Jacob van

Jacob van

Artevelde, Jacob van, c.1290-1345, Flemish statesman, of a wealthy family of Ghent. In 1337 the Flemish cloth industry underwent a severe crisis. The pro-French policy of the count of Flanders in the conflict between Edward III of England and Philip VI of France cut off English wool imports and thus ruined the Flemish merchants and weavers. Ghent rebelled, and Artevelde was given dictatorial powers as head of the city government. He negotiated (1338) a commercial treaty with England and obtained recognition of Flemish neutrality. The other towns of Flanders followed his lead, the count fled to France, and trade revived and prospered. In 1340, Artevelde had Edward III recognized as king of France (and thus suzerain of Flanders) by the Flemish towns. Artevelde's firm leadership and wealthy origin inevitably aroused resentment. Enemies accused him of proposing the lordship of Flanders to Edward the Black Prince (of England). In 1345 a riot broke out in Ghent, and Artevelde was killed by the mob.
Lennep, Jacob van, 1802-68, Dutch writer. He was state's attorney (1852) and served in the legislature (1853-56). He is best known for his historical novels influenced by Walter Scott, which include The Adopted Son (1833, tr. 1844) and The Rose of Dekama (1836, tr. 1847). He also wrote verse; translated Byron, Tennyson, and others; and wrote on Vondel, whose works he edited.
Maerlant, Jacob van, c.1235-c.1300, Flemish poet, earliest important figure of Dutch literature. He wrote lyric poems and chivalric verse romances after the French as well as long didactic poems, chief of which is Spiegel historiael, an adaptation of the Speculum of Vincent of Beauvais. Jacob van Maerlant is an early literary representative of the bourgeois spirit.
Ruisdael or Ruysdael, Jacob van, c.1628-1682, Dutch painter and etcher, the most celebrated of the Dutch landscape painters. He studied with his father Isack and perhaps with his uncle Salomon van Ruysdael, a well-known Haarlem landscapist. He first worked in Haarlem, moveing to Amsterdam in 1656. Late in life, he obtained a medical degree and practiced as a physician. Ruisdael's characteristic work shows northern nature in a somber mood. His dramatic skies are usually overcast, throwing a restless flux of light over the countryside. Gnarled, knotted oak and beech trees are rendered with extraordinary accuracy. Ruisdael's later works show great breadth of stroke, dramatizing humanity's insignificance amid the splendor of nature. Important paintings include Jewish Cemetery (c.1655, Detroit Inst. of Art) and Wheatfields (c.1670, Metropolitan Mus.). He also produced some very fine etchings. Possessed of a romantic sensibility before the advent of romanticism, Ruisdael anticipated and inspired many of the great French and English landscapists of the next two centuries. Of his pupils, Meindert Hobbema was the most outstanding. The Rijks Museum, the National Gallery, London, and many American collections have examples of his work.

See W. Stechow, Dutch Landscape Painting of the Seventeenth Century (1968); S. Slive, Jacob van Ruisdael: A Complete Catalogue of His Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings (2002) and Jacob Van Ruisdael: Master of Landscape (2005).

Ruysdael, Jacob van: see Ruisdael, Jacob van.
Oost, Jacob van, the elder, 1601-71, Flemish portrait and religious painter, b. Bruges. He spent most of his life in Bruges, with the exception of several years in Rome, where he was a pupil of Annibale Carracci. A follower also of Rubens and Caravaggio, he developed a vigorous and realistic style. There are various pictures by van Oost in the churches of Bruges; Resurrection and Descent from the Cross are in the cathedral. His son and pupil, Jacob van Oost, the younger, 1637-1713, settled in Lille, where he continued his father's tradition. Much of his work remains in the churches and museums of that city.

Jacob van Artevelde (c. 1290 - July 24 1345), also known as the Wise Man and the Brewer of Ghent, was a Flemish statesman and political leader.

Artevelde was born in Ghent of a wealthy commercial family. He married twice and amassed a fortune in the weaving industry. He rose to prominence during the early stages of the Hundred Years' War. Fearful that hostilities between France and England would hurt the prosperity of Ghent, he entered political life in 1337. He proposed an alliance with Bruges, Ypres, and other Flemish towns in order to show neutrality. Artevelde gained control of the insurrection against the Count of Flandres who was aligned to the French king, and forced him to flee to France. He served as captain general of Ghent from that time until his death.

Flemish relations with England had traditionally been good, due to wool and textile trade. Neutrality was eventually broken, and the towns took the side of the English in 1340. In that year, Artevelde persuaded the federation to recognize King Edward III of England as sovereign of France and overlord of Flanders.

Flemish trade and industry flourished under Artevelde's semi-dictatorial rule. In 1345, however, rumours that he planned to recognise the son of Edward III, the Black Prince, as count of Flanders, suspicion of embezzlement, and the excommunication by the Pope caused a popular uprising in Ghent and Artevelde was killed by an angry mob.

His son Philip was later made leader of the Flemish cause.


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