Isfahan province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostān-e Esfahān); also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is located in the center of the country. Its capital is the city of Esfahān.
The city of Esfahān is the provincial capital; and the counties of this province are as follows: Aran va Bidgol, Ardestan, Isfahan, Barkhovar and Meymeh, Khomeini Shahr, Khansar, (The Upper) Semirom, Fereydan, Fereydunshahr, Falavarjan, Kashan, Golpayegan, Khomeini-shahr, Lanjan, Mobarakeh, Nain, Najaf Abad, Lower Semirom (Dehaghan), Shahreza, Anarak and Natanz; 18 townships, 38 counties, 67 cities, and 2470 villages in all. According to the census in the year 2006, the population of the province was 4,559,256 of which approximately 83.3 percent were urban residents and 16.7 percent resided in the rural areas. The literacy rate was 88.65 percent.
The province experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6°C and 10.6°C on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7°C and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 mm. The city of Esfahān however experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons.
Historians have recorded initially as a defense and military base. The security and protection of the gradually increasing castles and fortifications, thereby, would provide the protection of residents nearby, therefore leading to the growth of large settlements nearby. These historical castles were Atashgah, Sarooyieh, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, and Gard Dej to name a few. The oldest of these is Ghal'eh Sefeed and the grounds at Tamijan from prehistoric times. The historic village of Abyaneh, a nationwide attraction, also has Sassanid ruins and fire temples among other historical relics.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Esfahān province enjoyed high standards of prosperity as it became the capital of Safavid Persia. While the city of Eşfahān was their seat of monarchy, Kashan was their place of vacation and leisure.
Esfahān province encompasses various sects today. The majority of the people in the province are Persian speakers, but Bakhtiaris, Georgians, Armenians, Qashqais and Persian Jews also reside in the province. The official language of the province is Persian, though different ethnic groups and tribes abide by their own language such as Judeo-Persian, Armenian, Georgian, Qashqai Turkic or Bakhtiari. Eşfahān province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers, poets and other imminent figures who have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.Higher .ir/ Islamic Azad University of Mobarakeh