Irrigation sprinklers are used on farms, golf courses, residential yards, and other places to water crops, lawns, gardens or other plants in the event of drought. They are also used for recreation or as a cooling system.
Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate around themselves are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.
Some sprinklers are also known as Floppy Sprinkler, Spray Pop-ups, pulsating sprinklers due to their water stream and revolutionary new concept having no rotating or moving parts.
Rainguns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.
Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, but above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers are functioned through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.
Underground sprinklers (generally used for high-end home lawns and gardens) function through means of basic electronic and hydrolic technology. A 110 volt supplied controller, or sprinkler box sends a pre-determind 24 volt signal to an awaiting solenoid valve buried in the yard. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of PVC pipes. Along these pipes and flush to grade level are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 7 and 15 feet, full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 20 to 40 feet, or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs.
Patent No. 7,766,259 Issued on Aug. 3, Assigned to Rain Bird for Irrigation Sprinkler Spray Nozzle (California Inventors)
Aug 04, 2010; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Aug. 5 -- Kenneth D. Siegel of Redondo Beach, Calif., and Raymond P. Feith of Chino Hills, Calif., have...