, 1798, Edenton, N.C., U.S.) American colonial lawyer, politician, and jurist. Immigrating to North America in 1765, he taught Greek and rhetoric in the College of Philadelphia and then studied law under John Dickinson. In 1774 he published a widely read treatise proposing a commonwealth of British colonies. He was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775–77), and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He helped draft the U.S. Constitution and the Pennsylvania state constitution and delivered lectures that became landmarks in American jurisprudence. He served on the U.S. Supreme Court (1789–98).

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(born Aug. 24, 1795, London, Eng.—died Dec. 25, 1864, New York, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. actor-manager. Born into a London stage family, he acted in Shakespearean roles from age 12 and made his U.S. debut as Macbeth in 1818. He performed in London and New York City until 1852, crossing the Atlantic 35 times. In 1837–39 he comanaged New York's National Theatre with his brother Henry John Wallack (1790–1870), the company's leading player. In 1852–62 he comanaged the Lyceum Theatre (renamed Wallack's Lyceum) with his son Lester (1820–88) as stage manager. Succeeding his father as general manager, Lester staged polished productions of English plays and trained most of the major 19th-century U.S. stage performers.

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(born April 9, 1905, Sumner, Mo., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1995, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. After earning degrees from the Universities of Arkansas and Oxford, he taught law at Arkansas; he later served as its president (1939–41). In 1942 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where in 1943 he introduced a resolution supporting U.S. participation in what would become the UN. In the U.S. Senate (1945–75), he initiated the international exchange program known as the Fulbright scholarship. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1959–74), he presided over televised hearings in 1966 on U.S. policy in the Vietnam War, from which he emerged as a leading advocate of ending the bombing of North Vietnam and opening peace talks. In 1974 he lost his bid for reelection.

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James Wilkinson, portrait by J.W. Jarvis; in the Filson Club Collection, Louisville, Ky.

(born 1757, Calvert county, Md.—died Dec. 28, 1825, Mexico City, Mex.) American army officer and double agent. He served in the American Revolution under Horatio Gates and was involved in the Thomas Conway cabal. He settled in Kentucky in 1784 and schemed to ally the Kentucky region with Spain, though he was in fact working against Spain. He served as governor of part of the Louisiana territory (1805–06). He allegedly planned to conquer the Mexican provinces of Spain and conspired with Aaron Burr to establish an independent government; when he betrayed Burr's plan, he was investigated but cleared. In the War of 1812 he commanded U.S. forces on the Canadian border, but his campaign against Montreal failed.

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(born Oct. 7, 1849, Greenfield, Ind., U.S.—died July 22, 1916, Indianapolis, Ind.) U.S. poet. He came into touch with the populace of rural Indiana through his early work experiences. His verse contributions to the Indianapolis Daily Journal, written in Hoosier dialect ostensibly by a farmer, established his reputation as “the poet of the common people.” His best-known poems include “When the Frost Is on the Punkin” and “The Raggedy Man.” Among his many collections are The Old Swimmin' Hole (1883), Pipes o' Pan at Zekesbury (1888), and Home Folks (1900).

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(born June 17, 1871, Jacksonville, Fla., U.S.—died June 26, 1938, Wiscasset, Maine) U.S. writer. He practiced law in Florida before moving with his brother, the composer J. Rosamond Johnson (1873–1954), to New York; there the two collaborated on some 200 songs for the Broadway stage. Johnson held diplomatic posts in Venezuela and Nicaragua and served as executive secretary of the NAACP (1920–30). From 1930 he taught at Fisk University. His writings include the novel Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (1912), Fifty Years and Other Poems (1917), and his best-known work, God's Trombones (1927), a group of dialect sermons in verse. The brothers collaborated on the pioneering anthologies Book of American Negro Poetry (1922) and American Negro Spirituals (1925, 1926). Their most famous original song, “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” became an anthem of the civil rights movement.

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James Watt, oil painting by H. Howard; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Jan. 19, 1736, Greenock, Renfrewshire, Scot.—died Aug. 25, 1819, Heathfield Hall, near Birmingham, Warwick, Eng.) Scottish engineer and inventor. Though largely self-taught, he began work early as an instrument maker and later as an engineer on the Forth and Clyde Canal. Watt's major improvement to Thomas Newcomen's steam engine was the use of a separate condenser (1769), which reduced the loss of latent heat and greatly increased its efficiency. With Matthew Boulton he began manufacture of his new engine in 1775. In 1781 he added rotary motion (a so-called sun-and-planet gear) to replace the up-and-down action of the original engine. In 1782 he patented the double-acting engine, in which the piston pushed as well as pulled. This engine required a new method of rigidly connecting the piston to the beam, a problem he solved in 1784 with an arrangement of connected rods that guided the piston rod in a perpendicular motion. His application of the centrifugal governor for automatic control of the speed of the engine (1788) and his invention of a pressure gauge (1790) virtually completed the Watt engine, which had immense consequences for the Industrial Revolution. He introduced the concept of horsepower; the watt, a unit of power, is named for him.

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(born Feb. 15, 1892, Beacon, N.Y., U.S.—died May 22, 1949, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. secretary of defense (1947–49). After serving in naval aviation in World War I, he resumed his connection with a New York City investment firm, of which he became president in 1938. Appointed undersecretary of the navy in 1940, he directed the huge naval expansion and procurement programs of World War II. He became secretary of the navy in 1944. Appointed the first secretary of defense in 1947, he began to reorganize and coordinate the armed services. He resigned in 1949. Suffering from a depression similar to battle fatigue, he entered Bethesda Naval Medical Center; soon after, he plunged to his death from a window.

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(born 1394—died Feb. 20/21, 1437, Perth, Perth, Scot.) King of the Scots (1406–37). The son and heir of Robert III, he was captured by the English in 1406 and held prisoner in London until 1424. During the 13 years in which he truly ruled Scotland (1424–37), he established the first strong monarchy the Scots had known in nearly a century. He weakened the nobility but did not entirely subdue the Highland lords, and he greatly improved the administration of justice for the common people. His murder in a Dominican friary by a group of rival nobles led to a popular uprising in favour of his widow and six-year-old son, who succeeded him as James II.

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(born Feb. 27, 1904, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Aug. 22, 1979, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. A native of Chicago and a graduate of the University of Chicago, he is known for his realistic portraits of the city's lower-middle-class Irish population, drawn from his own experiences. His well-known Studs Lonigan trilogy—Young Lonigan (1932), The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan (1934), and Judgment Day (1935)—traces the self-destruction of a spiritually crippled young man. He later planned a cycle of 25 novels, of which he completed 10. Of the 25 novels he published, The Face of Time (1953) is among the best. He also produced 17 short-story collections.

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(born Oct. 16, 1797, Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, Eng.—died March 27/28, 1868, Deene Park, Northamptonshire) British general. After entering the army (1824), he purchased promotions to become a lieutenant colonel (1832) and gained a reputation as a martinet. He spent his inherited wealth to make his regiment the best-dressed in the service (introducing the later-named cardigan jacket). At the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853), he was appointed commander of the Light Brigade of British cavalry, which he led in the ill-fated charge at the Battle of Balaklava. Despite the disaster, Cardigan was lionized on his return to England and appointed inspector general of cavalry.

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(born 1673, Paris, France—died Feb. 5, 1721, London, Eng.) English soldier and statesman. He began a military career in 1691 and rose rapidly to become commander in chief of the English army in Spain in 1708 in the War of the Spanish Succession. He was defeated and captured by the French (1710), then returned to England (1712) and regained his seat in the House of Commons (1701–21). He served in the Whig government as secretary of state and negotiated the Quadruple Alliance against Spain (1718). Stanhope served as first lord of the treasury (1717–18), but his ministry was discredited by the South Sea Bubble scandal.

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James Russell Lowell.

(born Feb. 22, 1819, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 12, 1891, Cambridge) U.S. poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He received a law degree from Harvard but chose not to practice. In the 1840s he wrote extensively against slavery, including the Biglow Papers (1848), satirical verses in Yankee dialect. His other most important works are The Vision of Sir Launfal (1848), a long poem on the brotherhood of mankind; and A Fable for Critics (1848), a witty evaluation of contemporary authors. After his wife's death in 1853, he wrote mainly essays on literature, history, and politics. A highly influential man of letters in his day, he taught at Harvard, edited The Atlantic Monthly and The North American Review, and served as minister to Spain and ambassador to Britain.

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(born Nov. 29, 1933, Grand Forks, N.D., U.S.) U.S. painter. His youthful employment as a billboard painter influenced the enlarged imagery and cool, impersonal style of painting that he developed by the early 1960s. In a typical painting, he juxtaposed imagery from pop culture, advertising, and other mass media using bright colours and a large canvas. This interest in popular culture has led many to define him as a precursor to Pop art. He has also created large works combining lithography, screenprinting, etching, and collage.

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orig. James Riddle Hoffa

(born Feb. 14, 1913, Brazil, Ind., U.S.—disappeared July 30, 1975, Bloomfield Hills, near Detroit, Mich.) U.S. labour leader. He moved with his family to Detroit in 1924, left school at 14, and began work as a stockboy and warehouseman. He became a labour organizer in the 1930s, rising in the Teamsters Union during the next two decades until he reached the office of president, which he held from 1957 to 1971. Known throughout the trucking industry as a tough bargainer, he played a key role in forging the first national freight-hauling agreement and helped make the Teamsters the largest labour union in the U.S. Long associated with underworld figures, he was sent to prison in 1967 for jury tampering, fraud, and conspiracy; his sentence was commuted by Pres. Richard Nixon in 1971. In 1975 he disappeared from a restaurant near Detroit; he is believed to have been murdered to prevent his retaking control of the union. His son, James Riddle Hoffa, Jr. (b. 1941), was elected president of the Teamsters in 1999.

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(born Dec. 24, 1818, Salford, Lancashire, Eng.—died Oct. 11, 1889, Sale, Cheshire) English physicist. After studying under John Dalton, in 1840 he described “Joule's law,” which stated that the heat produced in a wire by an electric current is proportional to the product of the resistance of the wire and the square of the current. In 1843 he published his value for the amount of work required to produce a unit of heat, called the mechanical equivalent of heat, and established that heat is a form of energy. He established that the various forms of energy are basically the same and can be changed from one into another, a discovery that formed the basis of the law of conservation of energy, the first law of thermodynamics. In his honour, the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat is usually represented by the letter math.J, and a standard unit of work is called the joule.

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(born Feb. 5, 1725, West Barnstable, Mass.—died May 23, 1783, Andover, Mass., U.S.) American Revolutionary statesman. He argued before the colonial court against the British-imposed writs of assistance (1761), reportedly stating “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” He served in the provincial legislature (1761–69) and was a leading opponent, along with Samuel Adams, of the Stamp Act. He wrote political pamphlets upholding the colonists' cause, including The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (1764). Struck on the head in a scuffle with a British official in 1769, he later became mentally unbalanced.

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(born Nov. 3, 1798, Fairfax county, Va., U.S.—died April 28, 1871, Alexandria, Va.) U.S. politician. A grandson of George Mason, he practiced law in his native Virginia from 1820. He served in the state legislature (1826, 1828–32), the U.S. House of Representatives (1837–39), and the U.S. Senate (1847–61). An advocate of secession, he resigned his Senate seat in 1861. Appointed Confederate commissioner to England, he was captured at sea with John Slidell aboard the Trent and imprisoned for two months (see Trent Affair). Released in 1862, he remained in England until 1865 but was unable to win support for the Confederate cause.

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James Monroe, oil sketch by E.O. Sully, 1836, after a contemporary portrait by Thomas Sully; in elipsis

(born April 28, 1758, Westmoreland county, Va.—died July 4, 1831, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Fifth president of the U.S. (1817–25). After serving in the American Revolution, he studied law under Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Virginia. From 1783 to 1786 he served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he opposed the adminstration of George Washington. He nevertheless became Washington's minister to France in 1794, though he was recalled two years later for misleading the French about U.S. politics. From 1799 to 1802 he served as governor of Virginia. In 1803 Pres. Jefferson sent him to France to help negotiate the Louisiana Purchase; he was then appointed minister to Britain (1803–07). He returned to Virginia and was again elected governor in 1810, though he resigned the office after 11 months to serve as U.S. secretary of state (1811–17) and secretary of war (1814–15). He served two terms as president, presiding in a period that became known as the Era of Good Feelings. He oversaw the Seminole War of 1817–18 and the acquisition of the Floridas (1819–21), and he signed the Missouri Compromise (1820). With Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, he developed the principles of U.S. foreign policy later called the Monroe Doctrine.

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(born April 6, 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scot.—died June 23, 1836, London, Eng.) Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist. After studying at the University of Edinburgh and teaching, he went to London in 1802, where he met Jeremy Bentham and became a major promulgator of Bentham's utilitarianism. He wrote for several journals, including the Edinburgh Review (1808–13), and contributed articles on government and education to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. He helped found London University in 1825. After completing his History of British India (3 vol., 1817), he was appointed an official in India House (1819) and later became head of the examiner's office (1830). His criticism of British rule led to changes in the government of India. His Elements of Political Economy (1821) summarized the views of David Ricardo, and his Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829) associated psychology with utilitarianism, a doctrine continued by his son, John Stuart Mill. Mill is considered the founder of philosophical radicalism.

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(born March 31, 1870, Jacksonburg, Ohio, U.S.—died July 15, 1957, Dayton, Ohio) U.S. politician. He worked as a reporter in Cincinnati before buying the Dayton News (1898) and Springfield Daily News (1903). A supporter of Woodrow Wilson, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1909–13) and then was elected governor of Ohio (1913–15, 1917–21), where he introduced workers' compensation and the minimum wage. He won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1920 but was defeated by Warren G. Harding in a Republican landslide.

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(born Nov. 20, 1874, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 12, 1958, Boston) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1911–14). As Boston's mayor (1914–18, 1922–26, 1930–34, 1947–50), he dominated the city's politics for 50 years. He owed much of his success to serving the needs of Irish immigrants in exchange for votes. He centralized the powers of patronage in his own hands and distributed public works jobs so as to retain the loyalty and support of his working-class electoral base. As mayor, he brought the city close to bankruptcy by spending enormous sums on parks and hospitals to satisfy his various constituencies. Unable to win a seat in the Massachusetts delegation to the 1932 Democratic convention, Curley contrived by means he never explained to be elected a delegate from Puerto Rico. As governor of Massachusetts (1935–37), he spent New Deal funds lavishly on roads, bridges, and other public works programs. He won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1942 and was reelected two years later. His last mayoral term included five months in prison following a conviction for mail fraud; Pres. Harry Truman secured his release and later granted him a full pardon. His colourful career inspired Edwin O'Connor's novel The Last Hurrah (1956). His autobiography, I'd Do It Again, was published in 1957.

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U.S. firm whose lithographs were among the most popular wall hangings in 19th-century America. Nathaniel Currier (b. March 27, 1813, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—d. Nov. 20, 1888, New York, N.Y.) served apprenticeships in Boston and Philadelphia before he set up in business in New York City in 1835. He hired James Merritt Ives (b. March 5, 1824, New York, N.Y., U.S.—d. Jan. 3, 1895, Rye, N.Y.) as a bookkeeper and made him his partner in 1857. Currier and Ives greatly increased the public demand for graphic images by publishing fine-quality, black-and-white and hand-coloured lithographs (see lithography) depicting disasters, political satire, views of city life, outdoor country scenes, and sentimental domestic scenes. They established outlets across the country and in London. Between 1840 and 1890 they published more than 7,000 h1s. The firm continued under their sons until 1907.

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(born May 15, 1909, Huddersfield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died July 27, 1984, Lausanne, Switz.) British film actor. After studying architecture at the University of Cambridge, he made his screen debut in Late Extra (1935) and soon became a star in British films such as The Man in Grey (1943), The Seventh Veil (1945), and Odd Man Out (1947). He moved to Hollywood in the late 1940s but continued to make films in Britain as well. Noted for his urbane characterizations of flawed individuals, he appeared in more than 100 movies, including Madame Bovary (1949), A Star Is Born (1954), North by Northwest (1959), Lolita (1962), Georgy Girl (1966), The Boys from Brazil (1978), and The Verdict (1982).

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James Stewart in It's a Wonderful Life (1946).

(born May 20, 1908, Indiana, Pa., U.S.—died July 2, 1997, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. film actor. He made his film debut in 1935, but at first, Stewart's slow, halting line delivery (perhaps his most readily identifiable trademark) and angular features made him difficult to cast. His engaging manner, however, led to quick acceptance by the movie-going public, and he played endearingly simple and idealistic characters in Frank Capra's You Can't Take It with You (1938) and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939). He won an Academy Award for best actor for his performance in The Philadelphia Story (1940). After serving as a bomber pilot in World War II, he starred in It's a Wonderful Life (1946), which became a Christmas classic. He was known for his portrayals of diffident but morally resolute characters. His many movies include Destry Rides Again (1939), The Glenn Miller Story (1954), The Man from Laramie (1955), Anatomy of a Murder (1959), and Alfred Hitchcock's Rope (1948), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1955), and Vertigo (1958).

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(born March 16, 1751, Port Conway, Va.—died June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Va., U.S.) Fourth president of the U.S. (1809–17). After graduating from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), he served in the Virginia state legislature (1776–80, 1784–86). At the Constitutional Convention (1787), his Virginia, or large-state, Plan furnished the Constitution's basic framework and guiding principles, earning him the h1 “father of the Constitution.” To promote its ratification, he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist papers, a series of articles on the Constitution and republican government published in newspapers in 1787–88 (Madison wrote 29 of the 85 articles). In the U.S. House of Representatives (1789–97), he sponsored the Bill of Rights. He split with Hamilton over the existence of an implied congressional power to create a national bank; Madison denied such a power, though later, as president, he requested a national bank from Congress. In protest of the Alien and Sedition Acts, he drafted one of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in 1798 (Thomas Jefferson drafted the other). From 1801 to 1809 he was Jefferson's secretary of state. Elected president in 1808, he immediately faced the problem of British interference with neutral U.S. merchant vessels, which Jefferson's Embargo Act (1807) had failed to discourage. Believing that Britain was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, Madison proclaimed nonintercourse with Britain in 1810 and signed a declaration of war in 1812. During the ensuing War of 1812 (1812–14), Madison and his family were forced to flee Washington, D.C., as advancing British troops burned the executive mansion and other public buildings. During Madison's second term (1813–17) the second Bank of the United States was chartered and the first U.S. protective tariff was imposed. He retired to his Virginia estate, Montpelier, with his wife, Dolley (1768–1849), whose political acumen he had long prized. He participated in Jefferson's creation of the University of Virginia, later serving as its rector (1826–36), and produced numerous articles and letters on political topics.

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(born , Jan. 8, 1821, Edgefield District, S.C., U.S.—died Jan. 2, 1904, Gainesville, Ga.) U.S. army officer. He graduated from West Point but resigned from the U.S. Army when South Carolina seceded. Appointed brigadier general in the Confederate army, he fought in the battles of Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. He was second in command to Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg, where his delay in attacking contributed to the Confederate defeat. He later directed the Confederate attack at Chickamauga. He was badly wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness but later resumed his command. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox Court House. He later served as U.S. minister to Turkey (1880–81) and commissioner of Pacific railways (1898–1904).

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orig. Tah-gah-jute

(born circa 1725, probably at Shamokin, Pa.—died 1780, near Lake Erie) American Indian leader. He was the son of the Oneida chief Shikellamy, who was a friend of the secretary of the Pennsylvania colony, James Logan (1674–1751). He moved to the Ohio River valley, where he became friendly with Indians and white settlers. After his family was massacred by a frontier trader in 1774, he led Indian raids on white settlements in Lord Dunmore's War. He refused to participate in peace negotiations, sending his grievances in a message known as “Logan's Lament.” He was allied with the British in the American Revolution.

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(born 1716, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 13, 1794, Gosport, Hampshire, Eng.) Scottish naval surgeon and physician. Having observed thousands of scurvy, typhus, and dysentery cases and the shipboard conditions that caused them, he published A Treatise on Scurvy in 1754, a time when scurvy killed more British sailors than combat. He recommended giving citrus fruits and juices (sources of vitamin C) to sailors on long voyages, a practice known to the Dutch for nearly two centuries. When the practice was fully instituted in 1795, scurvy disappeared from the ranks “as if by magic.” Lind also suggested shipboard delousing and use of hospital ships, and he arranged for distillation of seawater for drinking.

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(born June 23, 1943, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. conductor. He debuted as a pianist at age 10 with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. At Juilliard he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne (1880–1976) and conducting with Jean Morel (1903–75). He was assistant conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1964 to 1970. A guest appearance conducting Tosca (1971) led to his appointment as principal conductor (1973) and later music director (1975) and artistic director (1986) of the Metropolitan Opera. He built the flagging Met orchestra into a virtuoso ensemble and became recognized as one of the world's greatest conductors. He served as director of Chicago's Ravinia Festival from 1973 to 1993 and was named music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 2004.

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(born Oct. 1, 1781, Burlington, N.J., U.S.—killed in action June 1, 1813, in a sea battle off Boston, Mass.) U.S. naval officer. He served under Stephen Decatur in the Tripolitan War. In the War of 1812 he commanded the USS Hornet in the capture of the British Peacock. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to captain of the USS Chesapeake. In 1813 he accepted a challenge from the British Shannon to a sea fight off the coast of Boston. The Chesapeake was defeated in less than an hour, and Lawrence was mortally wounded. His last words, “Don't give up the ship,” came to express one of the U.S. Navy's most cherished traditions.

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(born Feb. 2, 1923, Atlanta, Ga., U.S.—died Jan. 19, 1997, Columbia, S.C.) U.S. poet, novelist, and critic. Dickey served as a pilot in World War II. His poetry—published in such volumes as Into the Stone (1960), Drowning with Others (1962), Helmets (1964), Buckdancer's Choice (1965), and The Zodiac (1976)—combines themes of nature mysticism, religion, and history. He became widely known with his powerful novel Deliverance (1970; film, 1972).

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James K. Polk, daguerreotype by Mathew Brady, 1849.

(born Nov. 2, 1795, Mecklenburg county, N.C., U.S.—died June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tenn.) 11th president of the U.S. (1845–49). He was a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson, who helped Polk win election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1825. He left the House in 1839 to become governor of Tennessee. At the deadlocked 1844 Democratic Party convention Polk was nominated as the compromise candidate; he is considered the first dark-horse presidential candidate. A proponent of western expansion, he openly laid claim to the whole territory that extended as far north as latitude 54° 40' with the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” (see Oregon Question). Elected at the age of 49, the youngest president to that time, he successfully concluded the Oregon border dispute with Britain (1846) and secured passage of the Walker Tariff Act (1846), which lowered import duties and helped foreign trade. He led the prosecution of the Mexican War, which resulted in large territorial gains but reopened debate over the extension of slavery. His administration also established the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the Smithsonian Institution; oversaw revision of the treasury system; and proclaimed the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. Though an efficient and competent president and deft in his handling of Congress, he was exhausted by his efforts and did not seek reelection; he died three months after leaving office.

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(born July 31, 1763, Fredericksburgh, Putnam county, N.Y.—died Dec. 12, 1847, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. jurist who helped shape common law in the U.S. A lawyer at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., from 1785 and a New York state legislator from 1790, he taught law at Columbia University (1793–98, 1823–26) and later served as chief justice of the New York Supreme Court (1804–14) and chancellor of the Court of Chancery (1814–23), then the state's highest judicial office. As chancellor, he is said to have made U.S. equity jurisprudence effective for the first time. His Commentaries on American Law (1826–30) proved influential both in the U.S. and in England.

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(born Aug. 15, 1856, Legbrannock, Lanark, Scot.—died Sept. 26, 1915, Glasgow) British labour leader. A coal miner, he led strikes and helped form unions, then worked as a journalist and founded two newspapers. Elected to Parliament in 1892, he helped organize the Independent Labour Party. In 1906 he became the first leader of the Labour Party in the House of Commons. A pacifist, he sought unsuccessfully to bind the Second International to declaring a general strike in all countries in the event of war. From 1903 he also acted as chief adviser to the militant suffragists headed by Emmeline Pankhurst.

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known as Jimmy Walker

(born June 19, 1881, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1946, New York City) U.S. politician. He entered politics after graduating from New York Law School, becoming a member of the Assembly (1909) and then of the State Senate (1914). Backed by Gov. Alfred E. Smith and Tammany Hall, he was elected mayor (1925–32). A popular figure known for his charm and wit but particularly for his enthusiastic participation in the high life typical of the era, he made improvements in sanitation, hospitals, and subways. In 1931 the state legislature, investigating the city's affairs, charged Walker with corruption; he resigned in 1932.

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(born Sept. 16, 1838, near Guelph, Ont., Can.—died May 29, 1916, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.) Canadian-U.S. financier and railroad builder. He began his career in St. Paul overseeing steamboat transportation. In 1873 he reorganized a bankrupt railroad as the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. and was named its president in 1882. The Great Northern Railway Co. absorbed the St. Paul line in 1890, and Hill became its president (1893–1907) and chairman of the board (1907–12). The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroads also came under Hill's control; Edward Harriman's attempt to seize control of Northern Pacific from him (1901) triggered a Wall Street panic. Hill's banking activity as president of Northern Securities Co. was declared in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1904.

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(born Oct. 5, 1751, Lewes, Sussex, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1799, Edenton, N.C., U.S.) U.S. jurist. His family immigrated to North Carolina, where he was appointed comptroller of the customhouse at age 17. He helped draft and revise the laws of the new state of North Carolina and served as state attorney general (1779–81). He led the state's Federalists in supporting ratification of the U.S. Constitution, and his letters in its defense (signed “Marcus”) are said to have prompted Pres. George Washington to appoint him to the U.S. Supreme Court (1790). He wrote several notable dissents, including those for Chisholm v. Georgia (1793; affirming the subordination of the states to the federal government) and Ware v. Hylton (1796; upholding the primacy of U.S. treaties over state statutes). His opinion in Calder v. Bull (1798) helped establish the principle of judicial review five years before it was actually tested in Marbury v. Madison.

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(born March 3, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1995, Tucson, Ariz.) U.S. poet. Son of a founder of the investment firm Merrill Lynch, he attended Amherst College. Inherited wealth enabled him to devote his life to poetry. His lyric and epic poems are known for their fine craftsmanship, erudition, and wit. Many of his later works were stimulated by sessions with a Ouija board. His collections include Nights and Days (1966), the trilogy of Divine Comedies (1976, Pulitzer Prize), Mirabell: Books of Number (1978), and Scripts for the Pageant (1980), published together in The Changing Light at Sandover (1982). A Different Person, his memoir, was published in 1993. His last book of poetry, A Scattering of Salts, was published posthumously in 1995.

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(born March 17, 1473—died Sept. 9, 1513, near Branxton, Northumberland, Eng.) King of Scotland (1488–1513). He unified his country, gaining control over all northern and western Scotland by 1493. He fought border skirmishes with England (1495–97) in support of a pretender to the English throne. His marriage (1503) to Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII, helped stabilize relations between the two countries, but in 1512 he allied with France against England. He invaded England in support of the French in 1513; his army was defeated at the Battle of Flodden, and James was killed.

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(born May 1452—died June 11, 1488, near Stirling, Stirling, Scot.) King of Scotland (1460–88). He succeeded his father, James II. Unlike the latter, he was unable to restore strong central government after his long minority. A weak monarch, he was confronted with two major rebellions. He evidently offended his nobles by his interest in the arts and by taking artists for his favourites. In 1488 two powerful border families raised a rebellion and won to their cause his son, the future James IV; James III was captured and killed at age 36.

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(born Oct. 16, 1430, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 3, 1460, Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh) King of Scotland (1437–60). He succeeded to the throne on the assassination of his father, James I of Scotland. Because he was so young, the strong central authority his father had established quickly collapsed, and his first adult task was the restoration of monarchical authority. He strove to dominate the powerful Douglas family, and in 1452 he stabbed to death William, earl of Douglas, at Stirling Castle. He established a strong central government and improved the administration of justice. Turning his attention to the English, who had renewed their claims to rule Scotland, he attacked English outposts in Scotland and was killed during a siege of Roxburgh Castle.

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(born June 3, 1726, Edinburgh, Scot.—died March 26, 1797, Edinburgh) Scottish geologist, chemist, and naturalist. After short careers in law and medicine, he followed his interest in chemistry and developed an inexpensive manufacturing process for sal ammoniac. He settled in Edinburgh (1768) to pursue a life of science. In two papers presented in Edinburgh in 1785 (published 1788), he elaborated his theory of uniformitarianism. Its ability to explain the Earth's geologic processes without reference to the Bible and its emphasis on an immensely long, cyclical process of erosion, deposition, sedimentation, and volcanic upthrust were revolutionary.

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(baptized Dec. 9, 1770, Ettrick, Selkirkshire, Scot.—died Nov. 21, 1835, Altrive, Yarrow) Scottish poet. A shepherd, he was almost entirely self-educated. The talents of “the Ettrick Shepherd” were discovered by Walter Scott when Hogg supplied material for Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, and his popularity accompanied the ballad revival of the early Romantic movement. Hogg's other writings include the poetry collection The Queen's Wake (1813) and The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), a novel about religious mania with a psychopathic hero that anticipates the modern psychological thriller.

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(born June 29, 1863, Bloomington, Ill., U.S.—died Feb. 16, 1936, New York, N.Y.) U.S. historian. Robinson received his doctorate from the University of Freiburg and returned to the U.S. to teach European history, principally at Columbia University (1895–1919). In The New History (1912), he called for the use of the social sciences in historical scholarship and put forth his controversial contention that the study of the past should serve primarily to improve the present. Among his other works are The Mind in the Making (1921) and several influential textbooks, including The Development of Modern Europe (1907–08; with Charles Beard).

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orig. James Harold Doolittle

(born Dec. 14, 1896, Alameda, Calif., U.S.—died Sept. 27, 1993, Pebble Beach, Calif.) U.S. general. He enlisted in the army in World War I and became an aviator. After the war he earned a Ph.D. in engineering and remained in the Army Air Corps as a test pilot until 1930, when he became head of aviation for Shell Oil Co. In 1932 he set a world air speed record. Returning to active duty during World War II, he led a daring raid on Tokyo (1942), for which he received the Congressional Medal of Honor. He commanded air operations on many fronts, including attacks on Germany in 1944–45. After the war he remained active in the aerospace industry. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.

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(baptized Jan. 8, 1720, Stanhill, Lancashire, Eng.—died April 22, 1778, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire) British inventor of the spinning jenny. A poor, uneducated spinner and weaver, he is said to have conceived the idea for the machine when he observed a spinning wheel accidentally overturned; as the spindle continued to revolve while upright, he reasoned that many spindles could be so turned, and went on to construct the first machine (patented 1770) with which one person could spin several threads at once.

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(born Sept. 12, 1811, Hingham, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 7, 1898, Bethlehem, N.H.) U.S. geologist and paleontologist. He made extensive explorations in the St. Lawrence valley while teaching at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1832–36). In 1836 he was appointed state geologist for the Geological Survey of New York; his studies culminated in the massive Geology of New York (part 4, 1843), a classic in U.S. geology that introduced the geosynclinal theory of mountain building. He was state geologist of Iowa (1855–58) and of Wisconsin (1857–60). He served as director of New York State's Museum of Natural History (1871–98). His major later work was the huge Paleontology of New York (13 vol., 1847–94).

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(born 1612—died May 21, 1650, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish general in the English Civil Wars. He served in the Covenanter army that invaded northern England (1640) but remained a royalist. Appointed lieutenant-general by Charles I (1644), he led his royalist army of Highlanders and Irish to victories in major battles in Scotland. After Charles's defeat in 1645, Montrose fled to the European continent. He returned to Scotland in 1650 with 1,200 men, but he was defeated, captured, and hanged.

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(born Sept. 1, 1795, Newmill, Banffshire, Scot.—died June 1, 1872, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. editor. He immigrated to the U.S. in 1819 and was employed on various newspapers until 1835, when he started The New York Herald. The paper became very successful and introduced many of the methods of modern news reporting. Among other innovations, Bennett published the first Wall Street financial article (1835), established the first correspondents in Europe (1838), maintained a staff of 63 war correspondents during the Civil War, was a leader in using illustrations, introduced a society department, and published the first account in U.S. journalism of a love-nest murder (1836).

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(born Jan. 31, 1830, West Brownsville, Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1893, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician and diplomat. He moved to Maine in 1854 to become editor of the Kennebec Journal, a crusading Republican newspaper. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1863–76), becoming speaker in 1868. An advocate of moderation in the Republican Party, he opposed the Radical Republicans led by Roscoe Conkling. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1876, he resigned his seat in 1881 to become secretary of state. In this office he took the first steps toward securing U.S. control of the eventual route of the Panama Canal. As the Republican presidential candidate in 1884 he narrowly lost to Grover Cleveland. As secretary of state for a second time in 1889–92, he chaired the first Pan-American Conference.

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(born Feb. 4, 1792, Danville, Ky., U.S.—died Nov. 25, 1857, Eagleswood, N.J.) U.S. politician and antislavery leader. He practiced law in Danville, Ky., before moving to Alabama, where he was elected to the state legislature in 1819. He became active in the abolition movement and in 1837 was elected secretary of the American Anti-Slavery Society. After the group split, he helped lead the faction that became the Liberty Party; he was the party's presidential candidate in 1840 and 1844.

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(born May 15, 1788, Charleston, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 26, 1858, Charleston) U.S. soldier and diplomat. He was appointed an officer in the U.S. Army in 1812. He established military posts in Florida in 1820 and supervised the forced removal of Seminole Indians to reservations in southern Florida in 1823. In 1832 he negotiated a treaty for the removal of the Seminoles to the West, and he served in the war that followed the refusal of some Seminoles to leave Florida (see Seminole Wars). From 1840 to 1850 he was president of a South Carolina railroad. In 1853 he was appointed U.S. minister to Mexico and was instructed to buy land from Mexico for a southern railroad route (see Gadsden Purchase).

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(born April 1, 1834, Bennington, Vt., U.S.—died Jan. 7, 1872, New York, N.Y.) U.S. financier. He worked his way up from circus hand to stockbroker and corporate official. He joined Daniel Drew and Jay Gould against Cornelius Vanderbilt in the “Erie War,” in which the three tried to maintain control of the Erie Railroad Co. by issuing fraudulent stock. They also attempted to corner the gold market by inflating the price, a venture that led to the panic of 1869. Known as “the Barnum of Wall Street,” Fisk produced theatrical shows and dallied with showgirls; he was fatally shot by an associate at age 37 after quarreling over business matters and a mistress.

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(born Sept. 15, 1789, Burlington, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1851, Cooperstown, N.Y.) The first major U.S. novelist. Cooper grew up in a prosperous family in the settlement of Cooperstown, founded by his father. The Spy (1821), set during the American Revolution, brought him fame. His best-known novels, the series The Leatherstocking Tales, feature the frontier adventures of the wilderness scout Natty Bumppo and include The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). He also wrote popular sea novels, notably The Pilot (1823), and a history of the U.S. Navy (1839). Though internationally celebrated, he was troubled by lawsuits and political conflicts in his later years, and his popularity and income declined.

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orig. James Francis Edward Stuart

(born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.—died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States) Claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Son of the exiled James II of England, he was raised in France as a Catholic. On the death of his father (1701), he was proclaimed king of England by the French king Louis XIV, but the English Parliament passed a bill of attainder against him. He served with the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the Jacobite uprising (1715), James landed in Scotland, but within two months the uprising collapsed and he returned to France. He lived thereafter in Rome under the pope's patronage. He became known as the “Old Pretender” to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

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(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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(born Jan. 17, 1931, Arkabutla, Miss., U.S.) U.S. actor. He studied acting in New York City and made his Broadway debut in 1957. He was praised for his performance in Othello (1964) and in roles with the New York Shakespeare Festival (1961–73). He starred as the black boxer in The Great White Hope (1969, Tony Award; film, 1970). After returning to Broadway in Paul Robeson (1978) and Fences (1985, Tony Award), he starred in the television series Paris (1979–80) and Gabriel's Fire (1990–91, Emmy Award). He has appeared in numerous films; his sonorous voice lent gravity to the character of Darth Vader in Star Wars (1977) and its sequels and to the Mufasa role in The Lion King (1994).

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(born Feb. 12, 1813, Utica, N.Y., U.S.—died April 14, 1895, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. geologist, mineralogist, and naturalist. He graduated from Yale University in 1833. He joined a U.S. exploring expedition to the South Seas (1838–42), acting as a geologist and zoologist. His contributions to the American Journal of Science stimulated U.S. geologic inquiry. His research into the formation of the Earth's continents and oceans led him to believe in the progressive evolution of the Earth's physical features over time. By the end of his life he also came to accept the evolution of living things, as articulated by Charles Darwin. During his lifetime, and largely under his leadership, U.S. geology grew from a collection and classification of unrelated facts into a mature science.

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(born circa 1516—died June 2, 1581, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish nobleman. Appointed chancellor by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563, he conspired with other Protestant nobles to murder Mary's adviser David Riccio and probably was involved in the murder of Lord Darnley. He led the nobles that drove Mary's husband, the earl of Bothwell, from Scotland and forced her to abdicate in favour of her infant son, James (later James I of England). He became regent for James in 1572 and restored the rule of law to Scotland. Resented by the other nobles, he was forced to resign in 1578; he was later charged with complicity in Darnley's murder and executed.

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(born Feb. 2, 1923, Atlanta, Ga., U.S.—died Jan. 19, 1997, Columbia, S.C.) U.S. poet, novelist, and critic. Dickey served as a pilot in World War II. His poetry—published in such volumes as Into the Stone (1960), Drowning with Others (1962), Helmets (1964), Buckdancer's Choice (1965), and The Zodiac (1976)—combines themes of nature mysticism, religion, and history. He became widely known with his powerful novel Deliverance (1970; film, 1972).

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(born April 6, 1928, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. geneticist and biophysicist. He earned his Ph.D. at Indiana University in 1950. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, he began work in Britain with Francis Crick on the problem of DNA structure. In 1952 he determined the structure of the protein coat surrounding the tobacco mosaic virus. In early 1953 he determined that the essential DNA components, four organic bases, must be linked in definite pairs, a discovery that enabled Watson and Crick to formulate a double-helix molecular model for DNA. In 1962 the two scientists and Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize. Watson's The Double Helix (1968), a best-selling personal account of the DNA discovery, aroused controversy. He taught at Harvard University (1955–76) and served as director of the Carnegie Institute's laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor (1968–94). Seealso Rosalind Franklin.

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James Dean in Giant (1956).

(born Feb. 8, 1931, Marion, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 30, 1955, near Paso Robles, Calif.) U.S. film actor. He played bit parts in four films before trying the Broadway stage, where his role in The Immoralist (1954) led to a screen test and a brilliant though brief movie career. His starring role in East of Eden (1955) brought him an Academy Award nomination. As a misunderstood teenager in Rebel Without a Cause (1955) he personified the confused and restless youth of the 1950s. He was featured as a nonconformist ranch hand in his last film, Giant (1956). His death at age 24 in an automobile crash caused anguish among his fans and contributed to his idolization as a cult figure.

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(born August 1560, Eliock House, Dumfries, Scot.—died July 1582, Mantua, Mantua) Scottish scholar and adventurer. After graduating from the University of St. Andrews, he publicly distinguished himself in Europe in learned activities. He entered the service of the duke of Mantua but was slain in a street fight at age 21. Reputedly a fine orator, linguist, debater, and man of letters, he was considered the model of the cultured gentleman, though admirers probably exaggerated his accomplishments. Years later he became known as “the Admirable Crichton.”

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known as Captain Cook

James Cook, oil painting by John Webber; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Oct. 27, 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 1779, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii) British sailor and explorer. He joined the Royal Navy (1755) and in 1763–67 surveyed the St. Lawrence River and the coast of Newfoundland. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the first scientific expedition to the Pacific. Sailing on the HMS Endeavour, he found and charted all of New Zealand and explored the eastern coast of Australia. That voyage (1768–71) produced a wealth of scientifically collected material and was also notable for Cook's successful prevention of scurvy among crew members. Promoted to commander, he was sent with two ships to make the first circumnavigation and penetration into the Antarctic. On that expedition (1772–75), which ranks as one of the greatest of all sailing-ship voyages, he successfully completed the first west-east circumnavigation in high latitudes. On a third voyage (1776–79) in search of a Northwest Passage around Canada and Alaska, he was killed by Polynesian natives on Hawaii.

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(born June 13, 1831, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Nov. 5, 1879, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.) Scottish physicist. He published his first scientific paper at age 14, entered the University of Edinburgh at 16, and graduated from Cambridge University. He taught at Aberdeen University, King's College London, and Cambridge (from 1871), where he supervised the building of Cavendish Laboratory. His most revolutionary achievement was his demonstration that light is an electromagnetic wave, and he originated the concept of electromagnetic radiation. His field equations (see Maxwell's equations) paved the way for Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. He established the nature of Saturn's rings, did important work on colour perception, and produced the kinetic theory of gases. His ideas formed the basis for quantum mechanics and ultimately for the modern theory of the structure of atoms and molecules.

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(born July 17, 1899, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 30, 1986, Stanfordville, N.Y.) U.S. actor. He toured in vaudeville as a song-and-dance man before starring in the successful Broadway musical Penny Arcade (1929). He played the first in a series of pugnacious criminal roles in the film Public Enemy (1931), followed by Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) and White Heat (1949). As George M. Cohan in Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942, Academy Award) he showed off his dance skills and streetwise charm. Later films include Mister Roberts (1955) and Ragtime (1981).

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James Dean in Giant (1956).

(born Feb. 8, 1931, Marion, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 30, 1955, near Paso Robles, Calif.) U.S. film actor. He played bit parts in four films before trying the Broadway stage, where his role in The Immoralist (1954) led to a screen test and a brilliant though brief movie career. His starring role in East of Eden (1955) brought him an Academy Award nomination. As a misunderstood teenager in Rebel Without a Cause (1955) he personified the confused and restless youth of the 1950s. He was featured as a nonconformist ranch hand in his last film, Giant (1956). His death at age 24 in an automobile crash caused anguish among his fans and contributed to his idolization as a cult figure.

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(born Oct. 19, 1610, London, Eng.—died July 21, 1688, Kingston Lacy, Dorset) Anglo-Irish statesman. Born into the prominent Butler family of Ireland, he succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde in 1632. In service to the English crown in Ireland from 1633, he fought against the Catholic rebellion from 1641. He concluded a peace with the Catholic confederacy in 1649, then rallied support for Charles II, but he was forced to flee when Oliver Cromwell landed at Dublin. He was Charles's adviser in exile (1650–60). After the Restoration he was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland (1662–69, 1677–84), where he encouraged Irish commerce and industry. He was created a duke in 1682.

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(born Dec. 23, 1856, Durham, N.C., U.S.—died Oct. 10, 1925, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tobacco magnate and philanthropist. He and his brother Benjamin (1855–1929) entered the family tobacco business. In 1890 James became president of the American Tobacco Co., which controlled the entire U.S. tobacco industry until antitrust laws caused it, in 1911, to be broken into several companies that would become the principal U.S. cigarette makers. He oversaw the family's contributions to Trinity College in Durham, which was renamed Duke University.

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James Buchanan, photograph by Mathew Brady.

(born April 23, 1791, near Mercersburg, Pa., U.S.—died June 1, 1868, near Lancaster) 15th president of the U.S. (1857–61). He was admitted to the bar in 1812 and soon established a successful law practice. He was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1814 and later served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1821–31), as minister to Russia (1832–34), and in the U.S. Senate (1834–45). He was secretary of state in the cabinet of Pres. James K. Polk (1845–49). As minister to Britain (1853–56), he helped draft the Ostend Manifesto. In 1856 he was elected president as a Democrat, defeating John C. Frémont. Although experienced in government and law, he lacked the courage to deal effectively with the slavery crisis, and he equivocated on the question of Kansas's status as a slaveholding state. The ensuing split within his party allowed Abraham Lincoln to win the election of 1860. He denounced the secession of South Carolina following the election and sent reinforcements to Fort Sumter but failed to respond further to the mounting crisis. He was the only president never to have married.

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(born March 26, 1893, Dorchester, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 11, 1978, Hanover, N.H.) U.S. educator and scientist, president of Harvard University (1933–53). Conant received a Ph.D. (1916) from Harvard and taught chemistry there until he was elected its president in 1933. He led the university to broaden the social and geographic makeup of its student body. During World War II he was a central figure in organizing American science, including the development of the atomic bomb. In 1953 he was appointed U.S. high commissioner for West Germany, and in 1955 he was appointed ambassador. His publications include chemistry textbooks, works on science for the lay reader, and books on educational policy.

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(born July 20, 1811, London, Eng.—died Nov. 20, 1863, Dharmshala, India) British governor-general of Canada. He was appointed governor of Jamaica in 1842. As governor of British North America (1847–54), he implemented the policy of responsible, or cabinet, government recommended by Lord Durham. Elgin supported the Rebellion Losses Act (1849), which compensated Canadians for losses during the 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada, a stand criticized by Tory opponents in England and French-Canadian rioters in Montreal. He negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty (1854) between the Canadian colonies and the U.S. In 1857 he left Canada to serve in diplomatic posts in China, Japan, and India.

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(born May 3, 1933, Barnwell, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 25, 2006, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. singer and songwriter. Growing up in Georgia during the Depression, Brown first sang and danced on street corners for money. He later formed a group, appearing at small clubs throughout the South. He gradually evolved a highly personal style, combining blues and gospel music elements with his own emotionally charged and highly rhythmic delivery, accented by a strong sense of showmanship. His first hit, “Please, Please, Please” (1956), was followed by other million-selling singles, including “Papa's Got a Brand New Bag”; his style, marked by strong dance-oriented rhythms and heavy syncopation, became known as funk. His checkered personal life included charges of drug use and a period of imprisonment for a 1988 high-speed highway chase in which he tried to escape pursuing officers. Brown, whose sobriquets included “the Hardest-Working Man in Show Business” and “the Godfather of Soul,” was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

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Boswell, detail of an oil painting from the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1786; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 29, 1740, Edinburgh, Scot.—died May 19, 1795, London, Eng.) Scottish friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson. Boswell, a lawyer, met Johnson in 1763 and visited him often (1772–84), making a superlatively detailed record in his journals of Johnson's conversations. His two-volume Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791) is regarded as one of the greatest English biographies. His Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1785) is mainly an account of Johnson's responses to their 1773 trip to Scotland. The 20th-century publication of Boswell's journals showed him to have been also one of the world's greatest diarists.

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(born Feb. 18, 1783, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1848, Philadelphia) U.S. naval officer. He entered the navy in 1800. During the War of 1812, he served on the USS Wasp when it captured the British ship Frolic, and he commanded the USS Hornet in its victory over the Penguin. In 1817 he was sent to the Columbia River to claim the Oregon Territory for the U.S. As commodore of U.S. ships in East Asia, he negotiated the first treaty, a trade agreement, between the U.S. and China.

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Extension of Hudson Bay, located between northern Ontario and Quebec, Can. Generally less than 200 ft (60 m) deep, it is 275 mi (443 km) long and 135 mi (217 km) wide. It contains numerous islands, of which the largest is Akimiski Island. The many rivers that empty into the bay, including the Moose, are the cause of its low salinity. Visited by Henry Hudson in 1610, it is named for Capt. Thomas James, who explored it in 1631.

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(born April 3, 1866, near Wellington, Cape Colony—died Nov. 21, 1942, Pretoria, S.Af.) Prime minister of the Union of South Africa (1924–39). His political principles were “South Africa First” (i.e., ahead of the British Empire) and the “Two Streams Policy,” under which British and Afrikaner would be free from domination by each other. He served in the cabinet of Louis Botha (1910–12), but he broke with Botha because of his nationalist sympathies and formed the National Party. As prime minister, Hertzog gave South Africa its flag, made Afrikaans an official language, promoted apartheid, and affirmed the equality of British and Afrikaner rights. In 1933 he was forced to accept a coalition with Jan Smuts, and in 1939 he resigned over the issue of neutrality in World War II.

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(born Nov. 3, 1909, Clydebank, Dumbartonshire, Scot.—died Dec. 6, 1995, Washington, D.C., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. columnist and editor. His family moved to the U.S. when he was 10 years old. He was a sportswriter before joining The New York Times in 1939, where he worked as a reporter, a nationally syndicated columnist, Washington bureau chief (1953–64), executive editor (1968–69), and vice president (1969–74) before retiring in 1989. One of the most influential U.S. journalists, he had unrivaled personal access to U.S. presidents and world leaders and was often the first to break major stories. He won two Pulitzer Prizes (1945, 1957), helped create the first Op-Ed page (1970; a forum for columnists' opinion pieces), and recruited and trained many talented young journalists.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born June 12, 1833, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1912, Des Moines, Iowa) U.S. politician. An advocate of the Greenback movement, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Iowa (1879–81, 1885–89). He helped form the People's Party (see Populist movement) and was its candidate for president in 1892, receiving more than 1 million popular votes and 22 electoral votes. After helping effect the party's merger with the Democratic Party, he retired to Iowa.

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(born June 29, 1886, Lenox, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1983, Washington, D.C.) U.S. photographer. By 1906 he had moved with his family to Harlem in New York City. After a brief stint at a portrait studio in Newark, N.J., he returned to Harlem to set up his own studio. The portraits he took from 1918 to 1945 chronicled the Harlem Renaissance; among his many renowned subjects were Countee Cullen, Bill Robinson, and Marcus Garvey. After World War II his fortunes declined until the Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibited his photographs in 1969.

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James Joyce, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1939.

(born Feb. 2, 1882, Dublin, Ire.—died Jan. 13, 1941, Zürich, Switz.) Irish novelist. Educated at a Jesuit school (though he soon rejected Catholicism) and at University College, Dublin, he decided early to become a writer. In 1902 he moved to Paris, which would become his principal home after years spent in Trieste and Zürich. His life was difficult, marked by financial troubles, chronic eye diseases that occasionally left him totally blind, censorship problems, and his daughter Lucia's mental illness. The remarkable story collection The Dubliners (1914) and the autobiographical novel Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), his early prose volumes, were powerful examples of his gift for storytelling and his great intelligence. With financial help from friends and supporters, including Ezra Pound, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), and Harriet Shaw Weaver (1876–1961), he spent seven years writing Ulysses (1922), the controversial masterpiece (initially banned in the U.S. and Britain) now widely regarded by many as the greatest English-language novel of the 20th century. It embodies a highly experimental use of language and exploration of such new literary methods as interior monologue and stream-of-consciousness narrative. He spent 17 years on his final work, the extraordinary Finnegans Wake (1939), famous for its complex and demanding linguistic virtuosity.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born April 23, 1818, Dartington, Devon, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1894, Kingsbridge, Devon) English historian and biographer. He was influenced by the Oxford Movement, which sought a renewal of Roman Catholic practices within the Church of England, but later broke with it. Among his historical works, which display both carelessness and his anti-Catholic bias, the best known is History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1856–70), which fundamentally altered the direction of Tudor studies. Immensely prolific, he was attacked by reviewers but was popular with the reading public. He later produced a biography (1882–84) of his friend Thomas Carlyle.

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(born May 30, 1888, Grassy Point, N.Y., U.S.—died June 9, 1976, New York, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He entered New York Democratic Party politics in 1912. As secretary of the state Democratic committee in 1928, he organized the successful gubernatorial campaigns of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1928 and 1930. As national Democratic Party chairman (1932–40), he directed Roosevelt's 1932 and 1936 presidential campaigns. He served as postmaster general (1933–40) but resigned that post and the party chairmanship in opposition to Roosevelt's bid for a third term as president.

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(born Feb. 3, 1907?, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 16, 1997, Austin, Texas) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. Michener was a foundling discovered in Doylestown, Pa., and he was raised as a Quaker. From 1944 to 1946 he was a naval historian in the South Pacific, the setting of his early fiction; his Tales of the South Pacific (1947, Pulitzer Prize) was adapted as the Broadway musical South Pacific (1949; film, 1958). He is best known for epic and detailed novels drawing on extensive research, including Hawaii (1959; film, 1966), Iberia (1968), Centennial (1974), Chesapeake (1978), Space (1982), and Mexico (1992).

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(born Nov. 27, 1909, Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.—died May 16, 1955, New York, N.Y.) U.S. poet and novelist. Agee attended Harvard University. In the 1930s and '40s, film reviews for Time and The Nation made him a pioneer in serious film criticism. His lyrical Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941), with photographs by Walker Evans, documents the daily lives of poverty-stricken Alabama sharecroppers. After 1948 Agee worked mainly as a screenwriter, notably on The African Queen (1951) and The Night of the Hunter (1955). He is best known for his autobiographical novel A Death in the Family (1957, Pulitzer Prize).

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James A. Garfield, 1880.

(born Nov. 19, 1831, near Orange, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 19, 1881, Elberon, N.J.) 20th president of the U.S. (1881). He was the last president born in a log cabin. He attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College) at Hiram, Ohio, and graduated (1856) from Williams College. He returned to the Eclectic Institute as a professor of ancient languages and in 1857, at age 25, became the school's president. In the American Civil War he led the 42nd Ohio Volunteers and fought at Shiloh and Chickamauga. He resigned as a major general to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives (1863–80). As a Radical Republican, he sought a firm policy of Reconstruction in the South. In 1876 he served on the Electoral Commission that decided the presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. He was House Republican leader from 1876 to 1880, when he was elected to the Senate by the Ohio legislature. At the 1880 Republican nominating convention, the delegates supporting Ulysses S. Grant and James Blaine became deadlocked. On the 36th ballot, Garfield was nominated as a compromise presidential candidate, with Chester Arthur as vice president; they won the election by a narrow margin. His brief term, lasting less than 150 days, was marked by a dispute with Sen. Roscoe Conkling over patronage. On July 2 he was shot at Washington's railroad station by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker. He died on Sept. 19 after 11 weeks of public debate over the ambiguous constitutional conditions for presidential succession (later clarified by the 20th and 25th Amendments).

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(born July 11, 1834, Lowell, Mass., U.S.—died July 17, 1903, London, Eng.) U.S.-born British painter, etcher, and lithographer. He attended West Point but soon abandoned the army for art. In 1855 he arrived in Paris to study painting and adopted a bohemian lifestyle. In 1863 he moved to London, where he had considerable success, becoming widely famous for his wit and large public presence. During the 1860s and '70s he began to use musical terms in the h1s of his paintings, such as Symphony and Harmony, reflecting his belief in the “correspondences” between the arts. During this period he started to paint his “nocturnes”—scenes of London, especially of Chelsea, that have poetic intensity. For them he evolved a special technique by which paint, in a very liquid state he called a sauce, was stroked onto the canvas in fast sweeps of the brush, somewhat in the manner of Japanese calligraphy (he was an outspoken advocate of Japanese arts). From the 1870s onward he was preoccupied by the problems of portrait painting, creating a number of masterpieces, including Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist's Mother (1871–72), known as Whistler's Mother. These paintings underline his aestheticism, his liking for simple forms and muted tones, and his dependence on the 17th-century Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. In 1877 he brought a libel suit against John Ruskin for attacking his Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875); he won his case but received damages of only a farthing, and the costs of the suit temporarily bankrupted him. Considered one of the leading painters of his day, after his death his reputation declined. Only in the later 20th century did Whistler begin to receive serious acclaim once again.

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(born Oct. 5, 1751, Lewes, Sussex, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1799, Edenton, N.C., U.S.) U.S. jurist. His family immigrated to North Carolina, where he was appointed comptroller of the customhouse at age 17. He helped draft and revise the laws of the new state of North Carolina and served as state attorney general (1779–81). He led the state's Federalists in supporting ratification of the U.S. Constitution, and his letters in its defense (signed “Marcus”) are said to have prompted Pres. George Washington to appoint him to the U.S. Supreme Court (1790). He wrote several notable dissents, including those for Chisholm v. Georgia (1793; affirming the subordination of the states to the federal government) and Ware v. Hylton (1796; upholding the primacy of U.S. treaties over state statutes). His opinion in Calder v. Bull (1798) helped establish the principle of judicial review five years before it was actually tested in Marbury v. Madison.

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(born June 3, 1726, Edinburgh, Scot.—died March 26, 1797, Edinburgh) Scottish geologist, chemist, and naturalist. After short careers in law and medicine, he followed his interest in chemistry and developed an inexpensive manufacturing process for sal ammoniac. He settled in Edinburgh (1768) to pursue a life of science. In two papers presented in Edinburgh in 1785 (published 1788), he elaborated his theory of uniformitarianism. Its ability to explain the Earth's geologic processes without reference to the Bible and its emphasis on an immensely long, cyclical process of erosion, deposition, sedimentation, and volcanic upthrust were revolutionary.

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Langston Hughes, photograph by Jack Delano, 1942.

(born Feb. 1, 1902, Joplin, Mo., U.S.—died May 22, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. poet and writer. He published the poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” when he was 19, briefly attended Columbia University, and worked on an Africa-bound freighter. His literary career was launched when Hughes, working as a busboy, presented his poems to Vachel Lindsay as he dined. Hughes's poetry collections include The Weary Blues (1926) and Montage of a Dream Deferred (1951). His later The Panther and the Lash (1967) reflects black anger and militancy. Among his other works are short stories (including “The Ways of White Folks,” 1934), autobiographies, many works for the stage, anthologies, and translations of poetry by Federico García Lorca and Gabriela Mistral. His well-known comic character Jesse B. Semple, called Simple, appeared in his newspaper columns.

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(baptized Dec. 9, 1770, Ettrick, Selkirkshire, Scot.—died Nov. 21, 1835, Altrive, Yarrow) Scottish poet. A shepherd, he was almost entirely self-educated. The talents of “the Ettrick Shepherd” were discovered by Walter Scott when Hogg supplied material for Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, and his popularity accompanied the ballad revival of the early Romantic movement. Hogg's other writings include the poetry collection The Queen's Wake (1813) and The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), a novel about religious mania with a psychopathic hero that anticipates the modern psychological thriller.

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(born Sept. 16, 1838, near Guelph, Ont., Can.—died May 29, 1916, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.) Canadian-U.S. financier and railroad builder. He began his career in St. Paul overseeing steamboat transportation. In 1873 he reorganized a bankrupt railroad as the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. and was named its president in 1882. The Great Northern Railway Co. absorbed the St. Paul line in 1890, and Hill became its president (1893–1907) and chairman of the board (1907–12). The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroads also came under Hill's control; Edward Harriman's attempt to seize control of Northern Pacific from him (1901) triggered a Wall Street panic. Hill's banking activity as president of Northern Securities Co. was declared in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1904.

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(born April 3, 1866, near Wellington, Cape Colony—died Nov. 21, 1942, Pretoria, S.Af.) Prime minister of the Union of South Africa (1924–39). His political principles were “South Africa First” (i.e., ahead of the British Empire) and the “Two Streams Policy,” under which British and Afrikaner would be free from domination by each other. He served in the cabinet of Louis Botha (1910–12), but he broke with Botha because of his nationalist sympathies and formed the National Party. As prime minister, Hertzog gave South Africa its flag, made Afrikaans an official language, promoted apartheid, and affirmed the equality of British and Afrikaner rights. In 1933 he was forced to accept a coalition with Jan Smuts, and in 1939 he resigned over the issue of neutrality in World War II.

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Henry James, 1905.

(born April 15, 1843, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 28, 1916, London, Eng.) U.S.-British novelist. Born to a distinguished family, the brother of William James, he was privately educated. He traveled frequently to Europe from childhood on; after 1876 he lived primarily in England. His fundamental theme was to be the innocence and exuberance of the New World in conflict with the corruption and wisdom of the Old. Daisy Miller (1879) won him international renown; it was followed by The Europeans (1879), Washington Square (1880), and The Portrait of a Lady (1881). In The Bostonians (1886) and The Princess Casamassima (1886), his subjects were social reformers and revolutionaries. In The Spoils of Poynton (1897), What Maisie Knew (1897), and The Turn of the Screw (1898), he made use of complex moral and psychological ambiguity. The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903), and The Golden Bowl (1904) were his great final novels. His intense concern with the novel as an art form is reflected in the essay “The Art of Fiction” (1884), his prefaces to the volumes of his collected works, and his many literary essays. Perhaps his chief technical innovation was his strong focus on the individual consciousness of his central characters, which reflected his sense of the decline of public and collective values in his time.

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(baptized Jan. 8, 1720, Stanhill, Lancashire, Eng.—died April 22, 1778, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire) British inventor of the spinning jenny. A poor, uneducated spinner and weaver, he is said to have conceived the idea for the machine when he observed a spinning wheel accidentally overturned; as the spindle continued to revolve while upright, he reasoned that many spindles could be so turned, and went on to construct the first machine (patented 1770) with which one person could spin several threads at once.

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(born Aug. 15, 1856, Legbrannock, Lanark, Scot.—died Sept. 26, 1915, Glasgow) British labour leader. A coal miner, he led strikes and helped form unions, then worked as a journalist and founded two newspapers. Elected to Parliament in 1892, he helped organize the Independent Labour Party. In 1906 he became the first leader of the Labour Party in the House of Commons. A pacifist, he sought unsuccessfully to bind the Second International to declaring a general strike in all countries in the event of war. From 1903 he also acted as chief adviser to the militant suffragists headed by Emmeline Pankhurst.

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(born Sept. 12, 1811, Hingham, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 7, 1898, Bethlehem, N.H.) U.S. geologist and paleontologist. He made extensive explorations in the St. Lawrence valley while teaching at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1832–36). In 1836 he was appointed state geologist for the Geological Survey of New York; his studies culminated in the massive Geology of New York (part 4, 1843), a classic in U.S. geology that introduced the geosynclinal theory of mountain building. He was state geologist of Iowa (1855–58) and of Wisconsin (1857–60). He served as director of New York State's Museum of Natural History (1871–98). His major later work was the huge Paleontology of New York (13 vol., 1847–94).

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(born March 13, 1870, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died May 22, 1938, Westport, Conn.) U.S. painter. He worked as a newspaper illustrator in Philadelphia and later in New York City. In 1891 he met Robert Henri, and he subsequently became a member of The Eight and the Ash Can school. He favoured colourful street scenes of urban middle-class life, heavily influenced by Impressionism. He was a prolific draftsman, and his drawings (e.g., Seated Woman, 1902) reveal an elegant style not seen in his paintings. In 1912 he traveled to Europe to buy paintings for the collection of Albert C. Barnes. In 1913 he helped organize and exhibited in the Armory Show.

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(born Aug. 23, 1926, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Oct. 30, 2006, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. cultural anthropologist, a leading proponent of a form of anthropology that stresses the importance of symbols and interpretation in human social life. Culture, according to Geertz, is “a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms”—forms that serve to impose meaning on the world and make it understandable. Geertz's writings have been influential both within and outside of anthropology; they include The Religion of Java (1960), The Interpretation of Cultures (1973), Local Knowledge (1983), and Works and Lives (1988). He referred to his ethnographic methodology as “thick description.” Geertz taught at the University of Chicago (1960–70), among other institutions, and in 1970 joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., becoming an emeritus professor in 2000. Seealso cultural anthropology.

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James A. Garfield, 1880.

(born Nov. 19, 1831, near Orange, Ohio, U.S.—died Sept. 19, 1881, Elberon, N.J.) 20th president of the U.S. (1881). He was the last president born in a log cabin. He attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College) at Hiram, Ohio, and graduated (1856) from Williams College. He returned to the Eclectic Institute as a professor of ancient languages and in 1857, at age 25, became the school's president. In the American Civil War he led the 42nd Ohio Volunteers and fought at Shiloh and Chickamauga. He resigned as a major general to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives (1863–80). As a Radical Republican, he sought a firm policy of Reconstruction in the South. In 1876 he served on the Electoral Commission that decided the presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. He was House Republican leader from 1876 to 1880, when he was elected to the Senate by the Ohio legislature. At the 1880 Republican nominating convention, the delegates supporting Ulysses S. Grant and James Blaine became deadlocked. On the 36th ballot, Garfield was nominated as a compromise presidential candidate, with Chester Arthur as vice president; they won the election by a narrow margin. His brief term, lasting less than 150 days, was marked by a dispute with Sen. Roscoe Conkling over patronage. On July 2 he was shot at Washington's railroad station by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker. He died on Sept. 19 after 11 weeks of public debate over the ambiguous constitutional conditions for presidential succession (later clarified by the 20th and 25th Amendments).

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(born May 15, 1788, Charleston, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 26, 1858, Charleston) U.S. soldier and diplomat. He was appointed an officer in the U.S. Army in 1812. He established military posts in Florida in 1820 and supervised the forced removal of Seminole Indians to reservations in southern Florida in 1823. In 1832 he negotiated a treaty for the removal of the Seminoles to the West, and he served in the war that followed the refusal of some Seminoles to leave Florida (see Seminole Wars). From 1840 to 1850 he was president of a South Carolina railroad. In 1853 he was appointed U.S. minister to Mexico and was instructed to buy land from Mexico for a southern railroad route (see Gadsden Purchase).

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(born April 9, 1905, Sumner, Mo., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1995, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. After earning degrees from the Universities of Arkansas and Oxford, he taught law at Arkansas; he later served as its president (1939–41). In 1942 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where in 1943 he introduced a resolution supporting U.S. participation in what would become the UN. In the U.S. Senate (1945–75), he initiated the international exchange program known as the Fulbright scholarship. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1959–74), he presided over televised hearings in 1966 on U.S. policy in the Vietnam War, from which he emerged as a leading advocate of ending the bombing of North Vietnam and opening peace talks. In 1974 he lost his bid for reelection.

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(born April 23, 1818, Dartington, Devon, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1894, Kingsbridge, Devon) English historian and biographer. He was influenced by the Oxford Movement, which sought a renewal of Roman Catholic practices within the Church of England, but later broke with it. Among his historical works, which display both carelessness and his anti-Catholic bias, the best known is History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1856–70), which fundamentally altered the direction of Tudor studies. Immensely prolific, he was attacked by reviewers but was popular with the reading public. He later produced a biography (1882–84) of his friend Thomas Carlyle.

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Sir James George Frazer, 1933.

(born Jan. 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scot.—died May 7, 1941, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.) British anthropologist, folklorist, and classical scholar. Frazer attended Glasgow University and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a professor and remained the rest of his life. In The Golden Bough (1890; enlarged to 12 vols., 1911–15), Frazer examined the evolution of modes of thought from the magical to the religious and, finally, to the scientific. Although his evolutionary sequence is no longer accepted, Frazer's synthesis of the new science of cultural anthropology with traditional humanistic concerns and his lively descriptions of exotic cultural beliefs and practices had a wide influence. His other works include Totemism and Exogamy (1910) and Folk-Lore in the Old Testament (1918).

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(born Jan. 24, 1749, London, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Devon) British politician. He entered Parliament in 1768 and became leader of the Whigs in the House of Commons, where he used his brilliant oratorical skills to strongly oppose Britain's policy toward the American colonies. Almost always in the political opposition, he conducted a vendetta against George III and was later an enemy of William Pitt. He served as Britain's first foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806). He achieved two important reforms by steering through Parliament a resolution pledging it to end the slave trade and by enacting the 1792 Libel Act, which restored to juries their right to decide what constituted libel and whether or not a defendant was guilty of it. He is remembered as a great champion of liberty.

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(born Feb. 15, 1892, Beacon, N.Y., U.S.—died May 22, 1949, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. secretary of defense (1947–49). After serving in naval aviation in World War I, he resumed his connection with a New York City investment firm, of which he became president in 1938. Appointed undersecretary of the navy in 1940, he directed the huge naval expansion and procurement programs of World War II. He became secretary of the navy in 1944. Appointed the first secretary of defense in 1947, he began to reorganize and coordinate the armed services. He resigned in 1949. Suffering from a depression similar to battle fatigue, he entered Bethesda Naval Medical Center; soon after, he plunged to his death from a window.

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(born April 1, 1834, Bennington, Vt., U.S.—died Jan. 7, 1872, New York, N.Y.) U.S. financier. He worked his way up from circus hand to stockbroker and corporate official. He joined Daniel Drew and Jay Gould against Cornelius Vanderbilt in the “Erie War,” in which the three tried to maintain control of the Erie Railroad Co. by issuing fraudulent stock. They also attempted to corner the gold market by inflating the price, a venture that led to the panic of 1869. Known as “the Barnum of Wall Street,” Fisk produced theatrical shows and dallied with showgirls; he was fatally shot by an associate at age 37 after quarreling over business matters and a mistress.

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(born Feb. 27, 1904, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Aug. 22, 1979, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. A native of Chicago and a graduate of the University of Chicago, he is known for his realistic portraits of the city's lower-middle-class Irish population, drawn from his own experiences. His well-known Studs Lonigan trilogy—Young Lonigan (1932), The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan (1934), and Judgment Day (1935)—traces the self-destruction of a spiritually crippled young man. He later planned a cycle of 25 novels, of which he completed 10. Of the 25 novels he published, The Face of Time (1953) is among the best. He also produced 17 short-story collections.

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(born May 30, 1888, Grassy Point, N.Y., U.S.—died June 9, 1976, New York, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He entered New York Democratic Party politics in 1912. As secretary of the state Democratic committee in 1928, he organized the successful gubernatorial campaigns of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1928 and 1930. As national Democratic Party chairman (1932–40), he directed Roosevelt's 1932 and 1936 presidential campaigns. He served as postmaster general (1933–40) but resigned that post and the party chairmanship in opposition to Roosevelt's bid for a third term as president.

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(born July 20, 1811, London, Eng.—died Nov. 20, 1863, Dharmshala, India) British governor-general of Canada. He was appointed governor of Jamaica in 1842. As governor of British North America (1847–54), he implemented the policy of responsible, or cabinet, government recommended by Lord Durham. Elgin supported the Rebellion Losses Act (1849), which compensated Canadians for losses during the 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada, a stand criticized by Tory opponents in England and French-Canadian rioters in Montreal. He negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty (1854) between the Canadian colonies and the U.S. In 1857 he left Canada to serve in diplomatic posts in China, Japan, and India.

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(born Dec. 23, 1856, Durham, N.C., U.S.—died Oct. 10, 1925, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tobacco magnate and philanthropist. He and his brother Benjamin (1855–1929) entered the family tobacco business. In 1890 James became president of the American Tobacco Co., which controlled the entire U.S. tobacco industry until antitrust laws caused it, in 1911, to be broken into several companies that would become the principal U.S. cigarette makers. He oversaw the family's contributions to Trinity College in Durham, which was renamed Duke University.

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(born Aug. 15, 1803, Demerara, British Guiana—died Aug. 2, 1877, Victoria, B.C., Can.) Canadian statesman, known as “the father of British Columbia.” He joined the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 and became a senior member in charge of operations west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1849 he moved the company's headquarters from Oregon to Vancouver Island. He served as governor of Vancouver from 1851 to 1864. When gold was discovered on the Fraser River in 1858, he extended his authority to the mainland to preserve Britain's Pacific foothold. When Britain created the colony of British Columbia, Douglas was appointed governor (1858–64).

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(born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine-on-Forth, Scot.—died March 27, 1923, London, Eng.) British chemist and physicist. In 1891 he built a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity. His Dewar flask for storing liquefied gases—a double-walled flask has insulating vacuum between the inner and outer walls—became essential in low-temperature scientific work; its principle is used in the Thermos bottle. Dewar was the first to liquefy and solidify hydrogen, and his 1905 discovery that cooled charcoal can help create high vacuums was useful in atomic physics.

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(born Feb. 12, 1813, Utica, N.Y., U.S.—died April 14, 1895, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. geologist, mineralogist, and naturalist. He graduated from Yale University in 1833. He joined a U.S. exploring expedition to the South Seas (1838–42), acting as a geologist and zoologist. His contributions to the American Journal of Science stimulated U.S. geologic inquiry. His research into the formation of the Earth's continents and oceans led him to believe in the progressive evolution of the Earth's physical features over time. By the end of his life he also came to accept the evolution of living things, as articulated by Charles Darwin. During his lifetime, and largely under his leadership, U.S. geology grew from a collection and classification of unrelated facts into a mature science.

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(born Nov. 20, 1874, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 12, 1958, Boston) U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1911–14). As Boston's mayor (1914–18, 1922–26, 1930–34, 1947–50), he dominated the city's politics for 50 years. He owed much of his success to serving the needs of Irish immigrants in exchange for votes. He centralized the powers of patronage in his own hands and distributed public works jobs so as to retain the loyalty and support of his working-class electoral base. As mayor, he brought the city close to bankruptcy by spending enormous sums on parks and hospitals to satisfy his various constituencies. Unable to win a seat in the Massachusetts delegation to the 1932 Democratic convention, Curley contrived by means he never explained to be elected a delegate from Puerto Rico. As governor of Massachusetts (1935–37), he spent New Deal funds lavishly on roads, bridges, and other public works programs. He won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1942 and was reelected two years later. His last mayoral term included five months in prison following a conviction for mail fraud; Pres. Harry Truman secured his release and later granted him a full pardon. His colourful career inspired Edwin O'Connor's novel The Last Hurrah (1956). His autobiography, I'd Do It Again, was published in 1957.

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(born August 1560, Eliock House, Dumfries, Scot.—died July 1582, Mantua, Mantua) Scottish scholar and adventurer. After graduating from the University of St. Andrews, he publicly distinguished himself in Europe in learned activities. He entered the service of the duke of Mantua but was slain in a street fight at age 21. Reputedly a fine orator, linguist, debater, and man of letters, he was considered the model of the cultured gentleman, though admirers probably exaggerated his accomplishments. Years later he became known as “the Admirable Crichton.”

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(born 1748, Gibraltar—died Jan. 12, 1812, London, Eng.) British army officer and governor-general of Canada (1807–11). In the American Revolution, he was wounded at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775 and helped repel the American army's invasion of Canada in 1776. He later served in India. As governor-general in Canada, he cooperated with the governing clique in Quebec but conducted an unpopular repressive policy toward French Canadians. He resigned in 1811 and returned to England.

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(born March 31, 1870, Jacksonburg, Ohio, U.S.—died July 15, 1957, Dayton, Ohio) U.S. politician. He worked as a reporter in Cincinnati before buying the Dayton News (1898) and Springfield Daily News (1903). A supporter of Woodrow Wilson, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1909–13) and then was elected governor of Ohio (1913–15, 1917–21), where he introduced workers' compensation and the minimum wage. He won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1920 but was defeated by Warren G. Harding in a Republican landslide.

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(born Sept. 15, 1789, Burlington, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1851, Cooperstown, N.Y.) The first major U.S. novelist. Cooper grew up in a prosperous family in the settlement of Cooperstown, founded by his father. The Spy (1821), set during the American Revolution, brought him fame. His best-known novels, the series The Leatherstocking Tales, feature the frontier adventures of the wilderness scout Natty Bumppo and include The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). He also wrote popular sea novels, notably The Pilot (1823), and a history of the U.S. Navy (1839). Though internationally celebrated, he was troubled by lawsuits and political conflicts in his later years, and his popularity and income declined.

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known as Captain Cook

James Cook, oil painting by John Webber; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Oct. 27, 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 1779, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii) British sailor and explorer. He joined the Royal Navy (1755) and in 1763–67 surveyed the St. Lawrence River and the coast of Newfoundland. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the first scientific expedition to the Pacific. Sailing on the HMS Endeavour, he found and charted all of New Zealand and explored the eastern coast of Australia. That voyage (1768–71) produced a wealth of scientifically collected material and was also notable for Cook's successful prevention of scurvy among crew members. Promoted to commander, he was sent with two ships to make the first circumnavigation and penetration into the Antarctic. On that expedition (1772–75), which ranks as one of the greatest of all sailing-ship voyages, he successfully completed the first west-east circumnavigation in high latitudes. On a third voyage (1776–79) in search of a Northwest Passage around Canada and Alaska, he was killed by Polynesian natives on Hawaii.

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(born March 26, 1893, Dorchester, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 11, 1978, Hanover, N.H.) U.S. educator and scientist, president of Harvard University (1933–53). Conant received a Ph.D. (1916) from Harvard and taught chemistry there until he was elected its president in 1933. He led the university to broaden the social and geographic makeup of its student body. During World War II he was a central figure in organizing American science, including the development of the atomic bomb. In 1953 he was appointed U.S. high commissioner for West Germany, and in 1955 he was appointed ambassador. His publications include chemistry textbooks, works on science for the lay reader, and books on educational policy.

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(born Aug. 23, 1926, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Oct. 30, 2006, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. cultural anthropologist, a leading proponent of a form of anthropology that stresses the importance of symbols and interpretation in human social life. Culture, according to Geertz, is “a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms”—forms that serve to impose meaning on the world and make it understandable. Geertz's writings have been influential both within and outside of anthropology; they include The Religion of Java (1960), The Interpretation of Cultures (1973), Local Knowledge (1983), and Works and Lives (1988). He referred to his ethnographic methodology as “thick description.” Geertz taught at the University of Chicago (1960–70), among other institutions, and in 1970 joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., becoming an emeritus professor in 2000. Seealso cultural anthropology.

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(born Jan. 24, 1749, London, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Devon) British politician. He entered Parliament in 1768 and became leader of the Whigs in the House of Commons, where he used his brilliant oratorical skills to strongly oppose Britain's policy toward the American colonies. Almost always in the political opposition, he conducted a vendetta against George III and was later an enemy of William Pitt. He served as Britain's first foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806). He achieved two important reforms by steering through Parliament a resolution pledging it to end the slave trade and by enacting the 1792 Libel Act, which restored to juries their right to decide what constituted libel and whether or not a defendant was guilty of it. He is remembered as a great champion of liberty.

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(born Oct. 16, 1797, Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, Eng.—died March 27/28, 1868, Deene Park, Northamptonshire) British general. After entering the army (1824), he purchased promotions to become a lieutenant colonel (1832) and gained a reputation as a martinet. He spent his inherited wealth to make his regiment the best-dressed in the service (introducing the later-named cardigan jacket). At the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853), he was appointed commander of the Light Brigade of British cavalry, which he led in the ill-fated charge at the Battle of Balaklava. Despite the disaster, Cardigan was lionized on his return to England and appointed inspector general of cavalry.

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(born July 17, 1899, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 30, 1986, Stanfordville, N.Y.) U.S. actor. He toured in vaudeville as a song-and-dance man before starring in the successful Broadway musical Penny Arcade (1929). He played the first in a series of pugnacious criminal roles in the film Public Enemy (1931), followed by Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) and White Heat (1949). As George M. Cohan in Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942, Academy Award) he showed off his dance skills and streetwise charm. Later films include Mister Roberts (1955) and Ragtime (1981).

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James Buchanan, photograph by Mathew Brady.

(born April 23, 1791, near Mercersburg, Pa., U.S.—died June 1, 1868, near Lancaster) 15th president of the U.S. (1857–61). He was admitted to the bar in 1812 and soon established a successful law practice. He was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1814 and later served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1821–31), as minister to Russia (1832–34), and in the U.S. Senate (1834–45). He was secretary of state in the cabinet of Pres. James K. Polk (1845–49). As minister to Britain (1853–56), he helped draft the Ostend Manifesto. In 1856 he was elected president as a Democrat, defeating John C. Frémont. Although experienced in government and law, he lacked the courage to deal effectively with the slavery crisis, and he equivocated on the question of Kansas's status as a slaveholding state. The ensuing split within his party allowed Abraham Lincoln to win the election of 1860. He denounced the secession of South Carolina following the election and sent reinforcements to Fort Sumter but failed to respond further to the mounting crisis. He was the only president never to have married.

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(born May 3, 1933, Barnwell, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 25, 2006, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. singer and songwriter. Growing up in Georgia during the Depression, Brown first sang and danced on street corners for money. He later formed a group, appearing at small clubs throughout the South. He gradually evolved a highly personal style, combining blues and gospel music elements with his own emotionally charged and highly rhythmic delivery, accented by a strong sense of showmanship. His first hit, “Please, Please, Please” (1956), was followed by other million-selling singles, including “Papa's Got a Brand New Bag”; his style, marked by strong dance-oriented rhythms and heavy syncopation, became known as funk. His checkered personal life included charges of drug use and a period of imprisonment for a 1988 high-speed highway chase in which he tried to escape pursuing officers. Brown, whose sobriquets included “the Hardest-Working Man in Show Business” and “the Godfather of Soul,” was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

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(born Feb. 20, 1951, Glasgow, Scot.) Scottish-born British politician and prime minister (2007– ). Brown worked as a teacher and a journalist before winning election in 1983 to the House of Commons as a member of the Labour Party. He subsequently became friends with Tony Blair, and the two men soon found themselves at the forefront of the campaign to modernize Labour's political philosophy, replacing the goal of state socialism with a more pragmatic, market-friendly strategy. After Labour's landslide victory in 1997, Blair became prime minister, and Brown was named chancellor of the Exchequer. Under Brown's leadership, Great Britain experienced a period of relatively steady economic growth, but increased public spending and government borrowing became growing concerns. In June 2007 Blair stepped down as prime minister and as Labour leader, and Brown succeeded him in both posts.

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Boswell, detail of an oil painting from the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1786; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 29, 1740, Edinburgh, Scot.—died May 19, 1795, London, Eng.) Scottish friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson. Boswell, a lawyer, met Johnson in 1763 and visited him often (1772–84), making a superlatively detailed record in his journals of Johnson's conversations. His two-volume Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791) is regarded as one of the greatest English biographies. His Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1785) is mainly an account of Johnson's responses to their 1773 trip to Scotland. The 20th-century publication of Boswell's journals showed him to have been also one of the world's greatest diarists.

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(born Jan. 31, 1830, West Brownsville, Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1893, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician and diplomat. He moved to Maine in 1854 to become editor of the Kennebec Journal, a crusading Republican newspaper. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1863–76), becoming speaker in 1868. An advocate of moderation in the Republican Party, he opposed the Radical Republicans led by Roscoe Conkling. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1876, he resigned his seat in 1881 to become secretary of state. In this office he took the first steps toward securing U.S. control of the eventual route of the Panama Canal. As the Republican presidential candidate in 1884 he narrowly lost to Grover Cleveland. As secretary of state for a second time in 1889–92, he chaired the first Pan-American Conference.

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(born June 14, 1924, Uddingston, Scot.) Scottish pharmacologist. Through studying interactions between receptors on cells and chemicals in the bloodstream that attach to them, Black developed the first of the beta-blocking drugs, to relieve angina pectoris. He used a similar approach to develop drugs for stomach and duodenal ulcers. He shared a 1988 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Gertrude Elion.

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(born Feb. 4, 1792, Danville, Ky., U.S.—died Nov. 25, 1857, Eagleswood, N.J.) U.S. politician and antislavery leader. He practiced law in Danville, Ky., before moving to Alabama, where he was elected to the state legislature in 1819. He became active in the abolition movement and in 1837 was elected secretary of the American Anti-Slavery Society. After the group split, he helped lead the faction that became the Liberty Party; he was the party's presidential candidate in 1840 and 1844.

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(born Feb. 18, 1783, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1848, Philadelphia) U.S. naval officer. He entered the navy in 1800. During the War of 1812, he served on the USS Wasp when it captured the British ship Frolic, and he commanded the USS Hornet in its victory over the Penguin. In 1817 he was sent to the Columbia River to claim the Oregon Territory for the U.S. As commodore of U.S. ships in East Asia, he negotiated the first treaty, a trade agreement, between the U.S. and China.

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(born Sept. 1, 1795, Newmill, Banffshire, Scot.—died June 1, 1872, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. editor. He immigrated to the U.S. in 1819 and was employed on various newspapers until 1835, when he started The New York Herald. The paper became very successful and introduced many of the methods of modern news reporting. Among other innovations, Bennett published the first Wall Street financial article (1835), established the first correspondents in Europe (1838), maintained a staff of 63 war correspondents during the Civil War, was a leader in using illustrations, introduced a society department, and published the first account in U.S. journalism of a love-nest murder (1836).

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(born May 9, 1860, Kirriemuir, Angus, Scot.—died June 19, 1937, London, Eng.) Scottish playwright and novelist. After moving to London, he wrote Auld Licht Idylls (1888), a book about his native Scotland. His best-selling novel The Little Minister (1891) was made into a play in 1897. His plays Quality Street (1901) and The Admirable Crichton (1902) ran successfully in London. After creating the stories of Peter Pan for a friend's sons, he won great success with his classic children's play Peter Pan, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). His other plays include The Twelve-Pound Look (1910) and Dear Brutus (1917).

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Arthur James Balfour, circa 1900.

(born July 25, 1848, Whittinghame, East Lothian, Scot.—died March 19, 1930, Woking, Surrey, Eng.) British statesman. The nephew of the marquess of Salisbury, Balfour served in Parliament (1874–1911) and in his uncle's government as secretary for Ireland (1887–91). From 1891 he was the Conservative Party's leader in Parliament and succeeded his uncle as prime minister (1902–05). He helped form the Entente Cordiale (1904). His most famous action came in 1917 when, as foreign secretary (1916–19), he wrote the so-called Balfour Declaration, which expressed official British approval of Zionism. He served as lord president of the council (1919–22, 1925–29) and drafted the Balfour Report (1926), which defined relations between Britain and the dominions expressed in the Statute of Westminster.

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orig. Fougère Rabin or Jean Rabin later Jean-Jacques Fougère Audubon

(born April 26, 1785, Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue, West Indies —died Jan. 27, 1851, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. ornithologist, artist, and naturalist known for his drawings and paintings of North American birds. Born to a French merchant in Haiti, he returned with his father to France, where he briefly studied painting with Jacques-Louis David before moving to the U.S. at age 18. From his father's Pennsylvania estate, he made the first American bird-banding experiments. After failing in business ventures, he concentrated on drawing and studying birds, which took him from Florida to Labrador. His extraordinary four-volume Birds of America was published in London in 1827–38. He simultaneously published the extensive accompanying text Ornithological Biography (5 vol., 1831–39). His multivolume Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1842–54) was completed by his sons. Though his bird poses are sometimes unrealistic (the result of painting dead birds wired into position) and some details are inaccurate, few argue with the excellence of his illustrations as art, and his studies were fundamental to New World ornithology.

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(born Dec. 15, 1888, Atlantic, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 28, 1959, Stamford, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He worked as a journalist before cowriting his first successful play, What Price Glory? (1924), which was followed by Saturday's Children (1927). His verse dramas Elizabeth the Queen (1930) and Mary of Scotland (1933) were later adapted for film. He returned to prose for the satire Both Your Houses (1933, Pulitzer Prize) and the tragedy Winterset (1935), then turned to verse again for High Tor (1936), a romantic comedy. He collaborated with Kurt Weill on the musicals Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) and Lost in the Stars (1949). His last play, The Bad Seed (1954), became a successful film.

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(born April 25, 1940, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. actor. He began his career as a stage actor, winning Tony Awards for Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? (1969) and later for The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel (1977). He played Michael Corleone in The Godfather (1972) and its sequels (1974, 1990). Known for his intense, explosive acting style, he also starred in Serpico (1973), Dog Day Afternoon (1975), And Justice for All (1979), Scarface (1983), Scent of a Woman (1992, Academy Award), The Insider (1999), and Insomnia (2002).

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(born Nov. 27, 1909, Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.—died May 16, 1955, New York, N.Y.) U.S. poet and novelist. Agee attended Harvard University. In the 1930s and '40s, film reviews for Time and The Nation made him a pioneer in serious film criticism. His lyrical Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941), with photographs by Walker Evans, documents the daily lives of poverty-stricken Alabama sharecroppers. After 1948 Agee worked mainly as a screenwriter, notably on The African Queen (1951) and The Night of the Hunter (1955). He is best known for his autobiographical novel A Death in the Family (1957, Pulitzer Prize).

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