Definitions

Jackson,

Young, Andrew

in full Andrew Jackson Young, Jr.

(born March 12, 1932, New Orleans, La., U.S.) U.S. politician. He earned a divinity degree in 1955 and became a pastor at several African American churches in the South. Active in the civil rights movement, he worked with Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ralph Abernathy in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1961–70). He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1972–77). An early supporter of Jimmy Carter, he was appointed U.S. ambassador to the UN (1977–79), the first African American to hold the post. He served as mayor of Atlanta (1982–90).

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(born April 4, 1843, Keesville, N.Y., U.S.—died June 30, 1942, New York, N.Y.) U.S. photographer. As a boy, he worked for a photographic studio in Troy, N.Y. After the American Civil War he went west and opened a studio in Omaha. He was the official photographer for the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (1870–78), and his photographs were instrumental in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park.

Learn more about Jackson, William Henry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

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orig. Thomas Jonathan Jackson

(born Jan. 21, 1824, Clarksburg, Va., U.S.—died May 10, 1863, Guinea Station, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. Despite little formal education, he secured an appointment to West Point. He served with distinction in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War, he organized Virginia volunteers into an effective brigade. At the first Battle of Bull Run, he stationed his brigade in a strong line and withstood a Union assault, a feat that earned him a promotion to major general and the nickname “Stonewall.” In 1862 he won campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley and later in the Seven Days' Battles. Robert E. Lee used Jackson's troops to encircle the Union forces to win the second Battle of Bull Run, and Jackson assisted Lee at Antietam and Fredericksburg. In April 1863, while moving his troops around the flank of the Union army at Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot and mortally wounded by his own men.

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(born May 27, 1912, near Hot Springs, Va., U.S.—died May 23, 2002, Hot Springs) U.S. golfer. Snead reportedly never took a golf lesson. Known for his straw hat and his flowing, powerful swing, “Slammin' Sam” won the PGA Championship (1942, 1949, 1951), the British Open (1946), and the Masters (1949, 1952, 1954) and was a member of the U.S. Ryder Cup team (eight times—including 1969, when he captained the squad but did not play). Snead won more PGA tournaments (82) than any other player in history, and his total number of world tournament wins is estimated at 135.

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(born Dec. 14, 1919, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 8, 1965, North Bennington, Vt.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. She is best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948), a chilling tale that provoked outrage when first published, and The Haunting of Hill House (1959; film, 1963, 1999). These and her other five novels, including We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962), confirmed her reputation as a master of gothic horror and psychological suspense.

Learn more about Jackson, Shirley (Hardie) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 14, 1919, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 8, 1965, North Bennington, Vt.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. She is best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948), a chilling tale that provoked outrage when first published, and The Haunting of Hill House (1959; film, 1963, 1999). These and her other five novels, including We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962), confirmed her reputation as a master of gothic horror and psychological suspense.

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(born May 27, 1912, near Hot Springs, Va., U.S.—died May 23, 2002, Hot Springs) U.S. golfer. Snead reportedly never took a golf lesson. Known for his straw hat and his flowing, powerful swing, “Slammin' Sam” won the PGA Championship (1942, 1949, 1951), the British Open (1946), and the Masters (1949, 1952, 1954) and was a member of the U.S. Ryder Cup team (eight times—including 1969, when he captained the squad but did not play). Snead won more PGA tournaments (82) than any other player in history, and his total number of world tournament wins is estimated at 135.

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(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

Learn more about Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Reginald Martinez Jackson

(born May 18, 1946, Wyncote, Pa., U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Jackson excelled in track, football, and baseball in high school. In the major leagues, batting and throwing left-handed and playing outfield, he helped three teams (Oakland Athletics, 1968–75; New York Yankees, 1976–81; California Angels, 1982–87) win five World Series, six pennant races, and 10 divisional play-offs. Noted for his home-run hitting, he was nicknamed “Mr. October” for his reliable prowess in play-off and World Series games. He hit a career total of 563 home runs, placing him in the top ten of all-time home-run hitters.

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Inlet of the South Pacific Ocean, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. It is one of the world's finest natural harbours. It was sighted in 1770 by Capt. James Cook. Its entrance is between North and South Heads, where naval and military stations are located. Sydney is on its southern shore and the northern suburbs of Sydney are on its northern shore; the shores are joined by the Sydney Harbour Bridge, which was built in 1932.

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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.

(born Jan. 28, 1912, Cody, Wyo., U.S.—died Aug. 11, 1956, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He grew up in California and Arizona. In the early 1930s he studied in New York City under Thomas Hart Benton, and later he was employed on the WPA Federal Art Project. In 1945 he married the artist Lee Krasner. Two years later, after several years of semiabstract work stimulated by psychotherapy, Pollock began to lay his canvas on the floor and pour or drip paint onto it in stages. This process permitted him to record the force and scope of his gestures in trajectories of enamel or aluminum paint that “veiled” the figurative elements found in his earlier work. The results were huge areas covered with complex and dynamic linear patterns that fuse image and form and engulf the vision of the spectator in their scale and intricacy. Pollock believed that art derived from the unconscious and judged his work and that of others on its inherent authenticity of personal expression. He became known as a leading practitioner of Abstract Expressionism, particularly the form known as action painting. Championed by critic Clement Greenberg and others, he became a celebrity. When he died in a car crash at 44, he was one of the few American painters to be recognized during his lifetime and afterward as the peer of 20th-century European masters of modern art.

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(born Aug. 29, 1958, Gary, Ind., U.S.) U.S. singer and songwriter. The nine-year-old Jackson became the lead singer of the Jackson 5, a family group formed by his father. Their hits on the Motown label included “I Want You Back” and “ABC.” Though Michael remained a member of the group until 1984, he began recording under his own name in 1971. His album Off the Wall (1979) sold millions; his next solo album, Thriller (1982), sold more than 40 million copies, becoming the best-selling album in history. The emerging format of the music video was an important aspect of Jackson's work; his videos for “Beat It” and “Billie Jean” (both 1983) featured his highly influential dancing style (notably his trademark “moonwalk”). He later released the albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995). Despite his many efforts to speak out on social issues, Jackson's eccentric, secluded lifestyle stirred controversy in the early 1990s. His reputation was seriously damaged in 1993 when he was accused of child molestation by a 13-year-old boy; a civil suit was settled out of court. In 2003 Jackson was arrested on charges of child molestation; he was acquitted in 2005. His numerous honours include induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Jackson 5 (1997) and as a solo performer (2001). Several of his siblings, notably his sister Janet (b. 1966), have also enjoyed solo success.

Learn more about Jackson, Michael (Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mahalia Jackson, 1961.

(born Oct. 26, 1911, New Orleans, La., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1972, Evergreen Park, Ill.) U.S. gospel music singer. As a child, Jackson sang in the choir of the New Orleans church where her father preached. She learned sacred songs but was also exposed to blues recordings by Bessie Smith and Ida Cox. In Chicago she worked at odd jobs while singing with a touring gospel quintet, and she opened several small businesses. Her warm, powerful voice first came to wide public attention in the 1930s, when she participated in a cross-country tour singing songs such as “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands.” Closely associated with Thomas A. Dorsey, she sang many of his songs. “Move on up a Little Higher” (1948) sold more than a million copies, and she became one of the most popular singers of the 1950s and '60s. She first appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1950. Active in the civil rights movement from 1955, she sang at the epochal 1963 civil rights march on Washington.

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in full Joseph Jefferson Jackson known as Shoeless Joe Jackson

(born July 16, 1888, Greenville, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 6, 1951, Greenville) U.S. baseball player. Jackson started his career in 1908 and became an outfielder with the Chicago White Sox. An outstanding hitter, his career batting average of .356 is the third-highest (after Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby) in baseball history. Jackson was involved in the 1919 Black Sox scandal; though acquitted in 1921, he was banned from baseball for life by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

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(born April 4, 1843, Keesville, N.Y., U.S.—died June 30, 1942, New York, N.Y.) U.S. photographer. As a boy, he worked for a photographic studio in Troy, N.Y. After the American Civil War he went west and opened a studio in Omaha. He was the official photographer for the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (1870–78), and his photographs were instrumental in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park.

Learn more about Jackson, William Henry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Thomas Jonathan Jackson

(born Jan. 21, 1824, Clarksburg, Va., U.S.—died May 10, 1863, Guinea Station, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. Despite little formal education, he secured an appointment to West Point. He served with distinction in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War, he organized Virginia volunteers into an effective brigade. At the first Battle of Bull Run, he stationed his brigade in a strong line and withstood a Union assault, a feat that earned him a promotion to major general and the nickname “Stonewall.” In 1862 he won campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley and later in the Seven Days' Battles. Robert E. Lee used Jackson's troops to encircle the Union forces to win the second Battle of Bull Run, and Jackson assisted Lee at Antietam and Fredericksburg. In April 1863, while moving his troops around the flank of the Union army at Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot and mortally wounded by his own men.

Learn more about Jackson, Stonewall with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

Learn more about Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Reginald Martinez Jackson

(born May 18, 1946, Wyncote, Pa., U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Jackson excelled in track, football, and baseball in high school. In the major leagues, batting and throwing left-handed and playing outfield, he helped three teams (Oakland Athletics, 1968–75; New York Yankees, 1976–81; California Angels, 1982–87) win five World Series, six pennant races, and 10 divisional play-offs. Noted for his home-run hitting, he was nicknamed “Mr. October” for his reliable prowess in play-off and World Series games. He hit a career total of 563 home runs, placing him in the top ten of all-time home-run hitters.

Learn more about Jackson, Reggie with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 29, 1958, Gary, Ind., U.S.) U.S. singer and songwriter. The nine-year-old Jackson became the lead singer of the Jackson 5, a family group formed by his father. Their hits on the Motown label included “I Want You Back” and “ABC.” Though Michael remained a member of the group until 1984, he began recording under his own name in 1971. His album Off the Wall (1979) sold millions; his next solo album, Thriller (1982), sold more than 40 million copies, becoming the best-selling album in history. The emerging format of the music video was an important aspect of Jackson's work; his videos for “Beat It” and “Billie Jean” (both 1983) featured his highly influential dancing style (notably his trademark “moonwalk”). He later released the albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995). Despite his many efforts to speak out on social issues, Jackson's eccentric, secluded lifestyle stirred controversy in the early 1990s. His reputation was seriously damaged in 1993 when he was accused of child molestation by a 13-year-old boy; a civil suit was settled out of court. In 2003 Jackson was arrested on charges of child molestation; he was acquitted in 2005. His numerous honours include induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Jackson 5 (1997) and as a solo performer (2001). Several of his siblings, notably his sister Janet (b. 1966), have also enjoyed solo success.

Learn more about Jackson, Michael (Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mahalia Jackson, 1961.

(born Oct. 26, 1911, New Orleans, La., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1972, Evergreen Park, Ill.) U.S. gospel music singer. As a child, Jackson sang in the choir of the New Orleans church where her father preached. She learned sacred songs but was also exposed to blues recordings by Bessie Smith and Ida Cox. In Chicago she worked at odd jobs while singing with a touring gospel quintet, and she opened several small businesses. Her warm, powerful voice first came to wide public attention in the 1930s, when she participated in a cross-country tour singing songs such as “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands.” Closely associated with Thomas A. Dorsey, she sang many of his songs. “Move on up a Little Higher” (1948) sold more than a million copies, and she became one of the most popular singers of the 1950s and '60s. She first appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1950. Active in the civil rights movement from 1955, she sang at the epochal 1963 civil rights march on Washington.

Learn more about Jackson, Mahalia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Joseph Jefferson Jackson known as Shoeless Joe Jackson

(born July 16, 1888, Greenville, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 6, 1951, Greenville) U.S. baseball player. Jackson started his career in 1908 and became an outfielder with the Chicago White Sox. An outstanding hitter, his career batting average of .356 is the third-highest (after Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby) in baseball history. Jackson was involved in the 1919 Black Sox scandal; though acquitted in 1921, he was banned from baseball for life by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

Learn more about Jackson, Joe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 9, 1936, Birkenhead, Cheshire, Eng.) British stage and film actress. Discovered by Peter Brook, she was cast in his Theatre of Cruelty revue and soon appeared as the mad Charlotte Corday in his celebrated production of Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade (1964; film, 1967). She became known for her tense portrayals of complex women, gaining international acclaim in the film Women in Love (1969, Academy Award) and later successes such as Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), A Touch of Class (1973, Academy Award), and the television series Elizabeth R. Her screen career continued until 1992, when she won a seat in the House of Commons.

Learn more about Jackson, Glenda with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C.—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) Seventh president of the U.S. (1829–37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed in the conflict. In 1788 he was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796–97) and the Senate (1797–98). He served on the state supreme court (1798–1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-man volunteer militia. Sent to the Mississippi Territory to fight the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, he defeated them after a short campaign (1813–14) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola, Fla., from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero; he was dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After the U.S. acquired Florida, Jackson was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-vote plurality, but the House of Representative instead selected John Quincy Adams as president. Jackson's victory over Adams in the 1828 presidential election is commonly regarded as a turning point in U.S. history. Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains, the first to be born in poverty, and the first to be elected through a direct appeal to the mass of voters rather than through the support of a recognized political organization. The era of his presidency has come to be known as “Jacksonian Democracy.” Upon taking office he replaced many federal officials with his political supporters, a practice that became known as the spoils system. His administration acquiesced in the illegal seizure of Cherokee land in Georgia and then forcibly expelled the Indians who refused to leave (see Trail of Tears). When South Carolina claimed a right to nullify a federally imposed tariff, Jackson asked for and received Congressional authority to use the military to enforce federal laws in the state (see nullification). His reelection in 1832 was partially the result of his controversial veto of a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States, which was unpopular with many of his supporters (see Bank War). The intensity of the political struggles during his tenure led to the strengthening of the Democratic Party and to the further development of the two-party system.

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City (pop., 2000: 184,256), capital of Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Pearl River in the west-central part of the state. Settled in 1792 by Louis Le Fleur, a French Canadian trader, it was a trading post called Le Fleur's Bluff until settlers began arriving in 1820. It was made the state capital in 1822 and was named for Andrew Jackson. During the American Civil War it was burned by Union forces (1863). The state's largest city, it is a railroad and distribution centre. It is the seat of Jackson State University (1877) and other educational institutions.

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(born May 9, 1936, Birkenhead, Cheshire, Eng.) British stage and film actress. Discovered by Peter Brook, she was cast in his Theatre of Cruelty revue and soon appeared as the mad Charlotte Corday in his celebrated production of Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade (1964; film, 1967). She became known for her tense portrayals of complex women, gaining international acclaim in the film Women in Love (1969, Academy Award) and later successes such as Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), A Touch of Class (1973, Academy Award), and the television series Elizabeth R. Her screen career continued until 1992, when she won a seat in the House of Commons.

Learn more about Jackson, Glenda with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Turner, Frederick Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 30, 1815, Newburgh, N.Y., U.S.—died July 28, 1852, vicinity of Yonkers, N.Y.) U.S. horticulturist, landscape gardener, and architect. He educated himself in landscape gardening and architecture while working in his father's nursery. In 1850 he began collaborating with the British architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95); the two designed a number of estates in New York's Hudson River valley and on Long Island. Recognized as the foremost U.S. landscape designer of his day, he was commissioned in 1851 to lay out the grounds for the Capitol, the White House, and the Smithsonian Institution. His death at 36 in a steamboat accident prevented him from seeing his plans to completion. His books on architecture and landscaping became standard works, and his influence on American conceptions of the middle-class home were far-reaching.

Learn more about Downing, Andrew Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 30, 1815, Newburgh, N.Y., U.S.—died July 28, 1852, vicinity of Yonkers, N.Y.) U.S. horticulturist, landscape gardener, and architect. He educated himself in landscape gardening and architecture while working in his father's nursery. In 1850 he began collaborating with the British architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95); the two designed a number of estates in New York's Hudson River valley and on Long Island. Recognized as the foremost U.S. landscape designer of his day, he was commissioned in 1851 to lay out the grounds for the Capitol, the White House, and the Smithsonian Institution. His death at 36 in a steamboat accident prevented him from seeing his plans to completion. His books on architecture and landscaping became standard works, and his influence on American conceptions of the middle-class home were far-reaching.

Learn more about Downing, Andrew Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C.—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) Seventh president of the U.S. (1829–37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed in the conflict. In 1788 he was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796–97) and the Senate (1797–98). He served on the state supreme court (1798–1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-man volunteer militia. Sent to the Mississippi Territory to fight the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, he defeated them after a short campaign (1813–14) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola, Fla., from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero; he was dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After the U.S. acquired Florida, Jackson was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-vote plurality, but the House of Representative instead selected John Quincy Adams as president. Jackson's victory over Adams in the 1828 presidential election is commonly regarded as a turning point in U.S. history. Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains, the first to be born in poverty, and the first to be elected through a direct appeal to the mass of voters rather than through the support of a recognized political organization. The era of his presidency has come to be known as “Jacksonian Democracy.” Upon taking office he replaced many federal officials with his political supporters, a practice that became known as the spoils system. His administration acquiesced in the illegal seizure of Cherokee land in Georgia and then forcibly expelled the Indians who refused to leave (see Trail of Tears). When South Carolina claimed a right to nullify a federally imposed tariff, Jackson asked for and received Congressional authority to use the military to enforce federal laws in the state (see nullification). His reelection in 1832 was partially the result of his controversial veto of a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States, which was unpopular with many of his supporters (see Bank War). The intensity of the political struggles during his tenure led to the strengthening of the Democratic Party and to the further development of the two-party system.

Learn more about Jackson, Andrew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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