Isthmus of Corinth

Isthmus of Corinth

[kawr-inth, kor-]
Corinth, Isthmus of, c.20 mi (32 km) long and 4-8 mi (6.4-12.9 km) wide, connecting central Greece (Attica and Boeotia) with the Peloponnesus, between the Gulf of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf. It is crossed by the Corinth Canal, built between 1881 and 1893, which connects the Aegean and the Adriatic seas. Parallel to the canal are ruins of the ancient Isthmian Wall, which was restored (3d-6th cent. A.D.) by Byzantine emperors to defend the Peloponnesus. Near the eastern end of the wall are ruins of the sanctuary of Poseidon where the Isthmian games were played.

The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes from the Ancient Greek word for "neck" and refers to the narrowness of the land. To the west of the Isthmus is the Gulf of Corinth, to the east the Saronic Gulf. Since 1893 the Corinth Canal has run through the 6.3 km Isthmus, effectively making the Peloponnese an island.

The idea for a way for boats around the Peloponnese was long considered by the Ancient Greeks. The first attempt to build a canal at the place was carried out by the tyrant Periander or Periandros in 7th century BC. He abandoned the project due to its technical difficulties, and instead constructed a simpler and less costly overland stone ramp, named Diolkos, as a portage road. Remnants of Diolkos still exist today next to the modern canal. When the Roman republic, later The Roman Empire took control of Greece a number of different solutions were tried. Julius Caesar foresaw the advantages of such a venture for his newly built Colonia laus Iulia Corinthiensis. By the reign of Tiberius engineers had tried to dig a canal, but because of a lack of modern equipment were reduced to using an Ancient Egyptian invention of rolling the boats on logs as the Egyptians rolled blocks of granite to make their pyramids, which was in use by AD 32. In AD 67, the philhellene Roman emperor Nero ordered 6,000 slaves to dig a canal with spades. The following year Nero died, and his successor Galba abandoned the project, since it appeared too expensive to him.

Modern preservation

There are major concerns about preservation of this path. Many Greek citizens are calling for greater effort by the Greek government to protect this archaeological site.

See also

Ancient Greece

External links

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