Jaén (جيان : Jayyān) is a city in south-central Spain, the name is probably derived from the Arabic word Jayyan, (crossroads of caravans). It is the capital of the province of Jaén. It is located in the autonomous community of Andalusia. The inhabitants of the city are known as Jiennenses. Its population is 117,540 (2006), about 1/6 of the population of the province. In the last years Jaén has had a great increase of cultural tourism. Jaén is also known as the World Capital of Olive Oil, because it's the biggest producer of this liquid gold (as the locals refer to it). The urbanism of Jaén is determined by its adjustment to the hills of the Santa Catalina mountains, with steep, narrow streets, in the historical central city district. The city of Jaén is the administrative and industrial centre for the province. Industrial establishments in the city include chemical works, tanneries, distilleries, cookies factories and textile factories.
Saint Catalina's Castle can be seen from any point of the city. Previously there existed a fortress of Arabic origin (Abrehui's castle), of which some remains still exist. The current construction is of Christian origin, raised after the conquest of the city by Ferdinand III of Castile,called the Saint, in 1246.
Arab Baths, the most significant remnants of the Moorish era of Andalucia. They are the biggest Arabic Baths preserved in Spain. They can be visited under Villardompardo's Palace (another important monument in the city).
Other important monuments are the Museum of Arts and Popular Customs, the International Museum of Naïf Art, San Andrés's Chapel, the Provincial Museum of Jaen (which shelters an important collection of archaeological Iberian remains), Saint Ildefonso's church, etc.
Among the most well-known confectionery of Jaén is "Rice pudding", "Gachas of Jaen" (a sort of porridge), "Pestiños", "Gusanillos" and "Ochíos".
The city has two major sporting facilities: The Fuentezuelas and The Salobreja, together with the university sports facilities. Trekking and climbing associations also exist, such as El Lagarto and Jabalcuz.
Also of note is a Green Route called Vía Verde del Aceite, which corresponds to an ancient tracing of the iron seam from the beginning of the 20th century that united Jaén with Puente Genil (Córdoba province) known as "The Oil Train".
There are various competitions which have a great international importance, for example related with chess and athletics.
The most important event is the International Piano Competition Premio Jaén (in Spanish: Concurso Internacional de Piano Premio Jaén) that is the oldest and most important Piano Comptetition in Spain. It started in 1953 with Pablo Castillo García-Negrete, an architect who began to donate the first cash prizes of only some thousands of pesetas. Nowadays the prize consist of 57.000€ and the recording of classical music albums in professional studios. The last winner of this significant competition was the Chinese pianist Yin Yu Qin, in 2008, in the fiftieth edition.
There are other events likes the Ciclos de Rock and the Lagarto Rock Festival.