Irpin was first founded in 1899, during construction of the Kiev—Kovel railway line. Railway workers founded the town near the railway road along with other localities such as Bucha and Vorzel. The city's name (along with the city of Vorzel) was chosen due to its location on the Irpin River.
On December 30, 1962, the Presidium of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR issued a decree changing the status of Irpin to that of a "city of oblast subordinance," thus being directly subordinate to the oblast authorities rather than the city administration housed within the city. Also mentioned within the decree were the inclusion of the urban-type settlements of Bucha (a city since 2007), Vorzel, Hostomel, and Kotsiubynske within the city limits.
The "Irpintormash" factory, providing construction materials, and a furniture factory are located in the city. The city also houses a climate resort.
Being a raion subordinance city, Irpin provides the capital of Ukraine, Kiev (Kyiv) with potatoes and other vegetables.