First mentioned in 1571 in connection with the Izium Warpath of the Crimean Tatars, Izyum was a significant centre of the Sloboda Ukraine and home to a regiment of Cossacks between 1688 and 1765. The delight of the visitor to the town is the five-domed Baroque cathedral of the Saviour's Transfiguration (1684). Its remarkable similarity to the old cathedral of Kharkov betrays the hand of the same master. The cathedral was renovated in 1902 and restored in 1955. The churches of Ascension (1819-21) and of St. Nicholas (1809-23) rank among the finest Neoclassical buildings in the region.